Strategic Plan Final


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Strategic Plan Final

  1. 1. NASA Strategic Plan 1998 With 1999 Interim Adjustments NASA Policy Directive (NPD)-1000.1a 1997 NASA is an investment in America’s future. As explorers, pioneers, and innovators, we boldly expand frontiers in air and space to inspire and serve America and to benefit the quality of life on Earth.
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1 Administrator’s Strategic Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NASA’s Strategic Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 External Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Domestic Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Political and Public Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Key External Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 External Customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Strategic Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Crosscutting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The NASA Team. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 NASA Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Excellence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Integrity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Headquarters and NASA Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Strategic Enterprises Space Science Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Earth Science Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Synergy Within NASA and With Our Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Internal Synergy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 External Partnerships and Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 NASA’s Crosscutting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Manage Strategically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Provide Aerospace Products and Capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Generate Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Communicate Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Acronyms/Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
  3. 3. Administrator’s Strategic Outlook 3 All members of the NASA Team—our employees, contractors, academic researchers, industry, Government, and international partners—should feel a tremendous sense of pride in our many accomplishments over the past 5 years. We have looked back to the beginning of time and discovered new galaxies and planets in other solar systems. We captured the world’s imagination with the remarkable achievements of the Mars Pathfinder and Hubble Space Telescope missions. We have increased our understanding of the effect of natural and human-induced activities on our home planet. Investments initiated in the past have increased the competitive posture of the aviation, space launch, and communications industries of the present. On Mission success starts with safety. We will conduct Space Shuttle missions, we have performed exper- our business with an enhanced fervor for safety, iments and technological feats that are paving the establishing NASA as the Nation’s leader in prevent- way to an era of permanent human presence in ing mishaps that impact the safety or health of the space. These achievements, and many more, are public, our astronauts and pilots, the NASA and con- responsible for the resurgence and solidification of tractor workforce, and the national resources under interest and support for NASA’s activities among our charge. We will ensure that safety permeates the Administration, Congress, and the public. everything we do at NASA. Our management team is fostering an environment that will not tolerate the We intend to build on these accomplishments with occurrence of mishaps. We believe that by focusing a renewed focus on scientific research and the on the safety of our missions, we will also improve development and application of new cutting-edge quality and decrease schedule and cost. technologies. Our unique capabilities will enable us to answer fundamental questions that have chal- In the coming years, NASA will implement pro- lenged humankind for centuries. Our exploration of grams to achieve a three-part mission encompass- the unknown will lead to discoveries of new worlds ing Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and and generate new knowledge that stirs the soul, Technology Development and Transfer. This mis- nourishes the mind, and enriches our lives. We will sion describes what we are required to do in develop the tools and knowledge to help preserve response to policy and legislative mandates. In our freedoms and provide hope and opportunity for implementing our mission, we will pursue answers future generations. to fundamental questions of science and research
  4. 4. 4 that provide a philosophical underpinning for why develop to enable our research agenda in the NASA exists and a foundation for our goals. The most productive, economical, and timely man- questions include: ner? How can we most effectively transfer the knowledge we gain from our research and dis- • How did the universe, galaxies, stars, and planets coveries to commercial ventures in the air, in form and evolve? How can our exploration of the space, and on Earth? universe and our solar system revolutionize our understanding of physics, chemistry, and biology? We will seek answers to these questions with our partners in the science and educational communi- • Does life in any form, however simple or com- ties, industry, and other governmental agencies in plex, carbon-based or other, exist elsewhere the United States and around the world. As we than on planet Earth? Are there Earth-like plan- implement our mission and discover answers to ets beyond our solar system? these questions, we will contribute to the achieve- ment of the Nation’s science and technology goals • How can we utilize the knowledge of the Sun, and priorities for economic growth and security, Earth, and other planetary bodies to develop sustainable development of the environment, edu- predictive environmental, climate, natural disas- cation excellence, and peaceful exploration and ter, and natural resource models to help ensure discovery. sustainable development and improve the quality of life on Earth? This Strategic Plan describes the way in which we will implement our mission, answer the questions, • What is the fundamental role of gravity and cos- and achieve our future goals. The Plan also identi- mic radiation in vital biological, physical, and fies our customers and articulates where we are chemical systems in space, on other planetary going and why. Most importantly, it provides a com- bodies, and on Earth, and how do we apply this mon basis for the Administration, Congress, and fundamental knowledge to the establishment of NASA’s management to make decisions regarding permanent human presence in space to improve the implementation of our programs and the life on Earth? deployment of the resources needed to turn the Plan into reality. • How can we enable revolutionary technological advances to provide air and space travel for any- This document builds on three previous editions one, anytime, anywhere more safely, more and will be submitted with the Fiscal Year 1999 affordably, and with less impact on the environ- budget request as prescribed by the Government ment and improve business opportunities and Performance and Results Act (GPRA). In conjunc- global security? tion with comments received from our customers, stakeholders, employees, and NASA • What cutting-edge technologies, processes, and management councils, a number of improvements techniques and engineering capabilities must we have been made to this edition of the Plan.
  5. 5. It has been recognized that technology develop- With the successful development of this Strategic 5 ment is not an independent business unit, but is Plan, the NASA Team must now focus on imple- fundamental to the successful performance of mentation. We have reached a consensus with our each Strategic Enterprise. Therefore, the Space stakeholders, customers, and partners on our Technology Enterprise has been eliminated, and vision, mission, and roadmap to the future. We technology development becomes the responsibili- intend to implement our programs, projects, and ty of the remaining four Enterprises. A new position Crosscutting Processes in a manner that enables of Chief Technologist was created to provide over- us to deliver valuable and relevant results more sight and guidance for our technology investments. effectively and efficiently. We will be relentless in With this new structure, each Enterprise will use our pursuit of safety and zero mishaps in all technology development as a means to accomplish aspects of our work. current programs more efficiently and stimulate new programs necessary to meet our long-term Each one of us—individuals who work directly on goals. The goal to reduce the cost of access to programs, as well as those who provide critical sup- space that had been associated with the Space port capabilities—have an opportunity and respon- Technology Enterprise has been added to the sibility to contribute to the development of a new Aeronautics Enterprise. This expanded Enterprise NASA, the achievement of our plans, and the satis- was renamed Aero-Space Technology. faction of our customers. I urge all NASA employ- ees, our stakeholders, and our customers to read We have improved the level of alignment of the this Plan and look for ways to support the accom- goals of the Agency and our Enterprise goals with plishment of our ambitious goals for the future. the directives prescribed in two Administration pol- icy documents. These are the National Space The NASA Strategic Plan is the backbone of our Policy and the Goals for a National Partnership in new Strategic Management System. We welcome Aeronautics Research and Technology. We have comments on the Plan and suggestions for also increased our emphasis on the need for syn- improvement. Let me hear from you with your ideas ergy between the programs of the Enterprises and on ways in which we can improve our ability to the capabilities of our partners in Government, meet the needs of the Nation through our aeronau- industry, academia, and other nations. Further, we tics and space programs. have defined the scope, goals, and objectives for four Crosscutting Processes that are critical to the success of Agency programs and activities. Finally, we have added a core value that demands safety in everything we do. Daniel S. Goldin Administrator
  6. 6. 6 NASA’s Strategic Management activities to accomplish these goals is further System defined in documents developed by Headquarters program offices, functional/staff offices, Centers, The Government Performance and Results Act program and project managers, and individual (GPRA) passed by Congress and signed by the employees. In addition to this Strategic Plan, we President in 1993 provides a new tool to improve will submit our resource requirements to OMB in the efficiency of all Federal agencies. The Act the annual budget request and a 5-year budget directs Executive Branch agencies to develop a plan. We will also submit a Performance Plan that customer-focused strategic plan, align agency defines how we intend to measure the results and activities with concrete missions and goals, man- contributions of our programs to the Nation. The age and measure results to justify appropriations graphic on page 7 illustrates the documents that and authorizations, and design budgets that reflect support the Strategic Management System. strategic missions. The purposes of GPRA are to improve citizen confidence in Government perfor- The Strategic Plan defines the Agency’s vision, mance, improve Federal program management, three-part mission, and fundamental questions of effectiveness, and public accountability, and science and research that provide the reason for improve congressional decision making on where why we exist and the foundation for our goals. The to commit the Nation’s financial and human Plan further describes four Strategic Enterprises to resources. The Act requires that, beginning with manage the programs and activities that will imple- the fiscal year 1999 budget request, agencies sub- ment our mission, be responsible for answering mit to the Office of Management and Budget specific fundamental questions, and satisfy the (OMB) and to Congress a strategic plan for pro- requirements of our customers. Goals are also gram activities and an annual performance plan described for four Crosscutting Processes that pro- covering those activities set forth in the budget. Six vide the support systems that enable each Strategic months after the completion of a fiscal year, agen- Enterprise to develop and deliver our products and cies are further required to submit a report of pro- services to internal and external customers. gram performance that reviews the success in achieving the goals and performance measures The Agency’s goals have been grouped in three defined in the strategic and performance plans. timeframes spanning a 25-year period and are dis- played on the Roadmap on pages 8 and 9. Each NASA established a Strategic Management timeframe is defined by a unifying theme that char- System to provide the information and results to acterizes the primary focus of activity for that period. fulfill the planning and reporting requirements of The initial timeframe for the Roadmap (1998–2002) the Act. The System is defined in the NASA presents the near-term goals that correlate to Strategic Management Handbook (NASA NASA’s fiscal year 1998 budget and the President’s Procedures and Guidelines 1000.2). This Strategic 5-year budget plan. Mid- and long-term goals are Plan, which will be submitted to OMB, leads a presented in the 2003–2009 and 2010–2023 time- series of documents that defines why the Agency frames, respectively. These goals represent a bal- exists and what goals we propose to accomplish anced set of science, exploration, and technology over the next 25 years. How we will implement development outcomes that we believe can be
  7. 7. accomplished over the next 25 years. While the mid- increased understanding of science and technology, 7 and long-term goals will be executed in timeframes sustainable development of the environment, educa- that exceed current budget authority, they represent tional excellence, peaceful exploration and discovery, a strategic direction that is consistent with our vision and economic growth and security. and mission. Specific resource requirements to achieve these goals will be requested in subsequent Within this Plan, we also present Roadmaps for budget cycles. each of the four Strategic Enterprises, which define the objectives to meet the Agency’s goals. These The ultimate outcome of achieving our vision, imple- Enterprise objectives and the objectives of our menting our legislated mission, answering funda- Crosscutting Processes form the basis for NASA’s mental questions, and accomplishing our goals is our Performance Plan and our performance evaluation contribution to national science and technology prior- process. ities. The investment in our programs contributes to NASA’s Strategic Management System Documents NASA Strategic Management Handbook Annual Budget NASA Submit and Annual Strategic Five-Year Agency Plan Budget Performance Plan Plan * * Enterprise Headquarters Strategic Functional/ Plans Staff Office Implementation Plans Field Center Implementation Plans Program/ Project Plans Employee Performance * Document contents prescribed in Plans Annual Agency Government Performance and Results Act Performance Report *
  8. 8. 8 NASA’s Strategic Management System Roadmap Vision, Mission, Questions, Roadmap and Goals, and Contributions to National Priorities Primary Areas Agency Fundamental of Business Vision Mission and Questions Crosscutting Processes To advance and 1. How did the universe, galaxies, communicate stars, and planets form and evolve? Strategic NASA is an scientific How can our exploration of the Enterprises * knowledge and universe and our solar system investment in revolutionize our understanding of • Space Science understanding physics, chemistry, and biology? (1, 2, 6) America’s of Earth, the solar 2. Does life in any form, however system, and the simple or complex, carbon-based future. universe • Earth Science or other, exist elsewhere than on planet Earth? Are there Earth-like (3, 6) planets beyond our solar system? 3. How can we utilize the knowledge • Human of the Sun, Earth, and other Exploration and As explorers, planetary bodies to develop Development of predictive environmental, climate, Space (4, 6) pioneers, and natural disaster, and natural resource models to help ensure • Aero-Space innovators, To advance sustainable development and human Technology (5, 6) improve the quality of life on Earth? we boldly exploration, use, 4. What is the fundamental role of and development gravity and cosmic radiation in vital Crosscutting expand of space biological, physical, and chemical Processes systems in space, on other frontiers planetary bodies, and on Earth, • Manage and how do we apply this Strategically in air and fundamental knowledge to the space to establishment of permanent human • Provide presence in space to improve life Aerospace inspire on Earth? Products and 5. How can we enable revolutionary Capabilities (6) and serve technological advances to provide air and space travel for anyone, anytime, anywhere more safely, • Generate America and Knowledge more affordably, and with less to benefit To research, impact on the environment and develop, verify, improve business opportunities and • Communicate the quality of and transfer global security? Knowledge advanced 6. What cutting-edge technologies, life on Earth. aeronautics, processes, and techniques and space, and related engineering capabilities must we * The numbers in technologies develop to enable our research parentheses identify agenda in the most productive, questions of primary economical, and timely manner? concern for each How can we most effectively enterprise. transfer the knowledge we gain from our research and discoveries to commercial ventures in the air, in space, and on Earth?
  9. 9. 9 Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term Agency Goals 1998–2002 2003–2009 2010–2023 Contributions Establish a Presence Expand Our Horizons Develop the Frontiers to National Deliver world-class Ensure continued U.S. Expand human activity and programs and cutting-edge leadership in space and space-based commerce in the Priorities technology through aeronautics frontiers of air and space a revolutionized NASA Develop lower cost missions: • Create an international capability The outcomes of NASA’s • Expand our understanding of to forecast and assess the health • Characterize the Earth Earth system changes activities contribute to the system with data, models, and of the Earth system • Expand our understanding of • Create a virtual presence achievement of the Nation’s analysis the evolution of the universe, science and technology goals • Chart the evolution of the throughout our solar system and universe, from origins to from origins to destiny probe deeper into the mysteries and priorities: • Expand our understanding of of the universe and life on Earth destiny, and understand its nature’s processes in space and beyond galaxies, stars, planets, and • Increased Understanding through long-duration • Use our understanding of nature’s life research processes in space to support of Science and • Explore the role of gravity in • Share expanded knowledge research endeavors in space and Technology physical and chemical of our planet and the universe on Earth processes in space with our customers and • Share understanding of the Earth We will communicate widely Share new knowledge with our contribute to educational system and the mysteries of the the content, relevancy, and customers and contribute to universe with our customers and educational excellence excellence contribute to the achievement of excitement of our missions and the Nation’s educational goals discoveries to inspire and increase understanding and the broad application of • Live and work in space to science and technology. Advance human exploration of develop and demonstrate • Conduct international and space: critical capabilities and U.S. human and robotic • Sustainable Development • Assemble and conduct missions to planets and other research on the International systems to prepare for of the Environment expanded human exploration bodies in our solar system to Space Station and commercial development enable human expansion • Develop robotic missions as • Provide safe and affordable We study the Earth as a planet of space and as a system to understand forerunners to human • Expand the use of robotic space access, orbital transfer, exploration beyond low- missions to prepare for and interplanetary global change, enabling the Earth orbit human exploration beyond transportation capabilities to world to address Improve Space Shuttle safety low-Earth orbit enable research, human environmental issues. and efficiency and transition to • Transition to a commercially exploration, and the private operations as commercial development of appropriate operated reusable launch • Educational Excellence vehicle for unpiloted missions space We involve the educational community in our endeavors to inspire America’s students, create learning opportunities, Develop and transfer cutting- and enlighten inquisitive minds. edge technologies • Lead the activities of industry • Provide new technologies, and other agencies to processes, world-class • Peaceful Exploration and develop advanced • Develop cutting-edge Discovery facilities, and services to technologies that will enable aeronautics and space enhance research and make human missions beyond systems technologies to aeronautics and space Earth orbit support highways in the sky, We explore the universe to programs more affordable smart aircraft, and enrich human life by (e.g., develop and • Improve aeronautics and revolutionary space vehicles stimulating intellectual curiosity, demonstrate a reusable space system design cycles, (These will provide faster, opening new worlds of launch vehicle, advance technologies, and safer, more affordable air and opportunity, and uniting nations intelligent systems and the applications to reduce aircraft space travel with less impact miniaturization of of the world in a shared vision. accident rates, emissions, on the environment and technologies, and utilize noise levels, and costs, enable expanded research of simulation-based design) enhance research, and foster our planet and the universe.) • Economic Growth and • Cooperate with industry and new products and industries Security other agencies to develop • Support the maturation of affordable technologies for • Apply knowledge gained aerospace industries and the We develop technology in U.S. leadership in the from space-based development of new high-tech partnership with industry, aviation markets of the experimentation to ground- industries such as space- academia, and other Federal 21st century based research, based commerce through • Stimulate the application of agencies to support the fullest development, and proactive technology transfer commercial use of space to NASA technology in the manufacturing private sector and promote promote economic growth and commercial use of space keep America capable and competitive.
  10. 10. 10 External Assessment Furthermore, we are to cooperate with other nations and are directed to widely communicate the In developing the Strategic Plan, we assessed how results of our efforts. domestic and foreign policy priorities and political and public support have changed in the post–Cold Two Presidential policy statements also shape War era. This assessment provided the basis for key NASA’s activities in space and aeronautics. The assumptions that have been factored into our pro- top-level goals of these policies are displayed gram strategies. Our annual review process will below. The complete documents, which are aligned include a reassessment of the dynamic business and with this Plan, can be accessed as indicated in the political environment in which we operate to ensure Appendix. that our assumptions and strategies remain valid. First, the President’s National Space Policy defines Domestic Policy the following goals: Domestic policy priorities are being adjusted in light of the Federal deficit, constrained budgets, and the • Enhance knowledge of the Earth, the solar sys- need to maintain America’s vitality and competitive- tem, and the universe through human and robotic ness. The Administration has placed a priority on exploration; supporting and promoting high technology for eco- nomic growth through effective partnerships, both • Strengthen and maintain the national security of within Government and with industry and academia. the United States; Therefore, NASA will work closely with other Federal agencies to ensure coordinated efforts in the areas • Enhance the economic competitiveness and the of space and aeronautics science and technology. scientific and technical capabilities of the United With increased emphasis on pressing domestic States; needs, we will ensure the relevance of our programs to national science and technology priorities and to • Encourage State, local, and private investment other domestic goals in areas such as the environ- in, and use of, space technologies; and ment, health, education, and aviation safety. • Promote international cooperation to further U.S. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 domestic, national security, and foreign policies. (Space Act) established NASA and laid the founda- tion for its mission. It directs NASA to conduct The National Space Policy also provides guidelines space activities devoted to peaceful purposes for designating NASA as the lead agency for research the benefit of all humankind. We are to preserve the and development in civil space activities. NASA, in leadership of the United States in aeronautics and coordination with other departments and agencies, space science and technology, and we are to is to focus its research and development efforts in: expand knowledge of the Earth and space. We are space science to enhance knowledge of the solar to conduct human activities in space. We are to system, the universe, and fundamental natural and encourage the fullest commercial use of space. physical sciences; Earth observation to better
  11. 11. understand global change and the effect of natural Political and Public Support 11 and human influences on the environment; human A commitment from America’s political leadership space flight to conduct scientific, commercial, and is vital to our success. The President has demon- exploration activities; and space technologies and strated his support for NASA and has indicated that applications to develop new technologies in sup- we will play a significant role in the Administra- port of U.S. Government needs and our economic tion’s science and technology agenda and its competitiveness. foreign policy initiatives. In Congress, NASA continues to enjoy significant bipartisan support. Second, the President’s Goals for a National Sustained political support will depend on our abil- Partnership in Aeronautics Research and ity to demonstrate a contribution to national needs Technology includes the following: and to deliver on our promises. • Maintain the superiority of U.S. aircraft and Public support for NASA’s programs has been pos- engines; itive and generally stable throughout our history. Recent public opinion polls continue to indicate • Improve the safety, efficiency, and cost- solid support for U.S. endeavors in space. A number effectiveness of the global air transportation sys- of recent discoveries and accomplishments have tem; and served to increase the level of public interest and support of NASA’s programs. These include the • Ensure the long-term environmental compatibility possible evidence of ancient life discovered in a of the aviation system. meteorite from Mars, exciting images of the surface of Mars from the Mars Pathfinder, dramatic pictures Foreign Policy from the Hubble Space Telescope of the birth and In the post–Cold War era, the foreign policy aspect death of stars, discoveries of planets around other of the civil space program will focus on a spirit of stars, and images from the Galileo spacecraft of the expanded cooperation with our traditional interna- fractured and deformed icy surface of Jupiter’s tional partners and the forging of new partnerships. moon Europa. In the area of Earth science, the The Administration has asked NASA to play a major SeaWiFS ocean color sensor, developed through role in international ventures with Russia to expand innovative partnerships with industry, is providing space exploration opportunities and to promote the significant new data about the ocean. In addition, peaceful uses of technology. There are also the highly visible long-term missions of NASA astro- increased opportunities for cooperation with devel- nauts aboard the Space Shuttle and Russian space oping countries. These new relationships, along station Mir have engaged public interest in the chal- with strengthened ties to our traditional partners in lenges of living and working in space. Successful Europe, Japan, and Canada, can help reinforce the demonstrations of aeronautics technologies to economic and technological bonds in the new glob- enhance aviation system capacity and safety have al society. As NASA moves forward with increased also attracted great public attention. Continued pub- levels of international cooperation, it must balance lic support will depend on our ability to satisfy the the benefits that will result from joint endeavors with Nation’s needs and to keep the public fully informed our own national policies and priorities. about the results and relevance of our activities.
  12. 12. 12 Key External Factors will cause the Agency to reassess its current We identified the following key assumptions, which complement of programs in all four Enterprises. if significantly changed could impact our ability to implement this Plan: • Interagency and international cooperation will be increasingly important in achieving NASA’s mis- • The current national aeronautics and space poli- sions. Failure by participants to honor commit- cies, national priorities and goals, and our legisla- ments defined in cooperative agreements could tive mandates form the basis for the four Strategic cause NASA to pursue other options to achieve Enterprises and their respective goals and objec- program goals. tives. Changes in policies, priorities, goals, and mandates could cause NASA to reevaluate its cur- • The International Space Station will be success- rent goals and structure of each Enterprise. fully developed, deployed, and utilized as a research platform through a partnership involv- – Understanding the Earth’s environment and ing Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, and possi- global change will continue to be an important bly other nations. The successful development of national priority requiring NASA’s leadership the International Space Station will support in space observations and research. future national decisions regarding human mis- sions beyond Earth orbit. Failure to deploy the – Space science will remain an integral part of the International Space Station could seriously national program of basic scientific research. impede our ability to achieve our long-term goals of conducting U.S. and international human mis- – Human activity in space will continue to play a sions to planets and other bodies in our solar vital role in the Nation’s program of scientific system, as well as understanding nature’s and technological research. processes in space. – There will continue to be a viable U.S. industri- • The Administration and Congress will rely on al and academic base for aeronautics and NASA to buy commercial launch services and, space activities. NASA technology will continue when necessary, to form partnerships with indus- to be valuable to industry in enhancing U.S. try to help create new technological capabilities competitiveness. NASA will continue to have a for lower costs and more reliable civil, national leading role in developing aeronautics technol- security, and commercial access to space. The ogy jointly with other agencies, industry, and Space Shuttle will support NASA missions until a academia that will support the safety and effi- new human-rated launch system is developed. ciency of the national air transportation system. NASA’s long-term goal to provide safe and affordable space travel to enable research and • NASA’s budget will be consistent with the human expansion relies on the development of a President’s 5-year plan and will remain stable reusable launch vehicle and/or significant thereafter. Significant decreases in our budget improvements to the Space Shuttle.
  13. 13. Framework NASA’s Strategic Enterprises identify at the most 13 fundamental level what we do and for whom. They External Customers focus us on the ends, not the means, of our The NASA Strategic Plan is based on a commit- endeavors. Each of our Strategic Enterprises is ment to satisfy our external customers. Our perfor- analogous to a strategic business unit, employed mance in carrying out programs, and our success by private-sector companies to focus on and as an Agency, will be judged by our customers, respond to its customers’ needs. Each Strategic based on our ability to meet their requirements. Enterprise has a unique set of goals, objectives, and strategies that address the requirements of its We have identified the following groups as our primary external customers. However, each Enter- external customers and stakeholders (see figure, prise must ensure synergy with and support of the page 14): Agency’s common goals and the strategies of the other Enterprises. • The Administration and Congress, our primary stakeholders, provide us with the policy direction Although NASA’s broad mission is driven by the and financial resources to conduct the Nation’s Space Act, the specific programs that are conduct- aeronautics and space programs. ed within its Enterprises, and the priorities placed on them, are driven by the directives of the • The science and education communities, aero- Administration and Congress. As such, the pro- space and nonaerospace industries, Federal grammatic content of the Enterprises changes over agencies, and other primary customers receive time as we respond to shifts in customer needs and our products directly and use them for purposes domestic and international policy priorities. The that yield public benefit. specific content of activities for the Enterprises is presented within their own Strategic Plans. The • The public is both the ultimate resource provider development of a balanced set of programs and and the ultimate beneficiary of our products. Agency priorities among the Enterprises will lay the groundwork for the budget process. Strategic Enterprises The NASA Strategic Plan establishes a framework Crosscutting Processes for making management decisions by separating Underlying NASA’s activities are critical processes the Agency’s programs into four Strategic that are the means by which we develop and deliv- Enterprises through which we implement our mis- er our products and services to internal and exter- sion and communicate with our external customers: nal customers. In performing their jobs, all NASA employees are engaged in one or more of these • Space Science processes. Through these we transform inputs, • Earth Science such as policies and resources, into outputs, such • Human Exploration and Development of Space as knowledge. (HEDS) • Aero-Space Technology (AST) The Manage Strategically process focuses on activities that provide both critical capabilities to
  14. 14. 14 Stakeholders, Enterprises, Customers, and Beneficiaries NASA Enterprises Primary Customers Ultimate Ultimate Resource Provider Beneficiary Space Science Science and Education Communities Technology Innovators The Public Earth Science Science, Commercial, and Education Communities Policy Makers The Human Exploration and Public Development of Space Science and Education Communities Administration Commercial Sectors and Congress Aero-Space Technology Aerospace and Nonaerospace Industries Other U.S. Government Agencies Decision Makers Crosscutting Processes Manage Strategically Provide Aerospace Products and Capabilities Generate Knowledge Communicate Knowledge our internal customers and external coordination align our activities with the policies and directives of with oversight and audit agencies of the the Administration and Congress. Our ability to Administration and Congress. NASA’s other respond to future opportunities under tight fiscal processes—Provide Aerospace Products and constraints requires us to become more effective Capabilities, Generate Knowledge, and and efficient. Effective implementation of these Communicate Knowledge—are primarily imple- processes will help us deliver better products and mented by the Agency across its Strategic services and cut development time and costs in cur- Enterprises to support external customers. rent and future programs. In carrying out these processes, NASA is employing overarching strategies to enhance our position as a premier research and development agency and to
  15. 15. The NASA Team People 15 Our greatest strength is our workforce. We aggres- The goals stated in this Plan will be accomplished sively build a team of highly qualified individuals by a diverse group of men and women at our that is representative, at all levels, of America’s Headquarters, nine Centers throughout the coun- diversity. We foster a culture that is built on trust, try, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We will also respect, teamwork, communication, creativity, and rely on partnerships with both large and small con- empowerment in an environment that is free of tractors, members of the academic community, unlawful discrimination and ensures equal opportu- other Federal, State, and local agencies, and other nity for all. space agencies from nations around the globe. Excellence This highly skilled team of scientists, engineers, We are committed to demonstrating and promot- technicians, and administrative and support profes- ing excellence and continually improving process- sionals is dedicated to providing high-quality, tech- es, products, and services to better satisfy our nologically superior products and services in aero- customers’ needs and requirements. We utilize nautics and space. Through our dedication and pro- quality-focused leadership and management, as fessionalism, we will carry out our mission, achieve well as scientific, engineering, and technical excel- our goals and objectives, and ultimately find lence to provide our customers with highly valued answers to the fundamental questions of science products and services in the most cost-effective, and research. timely, and safe manner. NASA Values Integrity We preserve America’s confidence and trust by To implement this Plan, the NASA Team will strive ensuring that our missions are consistent with to uphold core values related to people, excellence, national goals, carefully conceived, and well exe- and integrity. cuted. We deliver on our promises and are account- able for our performance. We are open and honest Safety with one another and with our customers, and we Safety permeates everything we do at NASA, and cooperate within and across organizations to deliv- the entire NASA workforce is committed to safety as er the highest quality results. We are bold but pru- a priority. The NASA management team is held dent in confronting challenges and accepting risks. accountable for safety. We foster an environment We work with integrity and are dedicated to fulfilling with zero tolerance for mishaps. We must protect the our vision in an environment in which adherence to safety and health of the general public and the NASA fundamental ethical principles and compliance with workforce on and off the ground. By focusing on the related laws and regulations flourish. safety of our missions, we also focus on improving quality and decreasing schedule and cost.
  16. 16. 16 Centers of Excellence 10 11 1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Ames Research Center Information Technology 2 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Systems 3 Dryden Flight Research Center Atmospheric Flight Operations 4 Johnson Space Center Human Operations in Space 5 Stennis Space Center Rocket Propulsion Test 6 Marshall Space Flight Center Space Propulsion 7 Glenn Research Center Turbomachinery 8 Kennedy Space Center Launch and Payload Processing Systems 9 Langley Research Center Structures and Materials 10 NASA Headquarters Agency Management 11 Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Research Headquarters and NASA Centers Agency management, which primarily resides at NASA Headquarters, is responsible for leadership NASA’s programs are implemented through its and management across the Strategic Enterprises nine Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. To as well as the development of strategy (“what, why, improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our and for whom”). It serves as the principal interface programs, we have defined the roles and responsi- with the Administration and Congress and is the bilities for each Center. To reduce overlap and focal point for accountability, communication, and streamline administrative and programmatic func- liaison with external entities. It also provides budget tions, NASA’s senior management has established integration, long-term institutional investment strat- areas of excellence and specific missions for each egy, Agency policy and procedures, and functional Center and Headquarters. leadership.
  17. 17. Each Center of Excellence (identified in the figure Center Missions, which are described in the four 17 on page 15) represents a focused, Agency-wide Strategic Enterprise sections, identify the concen- leadership responsibility in a specific area of tech- tration of capabilities to support the accomplish- nology or knowledge. Centers of Excellence are ment of Strategic Enterprise goals. Each Center chartered with a clear definition of their capabilities has been assigned responsibilities, which provide and boundaries. They are charged to be preeminent a basis for building human resource capabilities within the Agency, if not worldwide, with respect to and a physical infrastructure in direct support of the human resources, facilities, and other critical Enterprise requirements. Enterprise program and capabilities associated with the particular area of project assignments are based on Center Mission excellence. Each Center of Excellence must main- designations. Other Centers may support a prima- tain or increase the Agency’s preeminent position in ry Center in carrying out an Enterprise’s missions. the assigned area in line with the program require- ments of the Strategic Enterprises and the long- In general, each NASA program is assigned to a term interests of the Agency. The capabilities to Lead Center, which is responsible for implementa- support a Center of Excellence can be distributed tion, accountability for meeting schedule and bud- across multiple Centers. These capabilities are get guidelines, and safety and reliability standards. available to all of the Strategic Enterprises.
  18. 18. 18 Space Science Enterprise economic returns to the Nation. We also use our knowledge and discoveries to enhance science, Mission mathematics, and technology education and the sci- Humans have a profound and distinguishing imper- entific and technological literacy of all Americans. ative to understand our origin, our existence, and our fate. For millennia, we have gazed at the sky, Questions to Address observed the motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, In accomplishing its mission, the Space Science and stars, and wondered about the universe and Enterprise addresses most directly the following the way we are connected to it. The Space Science NASA fundamental questions: Enterprise serves this human quest for knowledge. • How did the universe, galaxies, stars, and planets As it does so, it seeks to inspire our Nation and the form and evolve? How can our exploration of the world, to open young minds to broader perspec- universe and our solar system revolutionize our tives on the future, and to bring home to every per- understanding of physics, chemistry, and biology? son on Earth the experience of exploring space. • Does life in any form, however simple or com- plex, carbon-based or other, exist elsewhere The mission of the Space Science Enterprise is to than on planet Earth? Are there Earth-like plan- solve mysteries of the universe, explore the solar ets beyond our solar system? system, discover planets around other stars, search for life beyond Earth; from origins to destiny, Goals chart the evolution of the universe and understand The four long-term goals of the Space Science its galaxies, stars, planets, and life. Enterprise are as follows: • Establish a virtual presence throughout the solar In pursuing this mission, we develop, use, and system, and probe deeper into the mysteries of the transfer innovative space technologies that provide universe and life on Earth and beyond—a goal scientific and other returns to all of NASA’s focused on the fundamental science we will pursue; Enterprises, as well as globally competitive • Pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit—a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space; • Develop and utilize revolutionary technologies for missions impossible in prior decades—a goal recognizing the enabling character of tech- nology; and • Contribute measurably to achieving the science, mathematics, and technology education goals of our Nation, and share widely the excitement and inspiration of our missions and discoveries— a goal reflecting our commitment to education and public outreach. Star birth in the Eagle Nebula as revealed by the Hubble Space Telescope.
  19. 19. Strategies and Outcomes 19 The Space Science Enterprise pursues the study of origins, as well as studies of the evolution and destiny of the cosmos, by establishing a continuum of exploration and science. It creates a virtual pres- ence in the solar system, exploring new territories and investigating the solar system in all its com- plexity. It simultaneously probes the universe to the beginning of time, looking ever deeper with increasingly capable telescopes, scanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays Changes in solar activity affect Earth in many ways. to radio wavelengths. It also sends probes into These 12 x-ray images between 1991 and 1995 demonstrate the Sun’s variability. interstellar space, beginning a virtual presence even beyond the solar system. With the brilliant successes of the Mars Pathfinder, Lunar Prospector, and Transition Region and The strategy of the Enterprise is to conduct world- Coronal Explorer (TRACE), these Discovery and class research, to maximize the scientific yield Explorer missions have visibly demonstrated that from our current missions, and to develop and the Enterprise’s “faster, better, cheaper” programs deploy new missions within the “faster, better, can achieve exciting results and yield superb sci- cheaper” framework of a revolutionized NASA. ence. The Enterprise will develop and use innova- tive technologies and more capable spacecraft to Fulfilling one major commitment of previous strate- improve performance and lower costs of future sci- gic planning, the Enterprise will complete the ence missions. Through programs such as deployment of the four “Great Observatories” with Discovery and Explorer, the Enterprise will accept the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory (for- prudent risk, shorten development time, explore merly AXAF) in 1999 and the Space Infrared new conceptual approaches, streamline manage- Telescope Facility (SIRTF) in 2001. Complemen- ment, and make other changes to enhance effi- ting the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope ciency and effectiveness. and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory launched earlier in this decade, Chandra and A key aspect of our strategic planning is to ensure SIRTF are certain to add to this bounty and help the Enterprise acquires the advice of the external sci- unravel the mysteries of the universe. ence community, and in particular the National Academy of Sciences. In addition, there is extensive Key elements of the Enterprise program will include collaboration with this community, international part- a sustained program of robotic research, explo- ners, and other Federal agencies, such as the ration, and technology development on the surface National Science Foundation, Department of of Mars, a long-term program to obtain in situ mea- Defense, and Department of Energy, in the conduct surements and to return samples from solar system of our missions and research. This collaboration is bodies, and a progressive initiative to identify and discussed more fully on page 35 of this Plan. characterize planets around other stars.
  20. 20. Space Science Roadmap 20 1998–2002 2003–2009 Establish a Presence Expand Our Horizons Agency Mission Deliver world-class programs and Ensure continued cutting-edge technology through U.S. leadership in space a revolutionized NASA and aeronautics Chart the evolution of the universe, from origins to destiny, and understand its Expand our understanding of the evolution galaxies, stars, planets, and life: of the universe and its galaxies, stars, • Solve mysteries of the universe (HST, CGRO, planets, and life: SOHO, Chandra '99, TIMED '00, IMAGE • Solve mysteries of the universe (Chandra, '00, SIRTF '01, etc.) SIRTF, GLAST, NGST, Constellation-X, To advance and • Explore the solar system (Galileo, Mars etc.) Pathfinder and Global Surveyor, NEAR, • Explore the solar system (Cassini/Huygens, communicate Cassini/Huygens '97, Lunar Prospector '97, Mars Surveyor-03, Mars Sample Return, scientific knowledge Mars Surveyor '98 and '01, TIMED '00, etc.) • Discover planets around other stars (HST, Solar Probe, Pluto, Europa Orbiter, etc.) • Discover planets around other stars (Keck, and understanding of Keck, SOFIA '01, SIRTF '01) SOFIA, SIRTF, SIM, FIRST) • Search for life beyond Earth (Galileo, Mars • Search for life beyond Earth Earth, the solar Pathfinder, Cassini/Huygens '97, Mars (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Surveyor-03, Mars system, and the Surveyor-'98/’01, Astrobiology) Sample Return, Astrobiology) universe Contribute measurably to achieving the Contribute measurably to achieving the science, math, and technology education science, math, and technology education goals of our nation, and share... goals of our nation, and share... • Make education and enhanced public • Continue education and enhanced public understanding of science an integral part of understanding of science as an integral our missions and research part of our missions and research Obtain scientific information in support of human exploration through robotic missions: Expand the use of robotic missions as • Investigate the composition, evolution, forerunners to human exploration and resources of Mars, the Moon, and beyond low-Earth orbit: To advance human small bodies (Mars Pathfinder and Global • Identify locales and resources for future exploration, use, and Surveyor, NEAR, Lunar Prospector '97, human missions (Mars Surveyor-03, Mars Sample Return, etc.) development of space Mars Surveyor '98/'01) • Demonstrate system for reliable space • Develop the knowledge to improve the reliability of space weather forecasting weather forecasts (Solar-B, STEREO, (SOHO, ACE, Wind, Polar, SAMPEX, Geospace Multiprobes, etc.) IMAGE '00, etc.) Develop new critical technologies to enable innovative and less costly mission and research concepts: • Large, lightweight deployable structures (SIM and NGST Technology Programs, Improve performance by orders of To research, develop, Inflatable Technology Program, etc.) magnitude through revolutionary verify, and transfer • Ultrasensitive detectors (GLAST and technology advances: • Large, lightweight, high-precision advanced NGST Technology Programs) • Miniature spacecraft and instruments deployable structures aeronautics, space, (X2000, NMP DS2 '99, etc.) • Ultrasensitive detectors • Micro spacecraft and instruments and related • Autonomous systems; sample acquisition and return (SIM and NGST Technology • Intelligent, highly autonomous systems technologies Programs, Telerobotics Program, Mars • Highly advanced power, propulsion, and communications Surveyor '01, etc.) • Innovative power, propulsion, and communications (X2000, NMP DS1 '98, etc.) The Roadmap presents the overall goals (presented in bold), objectives (presented as bullets), and major program milestones and related activities (presented in parentheses and italics) for the Enterprise.
  21. 21. 21 As a visible link to future human exploration beyond Earth orbit, Space 2010–2023 Science Enterprise robotic missions help develop the scientific knowl- Develop the Frontiers edge such ventures will need. At the same time, the Enterprise will Expand human activity and benefit from the opportunities human exploration will offer to conduct space-based commerce in the frontiers of air and space scientific research that may stretch beyond the capabilities of robotic systems. The Space Station will be used for long-term monitoring of the space environment and some investigations requiring large col- lecting-area detectors (for example, cosmic ray instruments). Establish a virtual presence throughout the solar system, To achieve its long-term science goals, the Enterprise will advance the and probe deeper into the technical state of the art in lightweight and deployable structures, com- mysteries of the universe and life on Earth and beyond ponent miniaturization, detector sensitivity, intelligent systems and Contribute measurably to autonomous operations, and simulation-based design. Continued inno- achieving the science, mathematics, and technology vation in these areas is needed to enable smaller spacecraft, which can education goals of our Nation, be developed more rapidly and launched more cheaply, to be more reli- and share widely the excitement and inspiration of able and to return increasing amounts of scientific data. A flight valida- our missions and discoveries tion program will expedite the introduction of these innovations into sci- ence missions by demonstrating them first in flight. These principles will also be applied by the Enterprise to the core program of crosscutting technology development that it conducts for Agencywide benefit. The public is both an investor in space science research and the ulti- Pursue space science programs that enable and are mate customer and beneficiary. The Enterprise strives to serve the pub- enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth lic by clearly communicating its research results and the excitement of orbit space exploration. It supports educational organizations nationwide and seeks to apply the special talents of the space science community to educational improvement. It also strives to transfer technologies to the private sector and to develop strong and lasting partnerships among industry, academia, and Government so that the Nation reaps maximum scientific and economic benefits from its Space Science Program. Roles and Responsibilities Develop and utilize The NASA Centers’ primary missions to support the Space Science revolutionary technologies for missions impossible in prior Enterprise are listed in the table below. decades Center Mission Ames Research Center Astrobiology Goddard Space Flight Center Physics and Astronomy Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science and Exploration Johnson Space Center Astro Materials
  22. 22. 22 Earth Science Enterprise the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion and the other agencies participating in the U.S. Mission Global Change Research Program, the Earth NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise is dedicated to Science Enterprise is developing the understanding understanding the total Earth system and the effects needed to support the complex environmental policy of natural and human-induced changes on the glob- and economic investment decisions that lie ahead. al environment. The Earth Science Enterprise is pio- neering the new discipline of Earth system science, Questions to Address with a near-term emphasis on global climate change. Earth Science addresses the fundamental question: Space-based and in situ capabilities presently being How can we utilize the knowledge of the Sun, Earth, used or developed yield new scientific understanding and other planetary bodies to develop predictive and practical benefits to the Nation. environmental, climatic, natural disaster, and natural resource models to help ensure sustainable devel- To preserve and improve Earth’s environment for opment and improve the quality of life on Earth? future generations, governments around the world need policies based on the strongest possible scien- Goals tific understanding. Commercial firms, natural The goals of the Earth Science Enterprise are as resource managers, and educators rely on a follows: dependable stream of this same new knowledge. The unique vantage point of space provides informa- • Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system tion about Earth’s land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, using NASA’s unique vantage points of space, and biota that is obtainable in no other way. In con- aircraft, and in situ platforms, creating an inter- cert with the global research community, including national capability to forecast and assess the health of the Earth system; • Disseminate information about the Earth system; and • Enable the productive use of Earth science and technology in the public and private sectors. Strategies and Outcomes To accomplish these goals, the Earth Science Enterprise employs a strategy that establishes sci- ence priorities with near-term product milestones The EOS-AM1 spacecraft (named to indicate its morning on a path of long-term inquiry; develops advanced equatorial crossing time) will be launched in mid-1998. Its instrument complement is designed to obtain data on key technologies that lead to new and lower cost scien- parameters of global climate change: the physical and radia- tific investigations; promotes extensive international tive properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water; measurements of important trace collaboration and cooperation with other Federal gases; and volcanology. agencies; contributes to national and international
  23. 23. assessments of the environment; fosters commer- 23 cial use of remote-sensing data and leverages the resources of the commercial remote-sensing indus- try to lower the cost of acquiring data; and strength- ens Earth science education and public awareness. These goals, and the strategies that follow, implement the President’s National Space Policy of September 1996. This Policy requires NASA to undertake “a pro- gram of long-term observation, research, and analy- This image of Hurricane Fran was taken from the sis of the Earth’s land, oceans, atmosphere and their NOAA/National Weather Service’s GOES-8 (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) on September 4, 1996, at interactions, including continual measurements from 1:15 p.m. EDT, less than 7 hours before the eye went ashore at Cape Fear, North Carolina. The image was enhanced and the Earth Observing System. . . . In carrying out these rendered at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory activities, NASA will develop new and innovative for Atmosphere, Greenbelt, Maryland. space technologies and smaller more capable space- investment approach. In the near term, technology craft to improve the performance and lower the cost investments will be driven by the need for smaller, of future space missions.” less expensive instruments to continue the EOS first series measurements and to enable key new Through 2002, the Enterprise will deploy the first measurement capabilities such as Light series of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions, Intersection Direction and Ranging (LIDAR) for including Landsat 7. These will join our currently atmospheric winds. Highly distributed, advanced operating spacecraft, such as the Tropical Rainfall Internet capabilities must be developed to enable Measuring Mission (TRMM). This period will also the widespread application of environmental data. see the first launches of Earth System Science In the midterm, new measurement and modeling Pathfinder small satellite missions for new scientif- capabilities will be pursued to enable the three- ic investigations. In tandem, a strong program of dimensional characterization of Earth’s atmosphere aircraft and other field campaigns will validate and supplement spacecraft measurements. Modeling and assessment activities will turn the data collect- ed into widely useful information products for research and applications. These programs are detailed in the Earth Science Strategic Enterprise Plan and supporting strategy documents. The Enterprise is responsible for technology devel- opment needed for the next generation of Earth remote-sensing systems and is defining a science- NASA’s ER-2 is the country’s premier high-altitude civilian research aircraft. Flying in the lower stratosphere, it allows driven strategy to guide technology investment scientists to make in situ measurements for the study of atmospheric chemistry, such as ozone breakdown. It also choices. Participation in the New Millennium pro- serves as a testbed for instruments planned for future gram is one example of the Enterprise’s technology Earth-orbiting spacecraft.
  24. 24. 24 Earth Science Roadmap 1998–2002 2003–2009 Establish a Presence Expand Our Horizons Agency Mission Deliver world-class programs and Ensure continued cutting-edge technology through U.S. leadership in space a revolutionized NASA and aeronautics Expand scientific knowledge by characterizing the Earth system: • Document land-cover/land-use change To advance and and global productivity (EOS-AM1 ’99, Expand our understanding of Earth communicate Landsat 7 ’99, VCL ’00) • Predict seasonal-to-interannual climate system changes: • Assess global vegetation and of rates scientific knowledge variations (TRMM ’97, Jason-1 ’99, of deforestation and understanding of QuikScat ’99) • Model biological-physical responses to • Identify natural hazards, processes, climate events (e.g., El Niño) Earth, the solar and mitigation strategies • Quantitatively understand global fresh (SRTM ’99, GRACE ’01) water cycle system, and the • Detect long-term climate change, • Develop fully coupled 3-D chemistry- universe causes, and impacts (EOS-AM1 ’98, climate models PM1 ’00, ACRIM ’99, ALT-Laser ’01) • Map atmospheric ozone and related constituent gases (SAGE ’99, TOMS ’99, CHEM-1 ’02) Disseminate information about the Earth To advance human system: Disseminate information about the Earth system: exploration, use, and • Implement open, distrubuted, and responsive data system architectures • Enable an effective mix of private, Government, and international data development of (EOSDIS, V2 ’99, V3 ’00, V4 ’02) sources and users space • Design formal and informal Earth science education tools (Education • Incorporate Earth system science into education curricula Program) Enable productive use of MTPE science and technology in the public and private sectors: To research, develop, • Develop and transfer advanced remote- Enable productive use of MTPE science and technology in the public and private verify, and transfer sensing technology (Clark ’98, NMP sectors: EO-1 ’99, EO-2 ’01) advanced • Extend the use of Earth Science • Evolve remote-sensing technology for transfer to operational weather aeronautics, space, Enterprise research to national, State, and local uses (Applications Program) forecasting and commercial systems and related • Support the development of a robust • Foster creative, new applica-tions of remote-sensing data technologies commercial remote-sensing industry (EOCAP) • Expand the use of commercial systems • Make major scientific contributions to in collecting Earth system science data environmental assessment (for IPCC, WMO, and AEPA) The Roadmap presents the overall goals (presented in bold), objectives (presented as bullets), and major program milestones and related activities (presented in parentheses and italics) for the Enterprise.