• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
"Scanning Questionnaire"
 

"Scanning Questionnaire"

on

  • 2,650 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,650
Views on SlideShare
2,650
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
109
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    "Scanning Questionnaire" "Scanning Questionnaire" Document Transcript

    • STRATEGIC WORKFORCE PLANNING GUIDELINES for FY 2003 January 31, 2002 1
    • Official Code of Georgia, 45-20-1 (f) Each agency shall develop an annual workforce plan according to state-wide criteria and guidelines and shall provide a report of such plan annually to the state merit system for incorporation into the state-wide work force plan to be submitted to the Governor and the General Assembly. Special Note to Agencies These guidelines were designed so that each agency can produce all of the required deliverables using only internal staff. Agencies are presented with several options to allow discretion and flexibility in selecting the specific methods to produce the deliverables. Furthermore, agencies are asked in Section 5 to identify a subset of jobs to be targeted in the remaining steps of the workforce planning model. This subset may include only one job, if that is deemed appropriate by the agency. By following these guidelines and using the electronic workforce planning tools provided by the Georgia Merit System, our utmost desire is that you are assisted toward identifying and addressing key workforce issues that are limiting your agency's ability to accomplish its mission and strategic goals. Finally, we are willing to evaluate individual needs or challenges confronting your agency and extend support or offer options to help you in your workforce planning submission. For technical information or questions regarding these guidelines, please contact Charles K. Brooks Georgia Merit System Workforce Planning & Best Practices bro@gms.state.ga.us 404-657-2143 (office) 404-725-1347 (cell phone) 2
    • Table of Contents Section.................................................................................Page Number INTRODUCTION: THE WORKFORCE PLANNING PROCESS ....................... 4 1 – CONDUCT STRATEGIC AND TECHNOLOGY PLANNING..................... 8 2 – ASSESS WORKFORCE PLANNING READINESS .................................. 9 3 – ASSESS FUTURE BUSINESS AND STAFFING OUTLOOK....................10 4 – ASSESS DIVERSITY AND TURNOVER OUTLOOK................................15 5 – IDENTIFY OUTCOME PRIORITIES..........................................................19 6 – IDENTIFY NEEDED COMPETENCIES.....................................................22 7 – IDENTIFY CURRENT COMPETENCIES..................................................24 8 – ANALYZE COMPETENCY GAPS.............................................................26 9 – INTEGRATE HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGIES...................................27 10 – EVALUATE WORKFORCE PLANNING....................................................32 Appendices A – Deliverables for Each Step of the Workforce Planning Process................34 B – Workforce Plan Written Summary Template..............................................37 C – Levels of Analysis.......................................................................................54 D – gScan.........................................................................................................56 E – Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles.......................................61 F – Levels of Work Unit Output Measures.......................................................67 G – Evaluation References...............................................................................69 H – Approved Vendors......................................................................................72 I – WFP Glossary............................................................................................76 3
    • INTRODUCTION: THE WORKFORCE PLANNING PROCESS DEFINITION Workforce planning is a systematic process for identifying the workforce characteristics and competencies required to meet the agency’s strategic goals and for developing the strategies to meet these goals. Chart 1 depicts the steps in Georgia’s Workforce Planning Model. Chart 1: Georgia’s Workforce Planning Model Conduct Assess Assess Strategic and Business and Diversity and Identify Assess Outcome Technology Staffing Turnover WFP Readiness Priorities Planning Outlook Outlook Integrate Identify Analyze Human Implement Evaluate Identify Needed Current Competency Planning and Resource Strategies Competencies Competencies Gaps Strategies Strategies RATIONALE Workforce planning helps agencies accomplish their missions through their people. It provides a means for organizations to align their human resource strategies with their functional activities and technology to achieve their goals and desired outcomes. For many agencies changes in the operating environment have affected their missions, goals, and objectives, thus changing desired outcomes. For other agencies, products and services have changed the amount of work or the way work is done. Changes in technology also affect the strategies and processes of work. These changes place new demands on agencies to acquire and deploy a workforce with new characteristics and competencies to address new objectives, technologies, and environmental influences. Workforce planning links strategic planning, program management, human resources, and budgeting decisions. It identifies the characteristics and competencies needed of people to achieve desired outcomes, and it facilitates those competencies being present in the workforce when and where they are needed. The outputs of workforce planning support strategic objectives, business functions, technology initiatives, human resources strategies, and budget requests. 4
    • TECHNIQUES In general, workforce planning seeks to identify gaps existing between the current and desired future workforce in terms of competencies, diversity, and staffing numbers. It then seeks to identify a set of integrated and mutually beneficial human resource strategies to close those gaps in the most effective and efficient manner. Table 2: Steps in the Workforce Planning Process for FY 2003 1. Conduct Strategic and Technology Planning. Complete the required elements of the FY 2003 Strategic and Technology Planning Guidelines. Identify members for strategic, technology, and workforce planning teams. Identify mission. Conduct environmental scan. Establish vision, strategic goals, objectives, business functions, critical success factors, and long term measures. Identify technology needs and initiatives, etc. 2. Assess WFP Readiness. Assess resources, capabilities, and cultural acceptance of and commitment to workforce planning. 3. Assess Business and Staffing Outlook. Clarify the impact of environmental influences upon the functional activities and workforce segments of the agency. Project future growth or decline in employee head-counts. 4. Assess Diversity and Turnover Outlook. Identify and profile characteristics of current and former employees in terms of ethnicity, age, tenure, and gender in relation to functions, jobs, pay, and FLSA status. Compare to relevant labor, customer, and population bases. Examine turnover rates and projected retirements. 5. Identify Outcome Priorities. Target segments of the workforce for subsequent steps in workforce planning based on opportunities and risks associated with strategic, workforce, cost, diversity, and change factors. 6. Identify Needed Competencies. Identify and profile the competency characteristics needed in the future by the targeted segments of the workforce to achieve desired outcomes and accomplish organizational goals and objectives. 7. Identify Current Competencies. Identify the extent to which the targeted workforce segments possess the competencies and characteristics needed in the future. 8. Analyze Competency Gaps. Compare the competency profiles identified in steps 6 and 7. Identify differences between the competencies of the current workforce and those desired in the future workforce. 9. Integrate Human Resource Strategies. Select and integrate strategies to acquire, develop, and retain an effective workforce based on expected cost-benefit. Align human resource strategies such as recruitment, selection, compensation, training, performance management, succession planning, diversity, telework, retention, safety, etc. to close identified diversity, competency, and staffing gaps in support of strategic, workforce, and technology goals. 10. Evaluate Workforce Planning and Strategies. Evaluate the workforce planning process and the impact of the implemented human resource strategies upon desired outcomes and results associated with strategic goals and objectives, costs and benefits, human resource strategies, diversity, and change factors. Systematically review and adjust the workforce planning process. Modify or adjust the workforce profiles, strategies, and practices to ensure their validity, cost-benefit, and/or return on investment. 5
    • The steps in Georgia’s workforce planning process for FY 2003 are briefly described in Table 2. Steps 1 through 9 are required for FY 2003. No deliverables will be required for the evaluation described in step 10 until FY 2004. Outcomes and Evaluation Opportunities to prepare for evaluation, step 10, however, are built into the steps that are required this year. For example, step 5 relates jobs or job groupings to important strategic outcomes in order to identify the jobs to target in the workforce plan. These outcomes will form the basis for the evaluation required next year, because it is these outcomes that we hope to affect through workforce planning efforts. These outcomes represent the current baseline against which to plan and measure improvement. Additionally, in step 9, these outcomes will play a central role in selecting an array of human resource strategies to close diversity, competency, and staffing gaps. The choice of any particular strategy is based upon its expected impact on the outcomes identified in step 5 in relation to costs and budgets. The evaluation of step 10 will examine the actual impact of human resource strategies upon the workforce and the outcomes it produces. The following sections illustrate and explain the requirements involved in each of the steps of the workforce planning model. Readiness, Priority Targets, and Options Three concepts are emphasized in the workforce planning guidelines for FY 2003: Readiness, Priority Targets, and Options. These concepts provide a means to focus upon the most important outcomes and workforce issues using methods that best meet each agency’s needs. Readiness: The workforce planning process is designed to be flexible in terms of the agency’s readiness and capability to engage in workforce planning. It is critical to begin carefully and to validate the resulting analysis at each step. As agencies use workforce planning strategies, tools and processes, they should adapt them to their specific environment and needs. (See Section 2: Assess Workforce Planning Readiness.) Priority Targets: Agencies should initially focus on important subsets of the workforce. This may be a single job or multiple jobs within a given subset. The capacity to conduct effective workforce planning develops with time and experience. Organizations should begin with a priority subset of the workforce and subsequently extend planning through the remainder of the organization. (See Section 5: Identify Outcome Priorities.) Options: Agencies are provided multiple options to use to obtain or create the required information and deliverables of the workforce plan. Agencies have full discretion in choosing an option. The level of analysis employed in the methods provided within each option, however, should correspond to the importance of the workforce problems and issues that are identified by the agencies. (See Section 5: Identify Outcome Priorities, Appendix C: Levels of Analysis, and Appendix E: Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles.) 6
    • The options vary in the complexity of the methods that are used. In general, higher levels of analysis are characterized by the following: • More use of objective data • Less reliance on subjective data • More data collection from varied sources • More people who are “in the know” are consulted and involved • More sophisticated analysis and interpretation of the data Higher levels of analysis may require higher levels of commitment and higher levels of expertise, time, and technology. Training, coaching, technical assistance, and other support for all of the steps are available from the Georgia Merit System and a number of qualified workforce planning vendors (See Appendix H: Approved Vendors). Visit the Georgia Merit System website at www.gms.state.ga.us and follow the links to Workforce Planning to obtain information about Workforce Planning Representatives and services available to agencies. DELIVERABLES For FY 2003, agencies are required to complete all steps up to and including step 9 of Table 2. The scope of the analysis within each step is up to the discretion and needs of each agency. The deliverables for each step are described in the following sections, which correspond to the steps in Table 2. For a complete list, see Appendix A: Deliverables for Each Step of the Workforce Planning Process. Electronic Reporting All deliverables in the plan for FY 2003 are required to be submitted as a combination of tables or matrices produced in MS Excel and of written summaries produced in MS Word. The Georgia Merit System is once again providing an electronic reporting tool constructed in MS Excel 97. Formerly known as RAPID WF, the tool is now referred to as the Strategic Workforce Tool, abbreviated SWiFT, and pronounced “swift”. A template, in the form of an MS Word document, with recommended points to consider for the summary report, is included as an attachment in SWiFT. The template is also found in Appendix B: Workforce Plan Written Summary Template. All deliverables must be submitted to the Georgia Merit System in the format provided by SWiFT. 7
    • SECTION 1: CONDUCT STRATEGIC AND TECHNOLOGY PLANNING DEFINITION This includes completing all of the required elements of Strategic and Technology planning for the FY 2003 Consolidated Strategic Planning Guidelines. RATIONALE Workforce planning is an integral component of consolidated strategic planning. It provides the human resource strategies needed to support these overall plans. Workforce planning must first consider the core elements of strategic and technology planning, because it aims to support and achieve these plans. The processes and technology chosen to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization must be considered too, because they determine the skills required of the workforce. Workforce planning can then provide the human resource strategies to put the right people with the right skills in the right place at the right time to conduct the detailed operational planning and execution that ultimately achieve strategic goals. TECHNIQUES Follow the FY 2003 Consolidated Strategic Planning Guidelines provided by the Office of Planning and Budget, Georgia Technology Authority, and the Georgia Merit System. In addition, identify the core members of the workforce planning team, which should include executives and managers from the various staff and operational functions of the agency. This team is sometimes identical to the core strategic planning team. Additional workforce planning sub-teams may be assembled to produce the information and deliverables of subsequent sections of these guidelines depending upon the necessary knowledge requirements of the activity. DELIVERABLE Deliverables include all of those required elements of the FY 2003 Consolidated Strategic Planning Guidelines. SWiFT includes a table for entering a list of the workforce planning core team members. 8
    • SECTION 2: ASSESSMENT OF WORKFORCE PLANNING READINESS DEFINITION Workforce planning readiness represents the willingness and capability of an agency to engage in workforce planning activities. This assessment of readiness considers the commitment of the agency’s leadership, management, and employees, and the availability of expertise, time, and technology to perform workforce planning. An outcome of a readiness assessment is a description of the appropriate level of resources to dedicate to the process, and it gives a preliminary indication of the appropriate methods to employ in subsequent steps of workforce planning. RATIONALE The ability to conduct workforce planning and address workforce related issues and problems depends on the agency’s commitment of resources. An agency‘s level of readiness is one of the important considerations in deciding the appropriate level of resources to devote to subsequent workforce planning steps. In addition, the level of sophistication in workforce planning should correspond to the magnitude of the workforce problems that are addressed. (The process of assessing the magnitude and priority of workforce problems is addressed in Section 5 of these guidelines). TECHNIQUE Complete the 13 question Workforce Planning Assessor included in SWiFT, the electronic reporting software distributed by the Georgia Merit System. Members of the workforce planning team should reach agreement, by majority vote or consensus, on the answers to each question in the Workforce Planning Assessor. DELIVERABLES The deliverables for this section include the completed Workforce Planning Assessor, which is found in SWiFT, accompanied by a written summary of the findings of the assessment. 9
    • SECTION 3: ASSESS FUTURE BUSINESS AND STAFFING OUTLOOK DEFINITION The Future Business and Staffing Outlook identifies internal and external trends, issues, and challenges having an impact upon the functions of the agency. It identifies the most important of those factors and describes their impact upon the workforce within the functions of the agency. It then projects future staffing needs in terms of numbers. RATIONALE The Future Business and Staffing Outlook allows the agency to anticipate and respond proactively by identifying activities of the agency that may require creation, elimination, modification, or change in emphasis. The impact of such changes upon the workforce can then be anticipated in terms of the numbers and characteristics of people needed to respond to environmental influences. TECHNIQUE This step makes use of the data from the environmental scanning reference in the core strategic planning phase of the planning process. The next two to five years are described as specifically as possible in terms of the impact of environmental factors upon agency activities and workforce numbers. SWiFT contains an environmental scanning tool known as gScan that guides users through a structured process to focus environmental scanning for workforce planning purposes. (See Appendix D: gScan). This step requires a team comprised of agency leadership and other people who have extensive knowledge of all aspects of the agency and the factors influencing it. This team provides focus and guidance in terms of historical and future factors to be considered. Additional scanning teams, including members from throughout the agency, may be assembled to collect information from other sources, such as professional organizations and publications. Factors having an influence upon the agency are identified (See Figure 3-1), and the magnitude of their impact upon the functions of the agency is assessed. The factors are then described in terms of their impact upon the workforce within each agency function, inclusive of activities that may be increased, decreased, be created or discontinued. Near and long-term projections of growth or decline in staffing numbers for jobs within functions are then made. 10
    • DELIVERABLES The deliverables include tables describing the following: 1) A list with definitions of trends, issues, and challenges expected to have an impact upon the agency. 2) A matrix with ratings of the impact trend, issue, and challenge upon each function. 3) A matrix containing written descriptions of the impact of the most important trends, issues, and challenges upon the workforce for each function. 4) A matrix that depicts projections of increase, decrease, or no change in staffing numbers for each job within each function, including new jobs. 5) A written summary describing the important findings of this section. All of the required tables and summaries can be produced using SWiFT for FY 2003. EXAMPLE See following pages for examples. 11
    • Figure 3-1: List of trends, issues and challenges with explanations Trend Explanation Technology changes produce far reaching changes in the way we do business. It affects customer expectations as well Changing Technology as service delivery. New skills are required by current employees. Certain technology-related skills are rare in the labor market. The slowing economy affects revenue as well as customer Economic Conditions expectations. Many activities increase due to greater demand for services. Growing populations mean more customers to serve in Population Growth diverse segments of the population. Demand for Services Citizens demand higher levels of service Competition with other agencies and the private sector Tight Labor Market makes it difficult to fill job openings. Aging Workforce We face the imminent retirement of many key employees. Low-skilled Workforce Many in the labor market possess low skill levels Figure 3-2: Impact of trends, issues, and challenges upon business functions rated as high (H),medium (M), or low (L). Trend TechnologyChanging ConditionsEconomic Demand for Services Untrained Workforce Tight Labor Market Population Growth Aging Workforce Function Screening H H H L L L L Referral H M H H H H H Eligibility H H M H H H H Assessments H H M H L M L Plan Development L L L L L L L Recreation L L L L L L L === === === === === === === === === === === === === === === === Transportation L L L L L L L 12
    • Figure 3-3: Impact of internal and external trends, issues, and challenges upon workforce Note: Job titles are listed for reference purposes. Analysis occurs at the function level. Changing Economic Untrained Trend, Issue, or Challenge Technology Conditions Aging Workforce Workforce Eligibility Analyst 2 Many tasks in Intake Counselor this function will Depressed This function is not Needs Assessment be automated in economy means affected by Automation Screening Specialist the near future, more applicants impending requires training Secretary 3 requiring training for services retirements for incumbents and new-hires Accountant 1 Many tasks in Benefit Eligibility this function will Greater skills Need to prepare Automation Advocate be automated in needed in current staff to requires training Referral Needs Assessment the near future, employment- take over these for new-hires Specialist requiring training related services positions and incumbents Benefit Unit Mgr for incumbents and new-hires Customer Service Sup This function will Coord This function is not remain a manual More applicants Division Director, Asst affected by Must train new- Eligibility task in the will need to be Needs Assessment impending hires foreseeable assessed Specialist retirements future. Services Counselor 1 Staff Develop/Trng Many tasks in Coord 2 this function will Retirements may Greater skills Benefit Unit Mgr be automated in mean that much of needed in Automation Assessment Division Director the near future, our institutional employment- requires training Eligibility Analyst 1 requiring training knowledge is at related services for incumbents risk for loss and new-hires 13
    • Figure 3-4: Staffing Projections (short term increase, decrease, no change) Business Short- Long- Job Code Descr Function Term Term Benefit Elig Advocate I I Benefit Trans Tech I I Benefits Specialist 1 D D Assessment Division Director NC NC Division Director, Asst NC NC Eligibility Analyst 2 I NC Accountant 1 NC I Benefit Elig Advocate I I Benefit Trans Tech I D Eligibility Benefit Unit Mgr D I Benefits Specialist 1 I I Com & Mktng Spec I D Benefit Elig Advocate D NC Cust Serv Sup Coord NC I Plan Develop Division Director, Asst NC I Needs Assess Spec NC D Benefit Unit Mgr I I Division Director I I Eligibility Analyst 1 D D Referral Intake Counselor NC NC Services Counselor 1 NC I Services Counselor 2 NC I Staff Coordinator 2 NC I Grand Total NC I 14
    • SECTION 4: ASSESS DIVERSITY AND TURNOVER OUTLOOK DEFINITION This step assesses the current workforce and the turnover workforce (i.e., those employees who have left the agency in the previous twelve months) in terms of ethnicity, age, tenure, and gender by job and FLSA status in comparison to labor market, customer, and population bases, as provided in SWiFT. This step includes calculations of turnover rates by job and projections of expected retirements. (Assessment by function and pay grade in comparison to labor, customer, and population bases is optional). RATIONALE Identifying baseline data on diversity, employee status, and turnover rates is a first step in determining how these factors will affect the future workforce. For instance, analyzing turnover within demographic category may provide insight into why the turnover is occurring and it allows agencies to target human resource strategies to those areas that are more heavily affected. Such data provides a baseline against which the effects of human resource strategies can be planned and measured. TECHNIQUES For FY 2003, workforce diversity data is available through the Phoenix query database. The Phoenix group has developed several special workforce planning queries and uploaded the functions assigned to each position using data from the workforce plans submitted last year. Manual entry of function data will be required only for newly created positions. Agencies attached for administrative purposes should request a query through the workforce planning coordinator for the agency to which they are attached. Agencies that do not use the Phoenix System will need to generate the required data from their own records and enter it manually. (Contact your Workforce Planning Representative for assistance). The tables depicted in Figure 4-1 through Figure 4-4 represent examples of some of the matrices that may be selected for use by the agency. Production of all of the tables and matrices is an automated process using the functionality included in SWiFT. Each table is updated in a matter of seconds. Once updated, the data can be reviewed for imbalances, trends, and gaps. Areas of concern should be further addressed by preparing a summary of findings for the final report. Since FLSA data is being populated in SWiFT from data in the Phoenix records, it is important to assure that the data within Phoenix accurately reflects actual FLSA status of the position. Though not required, SWiFT also provides the ability to produce bar graphs and other tables from the Phoenix query data. 15
    • DELIVERABLES Required deliverables include: 1) Matrices showing the numbers of incumbents and turnover employees for each diversity category of gender, ethnicity, age, and tenure by jobs within function and by FLSA status. 2) A table showing projected retirements. 3) A table of turnover rates for each job. 4) A written summary describing the important findings of this section. EXAMPLES Several tables are required for this section. Many more are recommended, but are not required. Below are presented only a few examples for illustration. Refer to Appendices A and B for a complete list of deliverables for this and the other sections. All of the required tables are included in SWiFT for FY 2003. Figure 4-1: Turnover Rates by Job. # at # % ESTIMATED Job Code Descr AVG Salary Begin Leaving Turnover COST Accountant 1 1 $39,586.59 0 0.0% $0.00 Admin Ops Coord 1 1 $39,407.70 1 100.0% $55,170.78 Benefit Elig Advocate 8 $41,761.38 4 50.0% $233,863.72 Benefit Trans Tech 2 $24,916.98 1 50.0% $34,883.77 Benefit Unit Mgr 2 $45,493.23 0 0.0% $0.00 Benefits Specialist 1 8 $27,096.03 5 62.5% $189,672.23 Benefits Specialist 2 1 $35,010.00 1 100.0% $49,014.00 Comm & Mktng Spec 1 $46,443.46 0 0.0% $0.00 Cust Serv Sup Coord 2 $32,496.66 2 100.0% $90,990.64 Division Director 2 $97,688.95 2 100.0% $273,529.06 Division Dir, Asst 5 $80,189.77 2 40.0% $224,531.35 Eligibility Analyst 1 8 $27,625.05 5 62.5% $193,375.35 Eligibility Analyst 2 3 $34,262.27 2 66.7% $95,934.37 Intake Counselor 8 $20,011.68 4 50.0% $112,065.39 Needs Assess Spec 7 $31,575.86 3 42.9% $132,618.60 Pro Staff Assistant 1 $48,210.03 1 100.0% $67,494.04 Program Team Lead 2 $41,420.36 1 50.0% $57,988.50 Secretary 3 2 $20,178.69 1 50.0% $28,250.17 Services Counselor 1 7 $29,566.49 3 42.9% $124,179.24 Services Counselor 2 4 $37,752.27 1 25.0% $52,853.17 Staff Coordinator 2 4 $61,062.07 2 50.0% $170,973.79 Staff Dev Coord 2 1 $41,896.07 1 100.0% $58,654.50 Grand Total 87 $38,880.70 47 54.0% $2,558,349.89 16
    • Figure 4-2:Tenure by Job within the Screening Function (Optional) Business Function: Screening Tenure Job Code Descr 0-4 5-9 10-14 20-24 25-29 30-34 Administrative Ops Coord 1 1 Benefit Eligibility Advocate 1 1 Benefits Specialist 1 3 1 Benefits Specialist 2 1 Clerk 1, General 1 Clerk 2, General 1 1 Division Director 1 Division Director, Asst 1 Eligibility Analyst 1 1 1 1 Intake Counselor 2 2 Needs Assessment Specialist 1 Services Counselor 1 1 Staff Coordinator 2 1 Grand Total 9 4 5 1 2 2 Figure 4-3: Distributions of Current Agency Staff by Ethnic Category within the Referral Function. (Optional) Business Function: Referral Ethnic Grp Job Code Descr Black Hispanic White Benefit Unit Mgr 1 Division Director 1 Eligibility Analyst 1 1 Intake Counselor 1 Needs Assessment Specialist 2 Professional Staff Assistant 1 Services Counselor 1 1 Services Counselor 2 2 Staff Coordinator 2 1 Grand Total 7 1 3 17
    • Figure 4-4: Retirement Projections for the Eligibility Function (Optional) Business Function: Eligibility Total in Retirements Job Code Descr Job 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Accountant 1 5 1 Benefit Eligibility Advocate 3 1 Benefit Transactions Tech 1 1 Benefit Unit Mgr 1 1 Benefits Specialist 1 2 2 Comm & Mktng Spec 1 1 Customer Service Sup Coord 4 1 Division Director 1 1 Division Director, Asst 1 1 Eligibility Analyst 1 7 1 1 3 Eligibility Analyst 2 1 1 Intake Counselor 3 1 Needs Assessment Specialist 4 1 Secretary 3 6 1 Services Counselor 1 1 1 Services Counselor 2 1 1 1 Staff Coordinator 2 2 1 Grand Total 44 10 3 5 4 1 18
    • SECTION 5: IDENTIFY OUTCOME PRIORITIES DEFINITION This step refers to a prioritization and targeting of areas of the workforce for subsequent steps and activities in the workforce planning process. It relates jobs to strategic outcomes, changes in jobs, human resources issues, diversity issues, and costs. It considers opportunities and risks associated with jobs and strategic outcomes, and it identifies a subset of jobs which will be the target of additional workforce planning activities and human resource strategies. RATIONALE Agencies may find it difficult to properly analyze their entire workforce and address all workforce-related problems at once. It is important, therefore, to prioritize workforce issues in order to properly direct available staff and resources to problems and segments of the workforce where the most significant results can be achieved. This step sets the stage for demonstrating results. It links agency jobs to important positive and negative outcomes associated with the strategic plan, human resource strategies and processes, changes, and costs. It is an important first step in preparing for the evaluation step of workforce planning and helps to ensure greater return on workforce planning investments. TECHNIQUE Prioritization according to outcomes begins with a comprehensive look at elements identified in the previous steps in the workforce planning process. Evaluate each job or job grouping1 based on the strength of its relationship to the outcomes associated with strategic factors, costs, human resource strategies, and change issues. A judgment is made about the overall importance of each job or job grouping. A subset of jobs and/or groups of jobs are then identified and targeted for the remaining steps of workforce planning. For the targeted jobs, an additional matrix is completed describing each target job's relationship to each of the outcome categories. More details about the outcome categories are provided below. Strategic Outcomes: How important is each job to the mission, functions, goals, objectives, critical success factors, long-term measures, productivity, and outcomes for customers and other stakeholders? Are problems known to exist in these areas? Consider all of the components of the core strategic planning step. Also consider the findings of the analyses of environmental influences, changes in business activities, diversity, turnover, retirement, and projected employee numbers. Jobs that are critical to achieving the mission or are strongly related to opportunities and risks associated with strategic and stakeholder outcomes are considered important for further workforce planning activities. 1 A job grouping might be a job family or jobs within an organizational unit. 19
    • Cost Outcomes: Cost outcomes refer to large expenses related to payroll, service delivery, systems operations, equipment usage, worker activities, worker errors, etc. Is a lot of money at stake as employees deliver services, operate systems, and use equipment? Are there high costs related to worker errors? Jobs associated with comparatively higher cost outcomes are considered more important for further workforce planning activities. Jobs with many incumbents may need further attention in subsequent workforce planning activities. Outcome Changes: Jobs which have been newly created or jobs heavily affected by new technology, processes, output requirements, or growth may be given priority for workforce planning purposes. Workforce Strategy Outcomes: This category refers to jobs with issues in staffing, development, total rewards, retention, succession planning, health & safety, telework, etc. It may include jobs facing diversity, turnover, or retirement problems. Or it may include jobs with leadership development or knowledge management issues. Diversity Outcomes: Jobs that have been shown to have diversity issues with respect to internal groups, the general population, relevant labor markets, and customer bases, are targets for further analysis. Overall Importance to Outcomes: Jobs are evaluated by considering all of the above factors, weighing one against the other to arrive at a judgment of importance. The workforce planning team decides on a subset of agency jobs as targets for further workforce planning activity. Focus is placed upon workforce segments that have the highest risk or the greatest potential for gain in terms of outcomes The agency should target as few or as many jobs as circumstances demand and resources allow, keeping in mind that it is important to build upon success. DELIVERABLES The deliverables include: 1) A matrix depicting the agency jobs or job groupings in relation to outcomes. 2) A table listing the targeted jobs with written descriptions of the strategic impact, problems with workforce outcomes, costs, diversity issues. 3) A written summary of important findings. 20
    • EXAMPLE Figure 5-1–Rating jobs or job groupings according to importance to outcomes Strategic Cost Outcome Workforce WFP Job Title Overall Diversity Outcomes Outcomes Changes Outcomes Target Benefit Transactions H H H H H H Tech Benefit Unit Mgr L L H L L L Benefits Specialist 1 H H H H H H Benefits Specialist 2 L L H H M M === === === === === === === === Clerk 1, General L H L H H H Clerk 2, General L L L L L L Figure 5-2–Descriptions of jobs or job groupings in relation to outcomes Job Title Strategic Outcomes Cost Outcomes Outcome Changes Workforce Outcomes Will undergo much This job has primary Benefit This is the most automation in the next two responsibility for High turnover. Difficult to fill Transactions heavily populated years. Incumbents will also producing customer open positions. Tech job in the agency. begin marketing services to outcomes. customers. New technology and Same as BT Tech. Decision errors Benefits Key to analyzing new customer account processes Extensive training program cost average of Specialist 1 benefits strategies will be implemented next takes 12 months. Need to $116,000. year. get them productive sooner === === === === === Little direct impact Few changes expected in Clerk 1, Large cost of upon strategic outputs or technology High turnover General payroll outcomes expected 21
    • SECTION 6: IDENTIFY NEEDED COMPETENCIES DEFINITION This step involves identifying and profiling the competency characteristics needed in the future for the workforce segments targeted in Section 5. Competencies are defined as underlying characteristics such as knowledge, skills, abilities, motives, traits, self-concept, and behavior that allow people to effectively perform in a job. RATIONALE Competency information, in the form of a future competency profile, helps to bridge the gap between where an organization is now and where it wants to be in the future. This occurs in two ways. First, it provides management and staff with a common understanding of the set of competencies and behaviors that are important to the organization. Second, a competency profile serves as a guide for management in making human resources decisions about jobs and people in jobs, since it is based on the people characteristics that support the mission, vision, and goals of the organization. Competency profiles provide tools and a basis of comparison for management to target recruits, assess applicants for hiring purposes, assess employees for developmental purposes, and provide employees and managers with templates of successful performance. It also provides a means to coordinate the activities of selection, training and development, performance management, compensation, career management, succession planning. These profiles provide a basis for assessing competency gaps that need to be closed through integrated human resource strategies. (See Section 7: Identify Current Competencies, Section 8: Analyze Competency Gaps, and Section 9: Integrate Human Resource Strategies.) TECHNIQUES A variety of approaches may be employed in the steps of competency profiling, depending upon agency circumstances. The resources that can be brought to bear in the process, the number of jobs under analysis, the number of job incumbents, and the relationship of jobs to desired outcomes should be considered in selecting an approach. Information to develop a profile of competencies can be gathered from employees, but managers and/or agency leadership should be consulted to gain perspective on future requirements for the jobs. Several methods are available to collect the necessary information, including individual interviews, focus groups or panels, and questionnaires. Care should be taken in choosing an approach, because some methods, though easy to use, may yield less than useful competency information. The best approach is to choose the most rigorous methods that resources will allow. 22
    • See Appendix E: Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles for a summary description of some different methods to use in developing competency profiles. DELIVERABLES Deliverables include: 1) A matrix depicting targeted job(s) in relation to the generic and technical/professional competencies needed for success in those jobs. 2) A list of the individuals providing the information for each job. 3) A written summary of the analysis and findings. EXAMPLE Figure 6-1. Matrix of competency levels needed in the future for several jobs INDIVIDUAL JOB Written Tech Cust COMPETENCY PROFILES: Oral Com Com Listens Learns Skill Serv Influence LEVEL2 Eligibility Analyst 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 Intake Counselor 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 Needs Assessment Specialist 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 Secretary 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 Services Counselor 1 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 Services Counselor 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 Staff Coordinator 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 Benefit Eligibility Advocate 3 3 3 4 2 3 3 Customer Service Sup Coord 3 3 3 4 2 3 3 === === === === === === === === Division Director, Asst 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 23
    • SECTION 7: IDENTIFY CURRENT COMPETENCIES DEFINITION This step involves identifying and profiling the competency characteristics possessed by current members of the workforce targeted in steps 5 and 6. The competency of the current workforce is assessed in terms of the competencies needed in the future. RATIONALE Once a competency profile for each targeted job has been developed, then employees can be assessed in relation to the relevant profile of needed competencies. This assessment identifies whether or not current employees’ possess needed competencies, and if they do, it is then possible to determine if they possess the competencies at the necessary levels. Understanding current employees’ competencies and levels is a preliminary step in identifying competency gaps that need to be closed through integrated human resource strategies. (See Section 8: Analyze Competency Gaps and Section 9: Integrate Human Resource Strategies.) TECHNIQUES Conduct an audit of current worker competencies in each targeted job to identify current workforce competencies or levels. This step follows the identification of needed competencies, because the point is to assess current competencies in comparison to needed competencies. As in the previous section, a variety of methods may be used to profile current workforce competencies depending upon circumstances. Factors to be considered include the resources that can be brought to bear in the process, the number of jobs under analysis, the number of job incumbents, and the relationship of jobs to desired outcomes. Information can be gathered from managers, supervisors, and/or employees using surveys, tests, ratings, and group or individual interviews. The average competency or competency level may be measured or simply estimated for each job. Below are briefly described four approaches which differ in level of analysis. Level One: Convene a group of knowledgeable people within the organization. Identify the competencies possessed by current employees, or estimate average employee competency levels for each targeted job. Level Two: Convene multiple groups with membership close to or within the actual job being assessed. Rate or estimate the average employee competency levels for targeted jobs using the competency profiles and scales developed in step 6. 24
    • Level Three: Conduct a survey of supervisors or conduct a 360 degree competency survey using the rating scales developed in step 6 to assess each individual, and then average the results for each targeted job. Level Four: Conduct intensive interviews, behavioral observations, assessment center exercises, etc. and average results within targeted jobs. DELIVERABLE Deliverables required for this step of workforce planning include: 1) A job by competency matrix depicting the competencies possessed by incumbents of targeted jobs. 2) A paragraph that describes the matrix of current competency profiles. Figure 7 - 1 Matrix of Competency Profiles for Current Staff INDIVIDUAL JOB Oral Written Tech Cust COMPETENCY PROFILES: Com Com Listens Learns Skill Serv Influence LEVEL2 Eligibility Analyst 2 3 2 3 1 1 3 3 Intake Counselor 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 Needs Assessment Specialist 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 Secretary 3 2 2 2 0 3 2 2 Services Counselor 1 3 2 3 0 4 3 3 Services Counselor 2 3 2 3 0 3 3 3 Staff Coordinator 2 3 2 3 0 2 3 3 Benefit Eligibility Advocate 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 Customer Service Sup Coord 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 === === === == == == == === Division Director, Asst 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 25
    • SECTION 8: ANALYZE COMPETENCY GAPS DEFINITION This step identifies gaps that exist between current workforce competencies and those desired in the future. RATIONALE Identification of competency gaps is a necessary step in focusing and integrating human resource strategies to close those gaps. Understanding the location and nature of the competency gaps allows agencies to target solutions to those areas with the greatest need and promise of gain. TECHNIQUE This is a simple arithmetic operation of subtracting what you have from what you need. DELIVERABLES Deliverables include a matrix depicting the gaps in competencies within jobs. Also included is written summary of the matrix. EXAMPLE Figure 8 - 1 Matrix of Competency Gaps for Current Staff INDIVIDUAL JOB Written Tech Cust COMPETENCY PROFILES: Oral Com Com Listens Learns Skill Serv Influence LEVEL2 Eligibility Analyst 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Intake Counselor 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Needs Assessment Specialist 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 Secretary 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Services Counselor 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Services Counselor 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Staff Coordinator 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Benefit Eligibility Advocate 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 Customer Service Sup Coord 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 === === === === === === === === Division Director, Asst 0 0 1 1 0 `2 0 26
    • SECTION 9: INTEGRATE HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGIES DEFINITION This step considers gaps associated with the numbers of employees, diversity distributions, and competencies needed for future success. Human resource strategies (e.g., recruitment, training, career/succession planning, etc.) are selected, integrated, and aligned with overall strategy on the basis of expected success in closing the identified gaps and the expected impact upon the strategic outcomes identified in step 5. Also considered are available funds and costs of the strategies in relation to outcomes and benefits. Workforce, process, and technology strategies are integrated to close identified gaps so that each strategy supports the others in achieving organizational objectives. RATIONALE Workforce planning views human resource management as a set of integrated activities rather than a collection of unrelated sub-functions. It strives to integrate the relationship between workforce, technology, and overall organizational strategy. Human Resource processes need to build upon, support, and complement the business strategy. They must also be flexible enough to change with shifting priorities. Integrated human resource strategies support and build upon each other in closing staffing, diversity, and competency gaps. The result is the hiring, development, and retention of staff who achieve desired outcomes. Strategies for acquiring, developing, and retaining staff are selected and designed to fulfill the mission of the agency. Workforce requirements of the future will be determined largely by competitive pressures, economic trends, accelerated technological development, and business strategy. The future will demand continuous human resource development to meet these requirements, and success will be realized through employees demonstrating qualities and behaviors that achieve organizational goals. Competency-based human resource strategies link employee performance directly to overall strategy. TECHNIQUES Examine the staffing, diversity, turnover, competency profiles, and gaps identified in the previous sections. Determine how the agency will acquire, develop, and retain people to fill the workforce gaps that limit mission success. When the desired number of people with the desired competency or diversity characteristics are undesirably limited, consideration should be given to modifying overall strategies, processes, or technology to compensate for the deficits and ensure mission success. 27
    • Examine the nature, causes, and patterns of identified gaps, and select and integrate strategies on the basis of expected cost-benefit in relation to closing identified staffing, diversity, and competency gaps and expected impact upon desired strategic outcomes. The Nature of the Gaps The nature of the gaps may indicate appropriate strategies. For example, some competencies are more difficult to develop than others. They may require a lot of time and expensive training. Other competencies may be difficult to find in the general population. People in the labor market possessing such competencies may expect or require salaries beyond the reach of agency budgets, and development strategies may need to be employed. Conversely, time and costs required to train employees in needed skills may be too costly in relation to hiring people who already possess needed skills. In general, strategies should balance hiring costs with development costs. Skills that are difficult or expensive to develop may indicate the need for the implementation of a hiring strategy. Skills that are difficult to acquire may suggest a development strategy. Focus on developing people when it is easy and inexpensive to do so in comparison to the cost of hiring people with the necessary competencies. Retention strategies should focus on retaining people who possess the needed characteristics and who achieve desired results. The Causes of the Gaps Appropriate strategies to close staffing, diversity, or competency gaps may be indicated by an examination of factors thought to cause the gaps. A preliminary consideration is to determine whether a deficit or flaw in the current hiring, development, or retention strategy causes a gap. For example, a gap may result from turnover, people who possess the desired diversity or competency characteristic may be leaving the organization. An examination of factors contributing to the turnover (e.g., poor or arbitrary performance feedback) may suggest strategies to retain the people with the desired characteristics (e.g., supervisory training in performance feedback). To consider another example, a gap may result from an ineffective hiring strategy. Perhaps people possessing the needed competencies are not adequately recruited; in which case an appropriate strategy would target the right people. Or perhaps the existing selection procedure is screening out people with the desired competencies while screening in people with wrong or irrelevant competencies. The Patterns of the Gaps The pattern of gaps may also indicate appropriate sets of human resources strategies and solutions. Gaps of a similar nature occurring across a number of jobs may suggest a general strategy applied to all of the jobs, whereas isolated gaps or a number of gaps within a single job may indicate a job-specific solution. A large number of seemingly unrelated gaps may require examination to identify sub-patterns or clusters of gaps or jobs and may indicate a solution targeting those clusters. 28
    • Hiring, development, and retention strategies are most effective when combined to target the gaps identified in the previous sections. First, each strategy has a direct impact in closing workforce gaps. For example, acquisition strategies seek to recruit, hire, and promote people with the characteristics necessary to achieve agency goals and objectives. Workforce development strategies should train, educate, coach, mentor, and assign people to develop their competencies in the needed areas. Workforce retention strategies should manage total rewards and other strategies to reduce turnover among people with the competencies needed for success in the future. Secondly, each strategy has an impact upon the other strategies. For example, development strategies may have an impact upon the effectiveness of retention strategies. Identify, select, design, integrate, and coordinate human resource strategies to get the right people with the right characteristics in the right place at the right time. Focus on strategies and workforce segments that offer the greatest opportunity to contribute to mission success. Remember that it is important to start with manageable projects and build on success. DELIVERABLES The deliverables for this section include: 1) a matrix describing the human resource strategies selected to close competency gaps common to the targeted jobs (i.e., a competency gap by strategy matrix); 2) a matrix describing the human resource strategies selected to close diversity gaps within each targeted job (i.e., a diversity gap by strategy matrix); 3) a matrix describing the human resource strategies selected to close staffing (i.e., headcount) gaps within each targeted job (i.e., headcount by strategy matrix); 4) a single written summary describing the integration of the three matrices (Deliverables 1 - 3). Important Note: Because they are associated with statewide initiatives established by Governor Barnes, diversity and telework strategies are specifically included in all three of the above matrices. 29
    • Example of a Competency Gap by Workforce Strategy Matrix Competency Gap Recruiting Selection Training Retention Diversity Telework etc., Self Management Targeted Self- Special telework Negotiation and development exercises, class on self- Influence books, and management, time- assignments. management XYZ Training Co. classes: Scheduling, planning, goal-setting & time management; Use telework as measuring for results. vehicle to attract Targeted Self- needed candidates Standard college development exercises, with desirable recruiting *Qualifications books, and competencies. Screening; assignments. Emphasize Identify Behavioral XYZ Training Co. Select candidates Diversity telework to attract employees with Interview; classes: Presentation with competencies Management desired candidates. required levels. & Platform Skills; that enable effective Identify their Employ staffing Negotiating for use of telework. satisfiers to methods that reduce Managers; shape work-life adverse impact in Train for telework Targeted Self- program. hiring candidates skills & managing development exercises, Emphasize with these teleworkers books, and telework as a tool competencies assignments. to retain those === XYZ Training Co. with needed classes: Diverse competencies Classes in use of workers – Diverse Clients technology for === === === === telework Tech Skills Area Identify sources of #1 high performers; Also Post on Job Qualifications Develop and offer Tech Skills Area Site; Screening; Agency Core Technical Etc. #2 Certification; Series. Advertise in Tech Newsletter and Tech Skills Area professional website #3 *Qualifications Screening - assessing applicant qualifications (i.e., competencies) against established selection criteria for target job. May take one or more forms, such as written tests, applicant questionnaires, resume reviews. 30
    • Example of a Job by Workforce Strategy Matrix Job Title Recruiting Training Retention Diversity Telework Eligibility Analyst Standard College Agency Core Because intake and eligibility requires 2 Recruitment, Technical Series office attendance, these jobs are not Focused Diversity Basic Customer eligible for telework Recruitment Service; Basic Identify high Intake Counselor Interpersonal Skills; performers in each Emphasize telework Dealing with job; Diversity Needs where applicable. Conflict; Advanced Target worklife to management Assessment Interpretation- satisfy high training for all hiring Specialist Interview high performers Psychological performer; exit supervisors. These job are candidates for telework. Services to identify sources and Assessments interviews & annual Telework will be emphasized in Counselor 1 attracters for similar surveys and focus Targeted recruiting and retention strategies for people. Offer class on groups to identify recruitment at these jobs. Training strategies will Services Building Community early warning of minority educational include specific training in telework Counselor 2 Begin “recruit a fellow Resources trouble spots & to institutions. policies, use of technology, and professional” campaign. identify accountability. Care will be taken to dissatisfiers; Implement selection provide opportunities and capability Advertise in Tech Staff Coordinator Pre-management emphasize strategies with low for telework. We hope to reduce Newsletter and 2 classes telework where adverse impact. turnover while attracting qualified professional website applicable to keep candidates. Refer to succession plan good performers Customer because all incumbents Management 1,2, & Service Sup come from internal 3 Coord promotions 31
    • SECTION 10: EVALUATE WORKFORCE PLANNING DEFINITION This refers to a description of the impact of the selected gap-closing strategies upon desired outcomes related to strategic goals and objectives. Allowing for sufficient time following implementation, and based on the evaluation, systematically review and adjust the workforce planning process to better achieve desired results. Modify the workforce planning process, profiles, strategies, and practices to ensure their validity, cost-benefit, or return on investment. RATIONALE Evaluation ensures that human resource strategies are aligned with overall strategies and helps accomplish organizational goals and objectives. It helps to determine if desired results are obtained and if the costs of the strategies justify the obtained benefits. It also helps to identify areas that require further attention or modification. TECHNIQUE Numerous models for the evaluation or human resource strategies exist, ranging from the global approach embodied in the Oglethorpe Award Criteria to simple measures of customer satisfaction. Approaches may be highly quantitative as in the construct validation approaches advocated by the American Psychological Association for the validation of tests. It may involve sophisticated field experiments as described in research and evaluation textbooks. Or it may involve the less quantitative estimation approaches advocated by some evaluation experts. It may involve consideration of input, output, outcome, or impact measures. See Appendix F: Levels of Work Unit Output Measures and Appendix G: Evaluation References. Keep in mind that scientific proof is not required, only a systematic, logical link connecting desired results, activities, and actual results. Much groundwork for evaluation occurs in the previous steps of workforce planning, including the specification of gaps and desired results and the linkage of headcount, diversity, and competency gaps to jobs, human resource problems, and the selection of workforce gap-closing strategies. With proper workforce planning, evaluation becomes a simpler process because the desired outcomes and measurement processes are already in place. DELIVERABLES There are no deliverables required for this step for FY 2003. Optional is a summary of the proposed evaluation methodology for each workforce strategy and for the overall workforce planning process. 32
    • APPENDICES 33
    • Appendix A Deliverables for Each Step of the Workforce Planning Process 34
    • APPENDIX A: Deliverables for each step of the workforce planning process STEP Deliverables  All required components of the strategic and technology plans 1.  A list of WFP team and contact information  Completed WFP Readiness Assessment 2.  General summary statement  A list of trends issues, and challenges impacting the agency  A matrix with ratings of impact of the trends and issues, and challenges upon agency functions  A matrix with written descriptions of the impact of the trends issues, and challenges upon the agency’s 3. workforce within each function  Staffing projections for jobs within functions  General summary statement  Matrices showing the numbers of incumbents and turnover employees for each diversity category for the following breakdowns:  Job 4.  FLSA status  A matrix of turnover rates by jobs  A matrix of projected retirements  General summary statement  A matrix that relates all agency jobs to opportunities or risks related individually and in combination to the following factors:  Strategic factors  Outcomes of workforce processes  Costs 5.  Changes  Diversity  A list of priority jobs and/or job groups identified in the above analysis with descriptions of their opportunities and/or risks  Summary descriptions of the above matrices 35
    •  A matrix that identifies professional/technical and generic competencies necessary for success in the future for targeted jobs and job groups 6.  A list of the individuals providing the information for each job  A summary of the analysis and findings  A matrix identifying current workforce levels of professional/technical and generic competencies 7. necessary for success in the future for targeted jobs and job groups  A general summary statement  A matrix depicting the prioritized competency gaps for targeted jobs and job groups. 8.  General summary statement  A matrix of selected workforce gap-closing strategies in relation to competency gaps.  A matrix of selected workforce gap-closing strategies in relation to diversity gaps. 9.  A matrix of selected workforce gap-closing strategies in relation to competency, diversity, and staffing gaps specific to each job and/or job group.  A general summary statement  No required deliverables for FY 2003. 10.  Optional: Summarize proposed evaluation methods. 36
    • Appendix B Workforce Plan Written Summary Template 37
    • WORKFORCE PLAN Written Summary Template Introduction to the Template. This document is an adjunct to SWiFT, the Microsoft Excel-based workforce planning and reporting tool developed by the Georgia Merit System. It offers a format written summaries of the deliverables and findings of workforce planning. It provides an opportunity to “tell the story” of the agency’s workforce planning efforts. Navigation. Each deliverable in SWiFT links to a place in the template where the user summarizes important information about the deliverable. The user may return to SWiFT using the hyperlinks embedded in this document or by using the Windows taskbar. Format of the Template. Sections and headings in the template correspond to steps, sub-steps, and/or matrices of SWiFT. Certain heading are followed by space and suggestions [contained in brackets] for a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used to generate the deliverables, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. Some headings provide suggestions for describing corresponding matrices in SWiFT. Section summaries include a space to summarize conclusions and implications for the agency. Additional Information for Clarity and Meaningfulness. Introductions, transitions, and general conclusions may be added as necessary to improve readability and cohesiveness of the finished document. The headings may be modified to accommodate the needs of each agency, but be sure to address all of the important topics. Charts, tables, and graphs may be added for illustration. Information from other studies may be included if needed. The suggestions for content may be modified as needed to describe the deliverables, conclusions, and implications in a way that is clear and meaningful for the agency. For instance, the template provides for a summary for each and every matrix produced in SWiFT. But in some cases (e.g., the numerous diversity tables) the agency may opt to omit certain summaries, particularly if the summary would simply describe or repeat the numbers found in the tables. It is important, however, to describe important findings such as gaps when they are identified. Such information should be included where indicated in the template, while uninformative summaries may be omitted. 38
    •  [YOUR AGENCY NAME HERE]  WORKFORCE PLANNING REPORT FY 2003 39
    •  [YOUR AGENCY NAME HERE]  SUMMARY OF WORKFORCE PLAN FY 2003 SECTION 1: CONDUCT STRATEGIC AND TECHNOLOGY PLANNING Summarize here the agency’s mission, environmental context, vision, functions, goals, objectives, critical success factors, and long-term measures. Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used to generate the agency’s strategic and technology plans, including how were they created and who was involved. ***Summarize findings in the space below*** SECTION 2: ASSESS WORKFORCE PLANNING READINESS Describe the level of readiness and the approach to workforce planning as recommended by the Workforce Planning Readiness Assessor and briefly summarize the approach selected by the agency for each section of the workforce plan. Points to Consider: • Describe the commitment and support that exists among the employees, management, and leadership to the workforce planning effort. • What resources have been made available for workforce planning? • What is the level of expertise within the agency for workforce planning? • What is the plan for using vendors to conduct workforce planning? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used to generate the answers to the questions in the Workforce Planning Readiness Assessor, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. 40
    • ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 3: ASSESS BUSINESS & STAFFING OUTLOOK In this section, introduce the assessment of the Business and Staffing Outlook. What approach did the agency select for this assessment? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used to assess the business and staffing outlook, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved.] ***Summarize findings below*** Workforce Environmental Scan Summarize the important findings for the environmental scan. Describe the important historical and current environmental factors impacting the agency. Highlight those having an impact upon the agency’s workforce. ***Summarize findings below*** Impact of Trends, Issues, and Challenges upon Agency Functions Summarize the impact of trends, issues, and challenges upon agency functions. Points to Consider: • What are the general effects of these factors upon the functions of the agency? • How will these factors affect the activities of the agency? • What new areas of business are planned? • Which areas are expected to increase? • Which areas are expected to diminish or cease? ***Summarize findings below*** 41
    • Impact of Trends, Issues, and Challenges upon Agency Workforce Summarize the important findings for the Impact of Trends, Issues, and Challenges upon Agency Workforce matrix. Points to Consider: • What are the general effects of these factors upon the workforce of the agency? • How do these factors affect the ability of the workforce to accomplish the mission of the agency? • How do these factors affect the hiring, development and retention of the agency’s workforce? ***Summarize findings below*** Staffing Projections Summarize the important findings for staffing projections for jobs within functions. Points to consider: • Which jobs or job groups are expected to increase or decrease in number of employees? • What new jobs within functions are planned?] ***Summarize findings below*** General Summary of Findings Summarize the important findings of the Business and Staffing Outlook. Discuss the important environmental factors affecting the agency. Points to consider: • What effect do they have upon the activities of the agency? • Discuss staffing projections. What the important implications of these findings for the agency? ***Summarize findings below*** 42
    • SECTION 4: DIVERSITY AND TURNOVER OUTLOOK In this section, introduce the assessment of the diversity and turnover outlook. What approach did the agency select for this assessment? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used to assess the diversity of the current and turnover workforce, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved.] ***Summarize findings below*** Diversity of the Incumbent Workforce Provide additional information, if necessary, about the people and procedures employed in this analysis for each of the following: Jobs by gender. ***Summarize the jobs by gender table below.*** Jobs by ethnic group. ***Summarize the jobs by ethnic group table below.*** Jobs by age. ***Summarize the jobs by ethnic group table below.*** Jobs by tenure. ***Summarize the jobs by ethnic group table below.*** Function by gender. ***Summarize the function by gender table below.*** 43
    • Function by ethnic group. ***Summarize the function by ethnic group table below.*** Function by age. ***Summarize the function by age table below.*** Function by tenure. ***Summarize the function by tenure table below.*** FLSA status by gender. ***Summarize the FLSA by gender table below.*** FLSA status by ethnic group. ***Summarize the FLSA by ethnic group table below.*** FLSA status by age. ***Summarize the FLSA by age table below.*** FLSA status by tenure. ***Summarize the FLSA by tenure table below.*** Pay grade by gender. ***Summarize the pay grade by gender table below.*** 44
    • Pay grade by ethnic group. ***Summarize the pay grade by ethnic group table below.*** Diversity of the Incumbent Workforce Summary. Summarize the important findings of the assessment of the incumbent workforce. Summarize the gender, ethnicity, age, and tenure of the incumbent workforce in relation to jobs within functions, FLSA status, and pay grade. Summarize other diversity assessments that the agency may have conducted. ***Summarize findings below*** Diversity of the Turnover Workforce Provide additional information, if necessary, about the people and procedures employed in this analysis for each of the following: Jobs by gender. ***Summarize the jobs by gender table below.*** Jobs by ethnic group. ***Summarize the jobs by ethnic group table below.*** Jobs by age. ***Summarize the jobs by age table below.*** Jobs by tenure. ***Summarize the jobs by tenure table below.*** Function by gender. 45
    • ***Summarize the function by gender table below.*** Function by ethnic group. ***Summarize the function by ethnic group table below.*** Function by age. ***Summarize the function by age table below.*** Function by tenure. ***Summarize the function by tenure table below.*** FLSA status by gender. ***Summarize the FLSA by gender table below.*** FLSA status by ethnic group. ***Summarize the FLSA by ethnic group table below.*** FLSA status by age. ***Summarize the FLSA by age table below.*** FLSA status by tenure. ***Summarize the FLSA by tenure table below.*** Pay grade by gender. ***Summarize the pay grade by gender table below.*** 46
    • Pay grade by ethnic group. ***Summarize the pay grade by ethnic group table below.*** Diversity of the Turnover Workforce Summary. ***Summarize the important findings of this analysis below.*** Retirement Analysis Provide additional information, if necessary, about the people and procedures employed in the retirement analysis. Summarize the Retirement Projections table. Points to Consider: • Which jobs or groups of jobs are most affected by the projected retirements? • What years are most affected by the projected retirements? ***Summarize findings below*** Turnover Analysis Provide additional information, if necessary, about the people and procedures employed in the turnover analysis. Summarize the turnover ratios table. Points to Consider: • Which jobs or groups of jobs were most affected by the turnover? • Which have the highest of turnover numbers? • Which have the highest percentages? • Which have the highest estimated cost of turnover? ***Summarize findings below*** 47
    • Diversity Gap Analysis Summarize the comparisons among the diversity of the current workforce, the turnover workforce, and the agency’s labor markets, customer bases, and general population bases. Points to Consider: • What are the major differences? • Where are imbalances found? ***Summarize findings below*** General Summary of Findings: Diversity and Turnover Outlook Summarize the important findings of the Diversity and Turnover Outlook. Points to Consider: • Discuss diversity among incumbent workforce and those who were terminated within the last year. • Summarize the comparison of the diversity of the incumbent workforce and the turnover workforce. • Summarize the comparison of the diversity of the incumbent workforce to those of the labor market and customer population. • Discuss turnover rates and retirement projections. Discuss the important implications of these findings for the agency. ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 5: IDENTIFY OUTCOME PRIORITIES In this section, introduce the analysis of outcome priorities. What approach did the agency select for this assessment? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. ***Summarize findings below*** 48
    • Agency Jobs in relation to Strategic, Workforce, Cost, Diversity, and Change Outcomes Summarize the initial review of the all of agency’s jobs in relation to strategic factors, diversity, turnover, retirements, staffing numbers, outcomes of human resource strategies, cost factors, changes, and overall importance for the agency’s workforce. Points to consider • Explain the rationale for targeting a subset of the agency’s jobs for additional workforce planning efforts. • What was the rationale for omitting the remaining jobs from further analysis at this time? • Summarize the opportunities and/or risks associated with the targeted jobs. • Explain the importance of each job to the mission, functions, goals, objectives, critical success factors, long-term measures, productivity, and outcomes for customer and other stakeholders? • What desired outcomes must be produced by each job in order to accomplish organizational goals and objectives in the future? What concerns exist in these areas? ***Summarize findings below*** Summarize the issues related to diversity for the targeted jobs. Points to consider: • What are the significant challenges with regard to incumbent, customer, and labor market diversity? ***Summarize findings below*** Summarize changes occurring with the targeted jobs. Points to consider: • Discuss the impact of new technology, processes, output requirements, growth, etc. ***Summarize findings below*** Summarize known or perceived problems with outcomes of human resource strategies for the targeted jobs. 49
    • Points to consider: • Discuss concerns related to results in staffing, training, leadership development, knowledge management total rewards, retention, succession planning, health & safety, telework, etc. ***Summarize findings below*** Summarize the financial costs associated with the targeted jobs. Points to consider: • What costs are related to payroll, service delivery, systems operations, equipment usage, worker activities, worker errors, etc. • What costs are associated with productivity, customer outcomes, turnover, and other Human resource strategies and outcomes. ***Summarize findings below*** Discuss the overall importance of these jobs to the agency. Points to consider: • Explain why human resource strategies related to these jobs should receive focused attention and resources? • What does this mean for the agency? ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 6: IDENTIFY NEEDED COMPETENCIES In this section, introduce the development of competency profiles for the targeted jobs or job groups. What approach did the agency select for these assessments? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. Points to Consider: • Give a general description of the people who provided the information for the jobs. • Were they average incumbents, high-performers, supervisors, analysts, managers, etc.? 50
    • • Why are they considered bona fide subject matter experts for the jobs in question? ***Summarize findings below*** Describe the job by competency matrix. Points to consider: • For each job, summarize the professional/technical and generic competencies necessary to produce desired outcomes and accomplish organizational goals and objectives in the future. • Describe significant commonalties and differences noted among the jobs. ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 7: IDENTIFY CURRENT COMPETENCIES In this section, introduce the assessment of current competency profiles for the targeted jobs or job groups. What approach did the agency select for these assessments? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. Points to Consider: • Give a general description of the people who provided the information for the jobs. • Were they average incumbents, high-performers, supervisors, analysts, managers, etc.? • Why are they considered bona fide subject matter experts for the jobs in question? ***Summarize findings below*** 51
    • Describe the jobs by current competency matrix. Points to consider: • For each job, summarize current workforce levels on the professional/technical and generic competencies that were identified as necessary for success in the future. • Describe significant commonalties and differences noted among the jobs. ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 8: GAP AND PRIORITY ANALYSIS In this section, introduce the analysis of competency gaps for the targeted jobs or job groups. What approach did the agency select for these assessments? Include a brief, high-level summary of the process(es) used, including how the information was obtained or created and who was involved. ***Summarize findings below*** Summarize the matrix depicting competency gaps for targeted jobs and job groups. Points to consider: • Describe for each job the pattern of competency gaps. • Explain how the gaps relate to strategic factors, workforce process outcomes, costs, changes, and overall importance. • Describe significant commonalties and differences in the gaps among the jobs. ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 9: INTEGRATE HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGIES Provide a general summary that describes the constellation of human resource strategies chosen by the agency to address workforce diversity, competency, and staffing (i.e., headcount) gaps. Explain how the selected strategies integrate with and 52
    • support each other in closing priority diversity, competency, and staffing gaps in targeted jobs. Points to Consider: • How do personnel hiring, development, performance management, retention, diversity, and telework strategies, etc. lay the foundation for, build upon, and support each other? • Explain why the selected constellation of human resource strategies is considered to be the best possible approach available to the agency? • Why are these particular human resource strategies chosen instead of other process or technology solutions? • What result or cost advantage does each strategy promise in relation to existing or alternative strategies? • To what extent are the strategies based upon “best-practices” and benchmarks? • To what extent will the strategies involve in-house versus outsourced resources? • To what extent will the strategies take advantage of coordinated state efforts and collaborations with other agencies? • How will budgeting and funding issues be addressed? • How will the strategies be initiated and implemented? • What is the change management plan? ***Summarize findings below*** SECTION 10: Evaluate Workforce Planning and Human resource strategies Optional: Summarize the proposed evaluation methodology for overall workforce planning process and for each workforce strategy 53
    • Appendix C Levels of Analysis 54
    • Levels of Analysis Levels of analysis refers to • Noticeable differences in the way in which information is collected, analyzed, and interpreted. • The objectivity and subjectivity of the information and the number and quality of the source(s) from which it is obtained. • How the information is examined, combined, and interpreted in supporting judgments Higher levels of analysis are characterized by the following. • Greater use of empirical and objective data • Less reliance on subjective data • More data collection from varied sources • More people who are “in the know” are consulted and involved • More sophisticated collection and analysis of the data Level INDICATORS One or a small number of persons who are selected by default low level of expertise in subject area 0 data is based only upon opinions data sources are legacies, legends, and anecdotes no analysis, only identification and lists panels or groups of subject matter experts who are randomly selected subject matter experts have some expertise in subject area 1 data is based only upon subjective evaluations and judgments data is evaluated by consensus judgments subject matter experts have bonafide expertise and knowledge in subject area 2 subjective evaluations and judgments are supported by data and findings reported in external studies subject matter experts have bonafide expertise and knowledge in subject area 3 subjective evaluations and judgments are supported by data and findings of internal studies use of objective data collection instruments scientific theory and research-based approaches bonafide subject matter experts in subject area 4 scientific targeted sampling techniques judgments and decisions are supported by statistical analysis and formal decision science 55
    • Appendix D gScan 56
    • gScan Tool for a Workforce Environmental Scan. INTRODUCTION An environmental scan is necessary for completing a workforce plan according to Georgia’s Workforce Planning Guidelines for FY 2003. This tool helps agencies address environmental factors that are important to workforce planning. It augments the overall environmental scanning process and may be combined with it. The gScan process involves one or more high level brainstorming sessions, which may be supplemented by additional research. The overall purpose of the meetings will be to generate a list of the specific trends, issues and challenges which have affected the agency’s workforce in the past, and items which may affect the agency’s workforce in the future. This comprehensive list of Trends, Issues, and Challenges is a required deliverable in the workforce planning process for FY2003. For the purpose of conducting your workforce plan, Trends, Issues, and Challenges are defined as follows: Trends are statements about the general direction of long-term changes. These are the "forces" which have shaped the past, and may change the future. They are typically discussed over a time-period. Issues are typically one-time occurrences that have short-term effects. They traditionally arise from trends and lead to some type of response. Challenges are controversies which arise from trends and issues. Their impact is typically yet to be determined due to the uniqueness of the event. STEP 1:ASSEMBLE ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING TEAM The environmental scanning meeting should be attended by individuals who have the following characteristics: Individuals with strong institutional knowledge. Individuals who know the history of the agency. Individuals who understand the mission, vision, goals, and strategic objectives of the agency. In most cases the attendees will be members of senior management and management from each division or section. In some cases you may want to 57
    • include select line managers and their direct reports if it is determined that they would make a positive contribution. STEP 2: DISCUSS HISTORICAL AND POTENTIAL FUTURE IMPACTS Specific trends, issues and challenges are identified through a process of answering questions about several broad areas of impact. The following broad scanning areas are included in the questionnaire: Economic Social Technological Legal Political/Legislative Demographic Educational Environmental Sample questions for each area are included in the attached “Scanning Questionnaire”. Each question should be addressed by the group to ensure that all potential areas impacts are identified. If additional areas are identified during the meeting, these should be considered as well. STEP 3: CONDUCT ADDITIONAL RESEARCH [Optional] Within the Scanning Questionnaire, hyperlinks have been included to guide the user to potential sources of information regarding potential trends within each of the listed scanning areas. This research may be conducted prior to the meeting or after the meeting in order to supplement the information gathered in the initial meeting. Additional staff may be brought in to conduct this research as resources allow. STEP 4: PRODUCE FINAL LIST Once the final list is produced, enter it into the table provided in SWiFT and continue to analyze the impact on the agency’s workforce by following the steps outlined in the Workforce Planning Guidelines for FY 2003 and SWiFT. 58
    • SCANNING QUESTIONNAIRE During the Environmental Scanning Meeting, use the questions below to generate a comprehensive list of trends, issues and challenges that have affected the agency’s workforce in the past, and those which may affect the agency’s workforce in the future. Record the information, and decide which of these should focused on for purposes of the workforce plan. For each scanning area, ask the following three questions. 1. Which trends, issues and challenges in this area have affected the agency’s workforce in the past? 2. For each item generated in the above question, determine if the trend, issue or challenge will continue to affect the agency’s workforce? 3. Which trends, issues and challenges in this area may affect the agency’s workforce in the future? Consider each of the areas listed below. You may click on the title to access a reference list which provides links to websites where information about the scanning area may be found. ECONOMIC SOCIAL TECHNOLOGICAL LEGAL POLITICAL/LEGISLATIVE DEMOGRAPHIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL 59
    • ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING RESOURCES GENERAL INFORMATION Time Magazine: www.time.com/time Newsweek: www.newsweek.com US News and World Report: www.usnews.com General Accounting Office: www.gao.gov ECONOMIC (Back to Questionnaire) U.S. Department of Commerce: www.doc.gov Bureau of Economic Analysis: www.bea.doc.gov SOCIAL (Back to Questionnaire) Brave New Work World: www.newwork.com Social Indicators of Development: www.ciesin.org/IC/wbank/sid-home.html Occupational Outlook Handbook: www.state.bls.gov/ocohome.htm TECHNOLOGICAL (Back to Questionnaire) Business Week Online: www.businessweek.com/technology/index.html NIST Technology at a Glance: www.nist.gov/publicaffairs/talance/current.htm CNET Networks, Inc.: www.cnet.com Wired News: www.wired.com LEGAL (Back to Questionnaire) U.S. Judicial Branch Resources: www.lcweb.loc.gov/global/judiciary.html POLITICAL/LEGISLATIVE (Back to Questionnaire) Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet: http://thomas.loc.gov State of Georgia: www.state.ga.us C-SPAN: http://capwiz.com/c-span/home/ U.S. House of Representatives: www.house.gov U.S. Senate: www.senate.gov DEMOGRAPHIC (Back to Questionnaire) U.S. Census Bureau: www.census.gov Bureau of Labor Statistics: www.bls.gov EDUCATIONAL (Back to Questionnaire) U.S. Department of Education: www.ed.gov Georgia Department of Education: www.doe.k12.ga.us/index.asp Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education: www.dtae.state.ga.us ENVIRONMENTAL (Back to Questionnaire) WWW Virtual Library: Environment: http://earthsystems.org/Environment.shtml Environmental Organization Web Directory: http://webdirectory.com/ 60
    • Appendix E Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles 61
    • Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles This document is presented as general guidelines for use by organizational management to assist in determining the nature and scope of competency profile development projects as a part of workforce planning activities. These guidelines describe in very general terms a range of approaches that may be employed to develop competency profiles for jobs, especially those targeted for priority attention as a result of workforce planning outcomes. These approaches should be regarded as thumbnail sketches of procedural steps involved with an understanding that each may require increasingly significant allocation of resources to accomplish. Factors which may influence the direction of competency profile development for any given agency job(s) include the extent to which problems are evident in such areas as turnover, retention, recruitment and selection, technology impact associated with job requirements, negative publicity and similar considerations. Definitions Competencies underlying characteristics that allow people to effectively perform in a job, such as knowledge, skills, abilities, motives, traits, self- concept and behaviors. Types of Competencies Generic enduring personal attributes predictive of behavior that apply to an array of jobs. Technical job-specific knowledge that has been acquired through formal training or extensive on-the-job experience. Needed at Entry competencies identified as being necessary for minimal job performance at the time of hire. Threshold essential characteristics needed by workers to be acceptably effective in a job, the possession of which does not distinguish superior from average performance. Differentiating factors that distinguish superior from average performance of a job. Competency Profile a combination of competencies associated with a job, indicative of effective performance and expressed in behavioral terms. G-Comp the competency dictionary developed by the Georgia Merit System. Competency Dictionary a comprehensive inventory or listing of competencies. Basic versions will include definitions; more detailed dictionaries will include examples of rating scales, behavioral indicators and organizational-specific benchmarks for each competency. 62
    • Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles Approach One Approach One should be viewed as the least rigorous approach to use in developing and documenting competency profiles for jobs. This approach is most applicable for jobs with few incumbents and those where diversity issues (e. g., workforce demographics, adverse impact) do not compel a more formal job study. Data collection for Approach One projects may be accomplished through individual or group interviews and are easily conducted by in-house staff with an understanding of basic job analysis methodology. I. Identify Sources of Job Information Choose one or more tenured incumbent, supervisor, or other individual/organization (e. g., certification associations) with in-depth knowledge of job and requirements to serve as a Subject Matter Expert (SME). II. Define Job Parameters Identify or otherwise generate a list of important job responsibilities or tasks (normally 6-12, but may vary from job to job). Existing documents, such as job description or performance management form, can be used assuming the information is current and accurate. III. Establish and Identify Competencies a. Review a competency dictionary (such as G-Comp) to select generic competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks (normally 6-12 competencies, but may vary from job to job). b. List and define technical (i. e., knowledge-specific) competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks. (There may be as few as one generally defined technical competency, or several more specifically defined ones.) IV. Evaluate Competencies Identify the most important generic competencies with particular emphasis on those needed for success on the job (normally 4-6 important competencies, but may vary from job to job). Likewise identify the most important technical competencies with emphasis on those needed for success on the job (normally 4-6, see above). Match important competencies to one or more job responsibilities or tasks. This may be accomplished by having the SMEs indicate or list which competencies are associated with successfully performing which responsibilities. The results will comprise the competency profile associated with the job under study. 63
    • Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles Approach Two Approach Two is a more involved process to use in developing and documenting competency profiles for jobs. This approach is most applicable for jobs with a substantial number of incumbents, a substantial rate of turnover and similar retention concerns, and/or importance relative to achieving agency strategic objectives. Due to the number of individuals typically participating in Approach Two projects, data collection involves the use of one or more Subject Matter Expert (SME) panels. I. Identify Sources of Job Information: Choose a representative sample of employees with acceptable levels of job performance to serve as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). For large jobs, the more highly performing incumbents may be chosen for participation. II. Define Job Parameters Identify or otherwise generate a list of important job responsibilities or tasks (normally 6-12, but may vary from job to job). Existing documents, such as job description or performance management form, can be used assuming the information is current and accurate. III. Establish and Identify Competencies a. Review a competency dictionary (such as G-Comp) to select generic competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks (normally 6-12 competencies, but may vary from job to job). b. List and define technical (i. e., knowledge-specific) competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks (normally three or more technical competencies, but may vary from job to job). IV. Evaluate Competencies Identify the most important generic competencies with particular emphasis on those needed at entry to the job (normally 4-6 important competencies, but may vary from job to job). Likewise, identify the most important technical competencies with particular emphasis on those needed at entry to the job (normally 4-6, see above). This step usually involves some group discussion in order to reach consensus. Match important generic competencies to one or more job responsibilities or tasks. This may be accomplished by having the SMEs indicate or list which competencies are associated with successfully performing which responsibilities. OPTIONAL: Assign appropriate level of generic and technical competencies associated with successful job performance (see G-Comp for example of scale). The results will comprise the competency profile associated with the job under study. 64
    • Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles Approach Three Approach Three is a rigorous, multi-step approach in competency profile development using clearly defined job analysis techniques. This approach is applicable for jobs with a large number of incumbents and/or the job is essential to achieving agency strategic objectives. It is especially applicable where diversity issues (e. g., workforce demographics, adverse impact) and outcome issues (e.g., worker productivity, turnover and retention, high profile job) indicate that a thorough job study is warranted. Approach Three projects typically involve comprehensive data collection through multiple Subject Matter Expert (SME) panels, the use of job analysis questionnaires to document project outcomes and the application of statistical analysis to support conclusions. Staff conducting studies of this complexity should be well versed in job analysis and validation methodologies. I. Identify Sources of Job Information Choose a representative sample of employees exhibiting high levels of job performance to serve as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). II. Define Job Parameters Using facilitated process, guide SMEs in developing a list of important job responsibilities or tasks. Existing documents, such as job descriptions or performance management forms, may serve as a foundation to define job in more discrete terms. These responsibilities or tasks may be further expanded by describing various work behaviors that relate to low, average and/or high performance. Due to the array of input (e. g., multiple panel meetings), it may be necessary to collate and edit the job responsibilities or tasks for distribution in later steps of the process. III. Establish and Identify Competencies Using facilitated process, guide SMEs in developing a comprehensive list of generic and technical (i.e., knowledge-specific) competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks. G-Comp or other competency dictionaries may be used as points of reference. Develop and/or apply rating scale to designate high, average and low performance levels for each competency as warranted. As indicated above, it may be necessary for the job analyst to compile this information before proceeding to the next phase of the project. IV. Evaluate Competencies SMEs are reconvened to complete a competency rating form. Each generic and technical competency is designated as being needed at entry, threshold and/or differentiating for the job. Measures of importance of each competency relative to job responsibilities or tasks are obtained along one of several dimensions. Lastly, the SMEs establish a quantified link between each competency to one or more responsibilities or tasks. Statistical analysis of the data is completed to establish the relationship of each competency to the job. The results will comprise the competency profile associated with the job under study. 65
    • Approaches to Developing Competency Profiles Approach Four Approach Four is a complex, multi-step approach in competency profile development using state of the art job analysis and validation techniques. This approach should be employed for jobs which are essential to achieving agency strategic objectives and which warrant priority based on workforce planning outcomes. Approach Four projects are resource intensive and highly complex with project specifications that include scientific sampling, criterion-related performance measures and sophisticated statistical analysis. Due to the extensive and advanced nature of such projects, vendors of industrial/organizational psychological consulting services should be given retained. I. Identify Sources of Job Information: Develop performance measures using objective and subjective criteria as indicated by job requirements. Collect performance data on all incumbents to select top-performing individuals to serve as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). II. Define Job Parameters Using facilitated process, guide SMEs in developing a list of important job responsibilities or tasks. Existing documents, such as job descriptions or performance management forms, may serve as a foundation to define job in more discrete terms. These job tasks may be further expanded by describing various work behaviors that relate to low, average and/or high performance. Due to the array of input (e. g., multiple panel meetings), it may be necessary to may collate and edit the job responsibilities or tasks for use in later steps of the process. III. Establish and Identify Competencies Using an empirical job analysis technique, guide SMEs in developing a comprehensive list of generic and technical (i.e., knowledge-specific) competencies related to important job responsibilities or tasks. G-Comp or other competency dictionary may be used as points of reference; however, the project goal is to define contextual competencies specific to the organization. Develop and/or apply rating scale to designate high, average and low levels for each competency as warranted. As indicated above, it may be necessary for the job analyst to compile this information before proceeding to the next phase of the project. Other empirical approaches that might be used include Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), the Critical Incident Technique, Functional Job Analysis Scales and Behavioral Event Interview. IV. Evaluate Competencies Use a criterion-related strategy to verify work behavior associated with high performing incumbents. Isolate work behaviors that are unique to high performance to expand and clearly define a final competency profile unique to the job as it relates to the agency mission and goals. Statistical software packages are used to correlate the profile of high performance competencies against a sample of incumbents across performance categories (i. e., high, average, low). Statistical analysis of the data will thus establish the relationship of each competency to the job. The results will comprise the competency profile associated with the job under study. 66
    • Appendix F Levels of Work Unit Output Measures
    • Levels of Work Unit Output Measures Leve Name Definition Example Measure l What is achieved because of output of Personnel 2 backup candidates for all (100) 8 Result activity (Succession) Planning Key positions End products, completed services of Gross Output several related programs (e.g., Completed career plans for top 3 7 (of several Career Plans performance appraisal, career path levels of management (500 people) programs) analysis, career counseling, etc.) Completed performance appraisals 6 Program Output of 1 program Performance Appraisal for top 5 levels of management (7500 people) Completed performance appraisal forms signed by boss and subordinate 1 performance 5 End Product 1 unit of final output measure a. Boss-subordinate agreement appraisal form b. Boss rating form c. Subordinate rating form Intermediate 1 boss-subordinate 4 Part of 5 unit output, or required for it 1 completed form Product agreement form 1 boss-subordinate 3 Task Activity in performance of unit 1 meeting meeting 1 meeting entered on boss and 2 Element Part of task Schedule 1 meeting subordinate's calendar 1 Motion Smallest part of task Reach for phone 1 motion
    • Appendix G Evaluation References
    • Evaluation References 1. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance (1993)by Lyle M. Spencer, Jr, PhD and , Signe Spencer (Contributor).John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 047154809X http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/047154809X/qid=955125247/sr=1-1/103- 9209084-0586256 2. Calculating Human Resource Costs and Benefits: Cutting Costs and Improving Productivity by Lyle Spencer ASIN: 0471810401 (out of Print) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471810401/qid=955127179/sr=1-5/103- 9209084-0586256 3. The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance by Richard E. Boyatzis, (1982) John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 047109031X http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/047109031X/ref=sim_books/103-920908 4-0586256 4. Human Motivation by David C. McClelland, David C. McCelland (1988) Cambridge Univ Pr (Pap Txt); ISBN: 0521369517 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521369517/ref=sim_books/103-920908 4-0586256 5. Reengineering Human Resources: Achieving Radical Increases in Service Quality- With 50% to 90% Cost and Head Count Reductions (1995) by Lyle M., Jr. Spencer, John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471015350 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471015350/o/qid=955125247/sr=2-1/10 3-9209084-0586256 6. Competency Model Handbook Vol. I edited by Richard Rosier and Pauline Jeffrey Linkage, Press, 1996 Linkage, Inc., Lexington, MA 02421 http://www.linkageinc.com/ets/showpage.cgi? template=/_templates/products.htm&producttable=/_private/ler.txt&productkey=14&s electfield=category&selectvalue=bookc&sort1=ProductID&sort1dir=up 7. In Action : Measuring Return on Investment (In Action Series) by Jack J Phillips (Editor) (1994) Amer Soc for Training & Development; ISBN: 1562860089 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1562860089/qid=955126878/sr=1-1/103- 9209084-0586256 8. Evaluating Training Programs : The Four Levels by Donald L. Kirkpatrick (1998) Berrett-Koehler Publishers; ISBN: 1576750426 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1576750426/qid=955126953/sr=1-2/103- 9209084-0586256 9. Accountability in Human Resource Management (Improving Human Performance Series(1996) by Jack J. Phillips, Gulf Pub Co; ISBN: 0884153967 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0884153967/qid=955127037/sr=1-1/103- 9209084-0586256 10. Costing Human Resources : The Financial Impact of Behavior in Organizations (Kent Series in Human Resource Management) by Wayne F. Cascio (1991) Pws Pub Co; ISBN: 0534919383 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0534919383/ref=sim_books/103-920908 4-0586256 70
    • 11. Competency-Based Performance Improvement : A Strategy for Organizational Change by David D. Dubois (1993) Human Resource Development Pr; ISBN: 0874252237 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0874252237/qid=955126460/sr=1-2/103- 9209084-0586256 12. Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity. (1990). Hunter, John E.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Judiesch, Michael K. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 28-42. 13. Calculating the Sterling value of selection. (1988). Smith, M. Guidance and Assessment Review, 4(1). Leichester, UK: British Psychological Society. 14. Can behavioral interviews produce results? (1988). Boyle, S. Guidance and Assessment Review, 4(1). Leichester, UK: British Psychological Society. 15. McDaniel M., A., Whetzel D.L., Schmidt F.L., Maurer S.D. “The Validity of Employment Interviews: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 79 (1994): 599-616. 16. Wiesner, W.H. & Cronshaw, S.F. “A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Impact of Interview Format and Degree of Structure on the Validity of the Employment Interview.” Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61 (1988): 275-290. 17. Flamholtz, E., 1984, Human resource Accounting. Jossey-Bass publishers, Los Angeles. 71
    • Appendix H Approved Vendors 72
    • Approved Workforce Planning Vendors Below is Georgia Merit System’s listing of Qualified Vendors for Workforce Planning Services. These vendors have satisfied the minimum requirements set forth in the Request for Proposal GMS 05-07-01. The results of the RFP also include an Open Agency Contract with the selected vendors. The workforce planning services will include, but are not limited to, the following components: a) integrating workforce planning with the organization’s overall strategic goals and objectives b) workforce measurement and identification of talents, skills and competencies of the workforce c) comparison of the agency’s future workforce needs to its current state d) gap identification e) identification/recommendation of gap-closing strategies f) development of systematic review processes of workforce plans that ensure that strategies and practices are valid, cost-beneficial and provide a return on investment The vendor list has been prepared for your use in selecting a contractor that meets your needs. Agencies should contact vendors directly to discuss contractual services, and if deemed appropriate, to negotiate lower costs for agency services. Latoya Gray, GMS Contracts Manager may also be contacted at lgray@gms.state.ga.us or (404) 657-0360 regarding questions or concerns pertaining to vendor contracts. Department of Administrative Services - Request for Proposal / Notice of Award http://www2.state.ga.us/Departments/doas/procure/rfp/rfp-GMS-05-07-01-procover.html (Request for Proposal GMS 05-07-01: Workforce Planning Services) Acuent, Inc. 41 Perimeter Center East, Suite 120 Atlanta, GA 30346 Contact Name: Rich Selzer Phone: (770) 350-0486 Ext. 7105 Fax: (770) 913-0483E-mail: rselzer@acuent.com Cooperative Personnel Services 17 Applegate Court, Suite 201 Madison, WI 53713 Contact Name: Robert Lavigna Phone: (877) 645-6823 Fax: (608) 273-4739 E-mail: bob@cps.ca.gov 73
    • Hay Management Consultants 5901 Peachtree Dunwoody Road Building B, Suite 525 Atlanta, GA 30238 Contact Name: Leslie Schneider Phone: (770) 901-5600 Fax: (770) 901-5656 E-mail: Leslie_Schneider@haygroup.com Lindholm and Associates 8340 Waverly Road Owings, MD 20736 Contact: Mary Lou Lindholm Phone: (301) 855-8353 Fax: (301) 855-8353 E-mail: maryloulindholm@aol.com Organizational Services Corporation 3282 Clairmont North Atlanta, GA 30329 Contact Name: Dr. Kenneth G. Amitin Phone: (404) 320-1839 Fax: (404) 320-7076 E-mail: kamitin@mindspring.com Tier Technologies, Inc. 500 Copper Ave NW, Suite 100 Albuquerque, NM 87102-3150 Contact Name: John Kleinsteuber Phone: (505) 245-7377 ext. 110 Fax: (505) 245-7477 E-mail: jkleinsteuber@tier.com Buck Consultants, Inc. 200 Galleria Parkway, N.W., Suite 1200 Atlanta, GA 30339 Contact Name: Edward MacDonald Phone: (770) 955-2488 Fax: (770) 933-8336 E-mail: macdonald@buckconsultants.com 74
    • Global Tech Financial 2839 Paces Ferry Road, Suite 810 Atlanta, GA 30339 Contact Name: Carolyn Baldwin Byrd Phone: (678) 816-2233 Fax: (678) 816-2222 E-mail: cbaldwin@globaltechfinancial.com JJA Consultants 3970 Chain Bridge Road Fairfax, VA 22030 Contact Name: Wanda Savage-Moore Phone: (703) 359-5969 Fax: (703) 359-5971 E-mail: info@jjaconsultants.com MGT of America Inc. 2123 Centre Point Blvd. Tallahassee, FL 32308 Contact: Dr. Jeffrey Ling Phone: (850) 386-3191 Fax: (850) 385-4501 Email: jling@mgtamer.com Plexus, Advanced Organizational Solutions 1070 Lake Haynes Drive Conyers, GA 30012 Contact Name: Dr. Sheila L. Stille Phone: 770.918.9523 Fax: 770.483.2545 E-mail: Slstille@aol.com 75
    • Appendix I Workforce Planning Glossary 76
    • Workforce Planning Glossary Agency’s Mission –The specific business and activity in which an agency engages or will engage to fulfill its purpose, including targeted areas and planned actions deemed necessary in order to accomplish strategic goals and objectives. Anticipated (Agency) Challenges – Future events, time periods, or circumstances expected to place increased demands on an agency’s resources. At-risk Business - Any current business activity which the agency is terminating or will be terminating. At-risk Business is also any business activity that is being done less often or that is in question. The key element here is change and what demands changing business will place on employee numbers and characteristics. Competency Characteristics – Underlying characteristics such as knowledge, skills, abilities, motives, traits, self-concept, beliefs, and behaviors that allow people to effectively perform in a job. Competency Gap – The difference between needed or desired competency levels and the levels possessed by the current workforce or workforce segment under analysis. Where an agency is not determining levels for their competency profile, the gap is simply the competencies that the current workforce or workforce segment is lacking. Competency Profile(s) – A set of competencies for a job, job group, or even an entire organization that includes underlying characteristics such as knowledge, skills, abilities, motives, traits, self-concept, beliefs, and behaviors essential for job performance. The profile should be consistent with strategic goals and objectives. Cost-Benefit – A ratio or comparison of cost to benefits gained. It is used to identify problem areas, to choose a most suitable action, or to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular strategy. The comparison process may or may not yield an exact coefficient that can be rank-ordered, and will require judgement on the part of decision makers involved. Cost-Benefit Analysis – A decision process that includes three steps: 1) determining the cost of a problem, 2) determining the expected benefit of a proposed solution, and 3) determining the actual benefit derived from implementing a proposed solution. Costs and benefits need not refer only to financial calculations. Cost benefit analysis may also include estimates based on non-financial benefits such as client outcomes, productivity, or other results-based factors that have strategic importance. In all cases, however, they include quantification. Critical Success Factors – Any condition or element that must be in place in order for the agency’s mission and goals to be achieved (FY2003 Strategic Planning. Guidelines). They are basic structural variables which will most affect success or failure in the pursuit of organizational goals. Some factors are explicitly part of the direct 77
    • interaction between organizations and their customers. This includes product or service quality, reputation, image, timeliness, and response to complaints. Other factors are more internal, such as staffing, information systems, motivation of staff, flexibility, and communication. Some, such as integrity, costs and cash flow, span interaction with customers, internal practices, and suppliers. Current Worker Competencies - The collective competencies of an agency’s current staff. Desired Future Workforce – A workforce that possesses optimal diversity distributions as well as a set of competencies identified as necessary for accomplishing organizational objectives and goals and achieving desired outcomes. Desired Outcomes – Ideal short-term and long-term results of an agency’s Strategic Goals. Desired outcomes reflect realizations of an agency’s intentions that are declared and renewed annually in its vision statement. (Also see Long Term Measures) Diversity Gap – the difference between the diversity (e.g., age, gender, tenure, ethnicity, etc.) characteristics of the current workforce and the distributions of those characteristics targeted for future success. Diversity Outlook – An analysis of the characteristics of an agency’s current employees. The characteristics to be analyzed are age, tenure, ethnicity and gender. The Diversity Outlook will include analysis of each of these four employee characteristics in relation to the following five categories: jobs, business functions, job family, pay grade (age and tenure are not required for pay grade) and FLSA status. The Diversity Outlook will also include a Retirement Projections Table and a summary of findings for each of the above mentioned categories. Empirical/Objective Data – Data derived through formal and precise measurement (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, performance management forms, etc.) Staffing projections – The total numbers of employees in jobs. Environmental Influences – (same as Environmental Factors) The factors under review in an environmental scan. They are any influences upon an agency’s activities including both internal and external factors. Environmental Scan – A review of the external and internal environmental factors that may impact an agency over the next several years. It is a key element in the process of specifying the vision by which an agency declares its strategic direction. External Factors – These include (but are not limited to) events, trends, and relationships in an agency’s external environment, the knowledge of which would assist management in planning the agency’s future course of action. The external environment of an agency includes all outside factors that can affect the performance of 78
    • the agency. Major areas of external environmental factors include: access to electronic information, changing technology, economic conditions, budget, regulations, legislation, population growth, increasingly diverse population, health concerns, public relations, public expectations, demand for services, and transportation concerns. Focus Groups – Method for obtaining information in which a group of knowledgeable individuals is assembled to share ideas and, sometimes, reach consensus. Gap-closing strategy – Any human resources activity (e.g. recruitment, selection, etc.) specifically selected and strategically designed to close gaps that have been identified in the workforce planning process. Human Resources Practices – The various programs, processes, and activities or actions taken to enable workers to conduct an agency’s day-to-day operations. Individual Interviews – Method for obtaining information in which knowledgeable persons are questioned individually. Internal Factors – These include (but are not limited to) an agency’s resources (e.g., staffing, financial, inventory, facilities), climate, communications and other critical agency-specific elements, the knowledge of which would assist management in determining an agency's future course of action. Level of Analysis – Degree to which the methodology employed is reliant upon empirical or subjective data. A higher level of analysis is reached by using more empirical methods. See Appendix C: Levels of Analysis. Level Zero –This describes a level of analysis that is unacceptable for workforce planning in Georgia’s State agencies. Level zero depicts a scenario where someone such as a solitary Personnel Analyst is laboring single-handedly to develop an agency’s workforce plan because nobody else is available or willing to help. Long Term Measures – A broad, high-level measure specified in ideal terms as a frame of reference for an agency to determine its degree of success in achieving a Strategic Goal. In other words, certain circumstances in agencies today may be the results of a Strategic Goal set from 1996 to 1998 (three to five years ago). The success of these results could be evaluated based on Long Term Measures also specified at that time. Based on FY2002 Strategic Planning Guidelines, each one of an agency’s strategic goals must have at least one Long Term Measure. This term is used synonymously with Desired Long-term Outcomes. (Also see Desired Outcomes.) Needed Worker Competencies – A set of competencies identified as necessary for accomplishing organizational objectives and goals and achieving desired outcomes. Also see Desired Future Workforce and Competency Profile. 79
    • New Business – Any activity in which the agency is engaged or will be engaged which was not previously done. New Business may also be an activity that is being done differently or being done more/more often. The key element here is change and what demands changing business will place on employee numbers and characteristics. Panels - Method for obtaining information in which a group of individuals knowledgeable about the subject under study is interviewed. People, Processes, and Technology – The three vehicles by which work may be accomplished in an agency or organization. Questionnaires – Tool for obtaining information which may be utilized in individual interviews, panels, or administered to all or selected job incumbents, or for other reasons. Rank Order – To place items of a group in order based on their values from greatest to least, or the reverse. Relevant Labor Markets – Various areas from which employees may be recruited/hired. Depending on the job or job family under consideration, the area will vary in size, region, breadth, etc. Labor statistics from the various areas also serve as a comparison for the diversity distributions of current staff. Subjective Data – Data derived through methods that are not amenable to direct observation; surmised data; based on idiosyncratic criteria or standards. Turnover Outlook – An analysis of the characteristics of employees that have left an agency (turned over) during the past year. The characteristics to be analyzed are age, tenure, ethnicity and gender. The Turnover Outlook will include analysis of each of these four employee characteristics in relation to the following five categories: jobs, business functions, job family, pay grade (age and tenure are not required for pay grade) and FSLA status. The Turnover Outlook will also include a summary of findings for each of the above mentioned matrices. Work-Life – The balance or state of equilibrium that an employee experiences between the demands of work and his/her personal life. Helping employees to achieve this balance is a potential strategy for Human Resources Management. Workforce Competencies – The competencies of an agency’s personnel as a whole. Workforce competencies may either be those that the current workforce has at present or a set of competencies identified as mission-critical for the agency’s workforce to possess in the future. Workforce Characteristics – Features of an agency’s personnel as a whole such as tenure status, turnover rates, gender and age distributions, or competencies. 80
    • Workforce Segment(s) – A selected portion of job positions such as those in a job family, business function, pay grade, division, etc. Workforce Planning Team – The core workforce planning team is a sub-team to the core strategic planning team within the consolidated strategic planning process. The workforce planning team is charged with developing the agency’s annual workforce plan as well as contributing to the development of the overall strategic plan. This team should include executives and managers from the various staff and operational functions of the agency. The core workforce planning team is sometimes identical to the core strategic planning team. Some essential characteristics of core workforce planning team members include strong institutional knowledge, sound knowledge of the agency’s history, and a good understanding of the agency’s mission, vision, goals, etc. In most cases, the core strategic planning team and the workforce planning team are not identical. However, some overlap of the two teams is logical as well as practical due to the similar high-level knowledge and understanding needs of each team. Each step of the workforce planning process may also call for additional workforce planning sub- teams. These sub-teams may include members with specific knowledge or skills like proficient operation of Microsoft Excel, knowledge of roles and responsibilities of various jobs, specific subject matter knowledge, or human resource strategy implementation to name a few. 360 Degree Competency Survey – Method for assessing current worker competencies that includes assessments by an employee’s supervisor(s), peers, subordinates, as well as a self-assessment by the employee. 81