Increasing the Effectiveness of Your Strategic Planning


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Increasing the Effectiveness of Your Strategic Planning

  1. 1. Increasing the Effectiveness of Your Strategic Planning Dr. Robert A. Sevier Senior Vice President Stamats, Inc. Cedar Rapids, IA 52406 (800) 553-8878 [email_address] Southern Polytechnic State University © 2005 Stamats, Inc. -
  2. 2. We are an award-winning, nationally-recognized higher education research, planning, and marketing communications company. Our mission is to help college and university leaders achieve their most important marketing, recruiting, and fundraising goals through the creation of customized integrated marketing solutions. <ul><li>Research, Planning, and Consulting Services </li></ul><ul><li>Image and competitive positioning studies </li></ul><ul><li>Tuition pricing elasticity studies </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni and donor studies </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing communication audits </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting audits </li></ul><ul><li>Campus visit audits </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated marketing plans </li></ul><ul><li>Brand clarification and communication plans </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting plans </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy development and strategic plans </li></ul><ul><li>Board presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Project-specific consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Services </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting and fundraising publications </li></ul><ul><li>Web site development </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual tours </li></ul><ul><li>Direct marketing strategies (search, annual fund) </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted e-mail marketing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Creative concepting </li></ul><ul><li>Content management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic news and events calendars </li></ul><ul><li>Message boards/chats </li></ul>About Stamats • Offices: Cambridge, Richmond, Portland (OR), San Francisco, and Cedar Rapids
  3. 3. Planning is the organization of hope. -Stephen Blum
  4. 4. Strategy Is all About Differentiating You From Your Competitors in Ways that Customers Value
  5. 5. Goals of this Presentation <ul><li>Give you a framework for strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly walk you through a workable, dexterous, strategic planning process </li></ul>
  6. 6. Q What is strategic planning?
  7. 7. Q Why do colleges/universities undertake strategic planning?
  8. 8. Q Why do so many strategic planning efforts (and the plans that result) seem to fail or fall short of expectations?
  9. 9. Why Strategic Plans (often) Fail <ul><li>The planning process was too complicated, took too long, and focused too squarely on processes and not on people </li></ul><ul><li>The need for planning was not widely felt on campus </li></ul><ul><li>The president did not aggressively, actively, and vocally support the planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Plan was too “pie in the sky” </li></ul><ul><li>Plan not based on a realistic situation analysis; not linked to mission and vision </li></ul><ul><li>Planning process too far removed from grassroots (not inclusive) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic plan competed with other plans for resources (not recognized as the alpha) </li></ul><ul><li>No link between plan and budget </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty and staff could not answer, “What’s in it for me?” </li></ul><ul><li>There were too many goals </li></ul><ul><li>Goals were unrealistic or not measurable </li></ul><ul><li>The day-to-day activities got in the way of implementing the plan </li></ul><ul><li>There is a dislike for making tough choices </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to hold people accountable </li></ul><ul><li>The plan did not capture the imagination of the campus </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Q What are the qualities and characteristics of a good strategic planning process (and plan)?
  11. 11. What Is Strategy? <ul><li>A careful plan or method : a clever stratagem b: the art of devising or employing plans or stratagems toward a goal </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy is using institutional resources (time, talent, and treasure) to achieve your vision (it is the “what”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan is the means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actions or activities are the “how” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You cannot have effective strategy without the larger “vision” in mind </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mission Vision Strategic Plan Where you come from Where you want to go How you get there
  13. 13. What Is Strategy? – continued <ul><li>In most cases, strategy is not about merely doing a better job at what you are doing; it is about differentiating yourself from competitors in ways that your target audiences value </li></ul><ul><li>A breakaway strategy is something your competitors cannot imagine doing that your marketplace values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, it is not doing a better job teaching; it is teaching in a new way  Colorado College’s block plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leapfrogging the competition </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Key Elements <ul><li>Is future oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks coherent, unified, and integrated decisions across multiple domains </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes the need to prioritize opportunities and options </li></ul><ul><li>Is perceived as a means of establishing an organization’s purpose in terms of its long-term objectives, action plans, and allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>The strategic allocation of resources—time, money, and talent—is the acid test of the organization’s strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>Aligns /builds/matches internal strengths with external opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to differentiate </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strategy Is all About Everybody Pulling in the Same Direction Academic Affairs Recruiting/Financial Aid Brand Marketing Advancement Finance Facilities & IT Student Development HR The Plan
  16. 16. Good to Great: First Who, Then What <ul><li>Get the right people on the bus and then decide where to drive it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First who, and then what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get the wrong people off the bus as quickly as you can </li></ul><ul><li>The planning team must contain people that are enthusiastically supportive of the vision </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategic Plans and Budgets <ul><li>Avoid developing a strategic plan you cannot budgetarily sustain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It does little good to create false hopes only to have them dashed under the harsh light of economic reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work within your existing budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our recommendation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate nonproductive areas to free up cash to support the plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not seek organization-wide cuts; this hurts everyone (the successful and those who are not) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund the initiatives that offer the best chance of success and the widest support on campus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is OK to seek outside funding for special initiatives once in a while but this should not be the main thrust of the plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is very difficult to build momentum when you continually need to look for dollars </li></ul></ul>Present Plan & Budget
  18. 18. To Build Accountability, You Must Provide Clear Objectives Resources Accountability Authority
  19. 19. It is less the plan and more the execution (Amar Bhide - Hustle as Strategy (HBR) Think Audaciously. Execute Steadily.
  20. 20. A Successful Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>Determines that the organization is ready </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Involves internal stakeholders—cultivates necessary political support </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes a realistic assessment of problems and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters effective decision making and explains the rationale for decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Is based on realistic budget assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Manages the process adroitly  Hits deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Builds in short-term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrates the process </li></ul>
  21. 21. When to Avoid Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning may not be the best first step for an organization that is on the verge of collapse  </li></ul><ul><li>If the organization lacks the skills or resources, or the commitment of key decision makers to carry through an effective strategic planning process and produce a good plan, the effort should not be undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>If there has been a recent planning process which was a disaster any attempt to undertake a new plan may be viewed skeptically </li></ul>
  22. 22. Strategic Planning Domains <ul><li>A strategic planning domain is a key institutional process or activity </li></ul><ul><li>Most strategic plans are executed, and visions achieved, through the careful orchestration of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting and financial aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancement and alumni relations (fundraising) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities and IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student development/retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand marketing and image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. A Culture of Engagement <ul><li>Help the campus, especially campus leaders, understand the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The model you are using </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify their role in the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think futuristically, globally, and participate in discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While their input is sought, care must be taken not to convey that they are in control of the outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build confidence in the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendable, inferential research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing communication about progress and successes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage expectations </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Engaging - continued <ul><li>Give the campus community access to the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and overt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify the role of campus members in building and executing the plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of the resources that are available to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in how faculty and staff are evaluated and rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outline reasonable outcomes for a successful process </li></ul>
  25. 25. Engaging - continued <ul><li>Begin with campus leadership, influencers, and standing committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the case for strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show likely and reasonable outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify their (leadership) role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spread ownership through aggressive data- and feeling-gathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use leadership to involve others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While you must be willing to work with everyone, don’t spend too much time trying to solicit support from people who don’t want to support the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather, work with the people who want to work with you and share the rewards </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Engaging - continued <ul><li>Show outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the plan’s activities move the needle? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat key research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the plan change the campus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not merely output, but outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the plan increase the flow of resources to the institution? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Strategic Planning Process (10 steps) <ul><li>Lay the foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm core values </li></ul><ul><li>Determine planning assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Complete situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and frame strategic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Present issues to campus community </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Write action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Review and adopt the strategic plan and budget </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and modify plan </li></ul>
  28. 28. Strategic Plan Outline <ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction by the board chair </li></ul><ul><li>Mission statement </li></ul><ul><li>Vision statement </li></ul><ul><li>Profile and history </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm core values </li></ul><ul><li>Present planning assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Outline strategic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul>
  29. 29. Lay the Foundation <ul><li>Understand your motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a consistent glossary of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint the strategic planning steering committee </li></ul>Lay Foundation
  30. 30. Appoint Steering Committee <ul><li>The strategic planning process is led by a strategic planning steering committee (SPSC) that must guide and champion the strategic planning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose and present a strategic planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify roles of other members of the campus community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In many cases, the members of the SPSC are the chairs of standing (existing) committees at the institution or the VPs (others are added as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>The committee members must interact with members of their constituency and ask and answer this question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What actions—through their respective domains—should be undertaken to advance these goals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members of the committee must represent the entire campus and not use the strategy planning process to push individual agenda items </li></ul>Lay Foundation
  31. 31. The Strategic Planning Steering Committee SPSC Academic Affairs Brand Marketing Advancement and Alumni Relations Recruiting and Financial Aid Facilities and IT Human Resources Finance Student Development/Retention
  32. 32. Affirm Core Values <ul><li>As you begin your planning process, you will need to affirm your core values and prepare a series of planning assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Core values are enduring beliefs which your institution—and the people who inhabit it—hold in common and endeavor to put into action </li></ul><ul><li>The values guide your institution’s faculty, staff, administrators, and to some degree students, in performing their work </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be relatively informal yet still enduring </li></ul><ul><li>Values lead individuals within organizations to believe that some goals or ends are more legitimate or correct and other goals are illegitimate or wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Core values expressed as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul>Core Values
  33. 33. William and Mary Will… <ul><li>Remain a small public university with undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs designed to preserve, transmit, and expand knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Blend the best features of an undergraduate college with those of a research university by continuing its tradition of excellence in undergraduate education and in selected graduate and professional programs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the scale necessary for close personal learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Foster integration of its instructional, research, and service programs </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize a broad liberal education for its undergraduate students </li></ul><ul><li>Our undergraduate program will remain predominantly residential </li></ul><ul><li>Foster intellectual and cultural diversity in an environment that enhances individual growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing its special responsibility to the citizens of Virginia, William and Mary will serve as a resource to the local, state, national, and global communities and enhance its own programs by interactions with these communities </li></ul><ul><li>Seek and allocate resources in a manner consistent with its commitment to quality and national and international stature in selected programs </li></ul>Core Values
  34. 34. Before we talk about direction, let’s spend a minute on mission and vision. Core Values
  35. 35. Q What is a mission statement? Why is it important? Core Values
  36. 36. Purpose of a Mission Statement <ul><li>A mission statement helps focus the organization on what’s truly important </li></ul><ul><li>A clear and widely-held mission can reduce the amount of unnecessary and often unhealthy conflict and delays by preventing people in the organization from developing competing missions or using resources (time, money, and talent) in ways that are contrary to the mission </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding your mission helps chart the future course of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>A mission can be a source of inspiration to key stakeholders, especially faculty, staff, and administrators </li></ul>Core Values
  37. 37. Core Values
  38. 38. Affirm Your Mission <ul><li>A mission statement should clarify your purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are we? What is our purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the basic needs we are trying to fill? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What excites us most about our mission? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What evidence do we have that our mission is still valued? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes us distinctive? </li></ul></ul>Core Values
  39. 39. Sample Mission Statements <ul><li>Mission statement—Mount Holyoke College </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Holyoke College reaffirms its commitment to educating a diverse community of women at the highest level of academic excellence and to fostering the alliance of liberal arts education with purposeful engagement in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission statement—Cuyamaca College </li></ul><ul><li>Cuyamaca College provides leadership for our community’s future through innovative experiences and environments for learning. </li></ul>Core Values
  40. 40. Q What is a vision statement? Why is it important? Core Values
  41. 41. Your Vision <ul><li>Have you ever tried to put together a jigsaw puzzle? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have, you know how useful the picture on top of the box is because it gives you a sense of what the puzzle should look like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without it, chances are it will take you much longer to complete the puzzle, if you complete it at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A well-crafted vision serves the same purpose as that picture on the top of the puzzle box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a guide, a sense of what you should look like; it is your future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The right vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracts commitment and energizes people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates meaning in the lives of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a standard for excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridges the present and the future </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Qualities of a Vision Statement <ul><li>John Kotter, in Leading Change, believes that a strong vision must not only motivate the individual, but the organization as well. To this end, he says that an effective vision must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginable : Conveys a picture of what the future will look like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable: Appeals to the long-term interests of employees, customers, and others who have a stake in the enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible: Comprises realistic, attainable goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused: Is clear enough to provide guidance in decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible: Is general enough to allow individual initiative and alternative responses in light of changing conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicable: Is easy to communicate; can be successfully explained within five minutes </li></ul></ul>Core Values
  43. 43. Affirm Your Vision <ul><li>Do the leaders, middle managers, staff, and faculty at the institution understand and agree on our vision and direction? </li></ul><ul><li>Has our vision been communicated throughout the organization? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What evidence do we have to support this conclusion? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does our vision inspire and motivate? </li></ul>Core Values
  44. 44. Sample Vision Statements <ul><li>Vision statement—The University of Missouri-Kansas City </li></ul><ul><li>UMKC will be a premier comprehensive urban university bettering people’s lives and tomorrow’s communities </li></ul><ul><li>Vision statement—Santa Clara University </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Clara University will excel in educating men and women for competence, conscience, and compassion. We will realize this vision by combining teaching and scholarship of high quality, integrated education in the Jesuit tradition, and a commitment to students as persons. Our success will result in increased national recognition and a greater ability to attract the students, faculty, staff, and resources we seek </li></ul><ul><li>Vision statement—The University of Northern Iowa </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Northern Iowa shall be a university community that nurtures an environment of intellectual vitality. A commitment to excellence, coupled with continuous improvement will result in UNI being recognized nationally as an innovative, dynamic, and exciting community in which to learn, teach, and work. UNI will be known for educational quality, a student-centered focus, scholarship, teacher-scholar faculty, and service beyond the campus </li></ul>Core Values
  45. 45. Determine Planning Assumptions <ul><li>Planning assumptions might include such things as anticipated budget increases, population trends, or insights into the job market </li></ul><ul><li>In a larger sense, planning assumptions help establish some reasonable boundaries for the balance of the planning process </li></ul>Planning Assumptions
  46. 46. Univ Montana Planning Assumptions <ul><li>Public concern about faculty workloads and the numbers of administrators and staff will not diminish significantly during the coming decade. As a result, the pressure to reduce administrative costs and re-invest the savings in the instructional sector will increase </li></ul><ul><li>Given public concerns about tuition, the University will have to find ways to increase nonresident tuition more rapidly than resident tuition. Nonresidents currently pay more than 100 percent of the cost of the education </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Montana will need to consider carefully whether or how to move toward a common tuition rate for all students regardless of residency </li></ul><ul><li>Cost containment has become an imperative we ignore only at our peril. Finding ways to reduce costs while maintaining quality and access presents the major challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology has become a necessity, and we will have to find ways to equip the faculty and staff while assuring student access. We must plan to expend roughly five to 10 percent of the total budget on information technology and infrastructure </li></ul>Planning Assumptions
  47. 47. Complete Situation Analysis <ul><li>A situation analysis is a systematic evaluation of your institution and its environment from a marketing perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the situation analysis is to help you determine, evaluate, and prioritize your institution’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths: Internal qualities upon which you can capitalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: Inherent flaws, something to be overcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities: Things in your environment of which you can take advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats: Dangers, things in your marketplace that could cause you problems </li></ul></ul>Something may be both a strength and weakness or opportunity and threat at the same time. Consider location, size, etc. Whether something is a strength, weakness, opportunity, or threat often depends on the perspective of the target audiences. Situation Analysis
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>Linkages and exchange relationships with key publics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for sponsorships and collaborations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the institution is perceived by external publics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local, regional, national, and even international demographic, economic, and employment trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions with which you compete for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Donated dollars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External communication strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul>External/Environmental Analysis: (Do this one first!) Situation Analysis
  49. 49. Internal/Institutional Analysis <ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of mission and vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Campus climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing planning documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting and fundraising programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How the institution is perceived by internal audiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product, price, place, and promotion (or customer, cost, convenience, and communication) strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities and physical plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal communication strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul></ul>Situation Analysis
  50. 50. An Alternative to SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Some believe that SWOTs are overly philosophical and a bit unwieldy </li></ul><ul><li>More institutions are identifying and then aligning problems and opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major problems (internal and external) facing the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major opportunities </li></ul></ul>Situation Analysis
  51. 51. <ul><li>Options for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alumni input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Input options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups and forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ads in student newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>Steering Committee Manages the SA Goal: As much input/ownership as possible. Situation Analysis
  52. 52. Sample Prioritized PO <ul><li>Liberal arts college in Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of college as a commodity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The demands of information technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dual commitment to quality and accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The liberal arts and sciences experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The XXYYZZ “experience” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our national reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Situation Analysis
  53. 53. Identify and Frame Strategic Issues <ul><li>Strategies issues are those prioritized problems and opportunities to which the institution must respond </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, strategic issues emerge from several or all of the strategic planning domains and must be in place before strategic goals and action plans can be created </li></ul><ul><li>A college president in the West defined a strategic issue a bit more personally when she noted that a strategic issue is something we need to respond to, something we can’t ignore </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, strategic issues are prioritized via a pay off matrix so you can most quickly focus on those goals which are of most interest to the institution </li></ul>Strategic Issues
  54. 54. Pay-off Matrix <ul><li>As you struggle with reviewing the range of possible strategic issues it is easy to get lost in the minutiae </li></ul><ul><li>Juran’s the “vital few and the trivial many” </li></ul><ul><li>Major in minor things </li></ul>Strategic Issues
  55. 55. Types of Strategic Issues <ul><li>Near-term issues that must be dealt with immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-term and longer-term issues that are well-defined but can be delayed </li></ul><ul><li>Issues that are unclear and must be monitored because their impact on the organization is suspected but the exact ramifications are unknown </li></ul>Strategic Issues
  56. 56. Role of the Steering Committee <ul><li>As the committee evaluates possible issues, its members should ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the core issue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it is important to address this issue now? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the issue central to our mandates, mission, and vision? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the issue emerge from our situation analysis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who says it is an issue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What stakeholders will be affected by it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if we ignore it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources will it take to address it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will this issue consume a disproportionate share of resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we “borrow” a solution from another college or university or must we “invent” one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will this issue affect our relationship with our primary competitors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will this issue affect our relationship with our primary collaborators? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we “collapse” this issue into another issue that has been posed? </li></ul></ul>Strategic Issues
  57. 57. Sample Strategic Issues <ul><li>A private college in the Northeast identified these strategic issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining enrollment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A burgeoning tuition discount rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new competitor undercuts your tuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A disaffected alumni group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A physical plant that is deeply in disrepair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A declining endowment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A community college in Oregon identified these issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing needs of adult learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increasingly diverse population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid technological change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The central role of staff and alignment of internal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizing learning opportunities within available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul>Strategic Issues
  58. 58. Present Issues to Campus Community <ul><li>Once the strategic issues have been identified, it is time to present them to the larger campus community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate buy-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you haven’t missed anything major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin formulating goals </li></ul></ul>Present Issues
  59. 59. Formulate Strategic Goals <ul><li>In most cases, goals emanate directly from the strategic issues (remember those domains?) </li></ul>Formulate Goals
  60. 60. Sample Goals – Univ of Georgia <ul><li>The University of Georgia established six strategic goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will strengthen its land-grant and sea-grant commitment to basic and applied scholarly inquiry and its application by providing support where it will be most valuable and by seeking new external funding opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will ensure that its curricula, degree requirements, and instructional methods are responsive to students’ educational objectives and reflect its land-grant and sea-grant mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will assure cultural diversity in its student body, faculty, and staff and sensitivity to cultural diversity in its programs, policies, and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will broaden the international perspective of its teaching, research, service, and co-curricular programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will expand its commitment to environmental programs and stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will take advantage of new technologies to improve the quality and reach of its academic, research, and service programs </li></ul></ul>Formulate Goals
  61. 61. Quantitative and Nonquantitative <ul><li>Sample goals: Increase the first year to second year retention rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As you can see, this goal has no baseline, no sense of how it will be measured, and no timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same goal, stated in a more quantifiable fashion might be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the first year to second year retention rate from 55 percent to 70 percent over a five year period: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year 1 58 Percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year 2 61 Percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year 3 64 Percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year 4 67 Percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year 5 70 Percent </li></ul></ul></ul>Formulate Goals
  62. 62. Goal Template <ul><li>Strategic goal #1: ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Possible consequences of failure to address the issue: _______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>How measure: ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Current status: ___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Status at end of Year 1: ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Year 2: ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Year 3: ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Year 4: ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Year 5: ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goal #2: … </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goal #3: … </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goal #4: … </li></ul>Formulate Goals
  63. 63. Write Action Plans <ul><li>Action plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An action plan outlines the activities that are designed to accomplish or help accomplish a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How they fit together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategic goal is the thing you want done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The action plan is how you accomplish the strategic goal </li></ul></ul>Action Plans
  64. 64. Guidelines for Writing Action Plans <ul><li>Don’t worry about wordsmithing </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the overall budget in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Develop activities that include the whole campus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the standing committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the VPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the strategic planning domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apportion activities and dollars per prioritized strategic goals </li></ul>Action Plans
  65. 65. <ul><li>Go for a fair amount of detail for year one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide detail for year two before the budget cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each action plan must support one or more goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex or deeply rooted problems or opportunities may require multiple action plans over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While writing action plans, keep in mind how they will be evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to sequence action plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule short-term wins early in the plan </li></ul></ul>Guidelines for Writing Action Plans - continued Action Plans
  66. 66. Strategic Action Plan Template <ul><li>Strategic goal to be supported: ______________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Description of action plan: __________________________________ _______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Begin date: ____________ End date: ____________ </li></ul><ul><li>Budget: _____________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for new dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reallocated from my budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reallocated from someone else’s budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Assigned to: _____________________ </li></ul>Action Plans
  67. 67. In-Depth Discussion/Role-Playing <ul><li>Let’s develop some action plans for the following strategic goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The College will assure quality academic programs that address the needs of learners of all ages and provide faculty and staff the support and professional development they require to meet those needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What actions come to mind? </li></ul>Action Plans
  68. 68. <ul><li>Ask key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you spending 80 percent of your time and resources on the most important activities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is every action plan clearly supporting a strategic goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the viability of each AP clearly borne out in the situation analysis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has enough time been allocated for each AP? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the budgeted dollars realistic? If not, costs will cartwheel out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are too few people doing too many things? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are first things being done first? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do what needs to be done now so that other things can be done later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are early APs primed for success? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adopt the plan and budget </li></ul>Review and Adopt the Strategic Plan/Budget Present Plan & Budget
  69. 69. Adopt the Plan <ul><li>Earlier, you presented the strategic issues to the campus community </li></ul><ul><li>Then, you returned to the community and asked their involvement in writing action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Now it is time to present the plan in its entirety for adoption by the campus community </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption should also include a review of how the plan will be implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the campus community is aware of plan successes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post accomplishments on the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul>Present Plan & Budget
  70. 70. Communication at Three Stages <ul><li>Smart strategic planners take advantage of every opportunity—and create new ones—to communicate both the components of the plan and its progress </li></ul><ul><li>It is especially important to communicate how the plan has brought more resources to the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally this communication must occur at three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the plan “kick off” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically (quarterly) throughout the plan’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the plan achieves short-term wins, intermediate goals, or evidences other indicators of success </li></ul></ul>Present Plan & Budget
  71. 71. Importance of Short-Term Wins <ul><li>Wins greatly help justify the short-term costs involved </li></ul><ul><li>After a lot of hard work, positive feedback builds morale and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Help fine-tune vision and strategies. Short-term wins give the guiding coalition concrete data on the viability of their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Undermine cynics and self-serving resisters. Clear improvements in performance make it difficult for people to block needed change </li></ul><ul><li>Provides those higher in the hierarchy with evidence that the transformation is on track </li></ul><ul><li>Build momentum: Turns neutrals into supporters, reluctant supporters into active helpers, etc. </li></ul>Present Plan & Budget
  72. 72. Evaluate and Modify Plan <ul><li>Strategic plans typically have a five-year scope </li></ul><ul><li>Action plans are written for first one to three years </li></ul><ul><li>As the plan unrolls, add and refine action plans for subsequent years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be willing to modify based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience gained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes highlighted by interim situation analyses (abbreviated SAs done periodically) </li></ul></ul></ul>Eval & Modify
  73. 73. Conclusion <ul><li>Rebecca Stafford in Sheep in Wolves’ Clothing, offers seven suggestions on how to make your planning process more successful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vision or mission statement should define precisely the principal business of the college or university </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An action strategy should be based on a thoughtful and credible assessment of the future environment for the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategic plan should build on the strengths of an institution and seek to eliminate weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategic goals should be few and quite specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan should contain new courses of action in priority order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategic plan should suggest areas where the university can trim expenses and which programs should be reduced or discontinued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strategic plan should always include estimates of the costs of the strategic initiatives </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Consistent Glossary of Terms <ul><li>See </li></ul>
  75. 75. Bibliography <ul><li>Bryson: Creating and Implementing Your Strategic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Collins: Good to Great </li></ul><ul><li>Dolence: Working Toward Strategic Change </li></ul><ul><li>Goodstein: Applied Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Harari: Leapfrogging the Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Kotter: Leading Change </li></ul><ul><li>Kouzes and Posner: The Leadership Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Lucas: Fatal Illusions </li></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg: Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Nanus: Visionary Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Porter: Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Senge: The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Sevier: Strategic Planning in Higher Education: Theory and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Sevier: Integrated Marketing Workbook </li></ul><ul><li>Sevier: Thinking Outside the Box </li></ul>