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  1. 1. PHILIP J. RUTLEDGE SEMINAR National Academy of Public Administration- Africa Working Group CONSTITUENCY FOR AFRICA’S 2008 RONALD H. BROWN AFRICAN AFFAIRS SERIES “ Leadership and Governance in Africa: Developing High Performing Public Administrators to Manage Economic Growth and Social Prosperity” 23 rd September, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Models for Conducting Senior Management Development Sessions in African Countries </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Blue Wooldridge Fellow, National Academy of Public Administration and Professor, The L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY Richmond, VA 23284-2028 [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.people.vcu.edu/~bwooldri </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Management training and development is an organized learning experience designed to enhance the ability of current or future managerial employees to achieve the desired levels of performance in specific jobs necessary in order for their organization to achieve its strategic mission (Wooldridge, 2004). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Strategic Contingency Approach to Management Education and Training </li></ul><ul><li>This approach suggests that the design of an effective educational/training experience to achieve the strategic mission of the client organization is a function of the learning objectives to be achieved and the learning styles of the student. (Wooldridge, 2004) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>STEPS IN THE STRATEGIC-CONTINGENCY APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the activities needed to achieve the Strategic Mission of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Through job analysis and competency modeling identify specific job performances necessary to carry out these activities </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Some excellent examples of the required competences of Senior-level Managers can be found in the UNDESA-IASIA publication </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence and leadership in the public sector: the role of education and training , </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenbaum, Allan & John-Mary Kauzya, Eds. (2007). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>STEPS IN THE STRATEGIC-CONTINGENCY APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>(CON’T) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the “performance gap” caused by a lack of competencies (See Mager & Pipe) </li></ul><ul><li>For those participants in #3, identify learner’s training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Identify “Participant Oriented Behavioral Learning Objectives” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sequence learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Groups learning objectives into useful categorizes </li></ul><ul><li>Paige and Martin (1983) have taken the instructional strategy/learning objective one step further. Many instructional strategies confront the trainee with possibilities of: (1) revealing things about themselves to others that they would prefer left unknown, and (2) the risk of failure. An issue facing the trainer is the degree to which he/she can properly sequence such instructional methods into the overall educational experience. The author's model for sequencing training activities lists six different and frequently used approaches; these are presented in a sequencing order according to: (1) the behavioral requirements of the activity, (2) the learning domain(s) of the activity, and (3) the degree of personal risk associated with the activity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Select appropriate learning strategies based on level and type of learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Modify learning strategies to respond to learning styles or take corrective action to lessen deficiencies in strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Implement learning strategies in an effective manner </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>EVALUATE RESULTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants’ reaction (happiness index) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants’ learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants change in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in organizational performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Benefit ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in the Quality of Life in community </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>If the Strategic-Contingency Model was applied to Senior-Level Managers in Africa today, I would suggest that some of the findings would suggest competencies are required in: </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the “New Governance” </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Management </li></ul><ul><li>Responding effectively to a diverse workforce and population </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating Social Equity </li></ul><ul><li>The Development of Junior Staff </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Development of Junior Staff </li></ul><ul><li>The UNDESA/IASIA Standards of Excellence states that </li></ul><ul><li>“ criteria for evaluating excellence in public administration education and training should facilitate public sector performance through providing the highest quality of public servants. Furthermore, at this historical junction, the Task Force believes that the purpose of public administration education and training is to provide public administrators with the competencies and capacities to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life, especially for the most economically, socially, and politically disadvantaged members of society.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Therefore, in addition to general management practices, the “ Standards” call for competencies in: </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of Public Sector Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>- Development of high performing organizations </li></ul><ul><li>- Management of networks and partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>- The delivery of public goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>- Management of projects and contracts </li></ul><ul><li>- Supporting workforce diversity </li></ul><ul><li>- Motivation and design of public sector </li></ul><ul><li>organizations </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Additional competencies are required in: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership in the Public Sector: </li></ul><ul><li>- Creative and innovative problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>- Leading institutional and organizational transformation </li></ul><ul><li>- Conflict prevention and resolution strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Promoting equity in service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>- Developing approaches to poverty alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>- Promoting democratic institutional development </li></ul><ul><li>- Public Sector Ethics </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>It will be the responsibility of Senior-Level Managers in Africa to ensure that their junior staff has these competencies. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Bertucci, Guido (2007). &quot;Strengthening Public Sector Capacity for Achieving Millennium Development Goals&quot; in A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training . New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration: pp.1-8. </li></ul><ul><li>Charih, Mohamed, Jacques Bourgault, Daniel Maltais, & Lucie Rouillard, (2007). &quot; The Management Competencies of Senior Managers: A Look at Some OECD Countries&quot; in A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training . New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration: pp.25-43. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenbaum, Allan & John-Mary Kauzya, Eds. (2007): Excellence and leadership in the public sector: the role of education and training . New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDESA/IASIA Standards of Excellence for Public Administration Education and Training http:// www.sspa.it/index.php?p =1533 </li></ul><ul><li>Wooldridge, Blue (2007): &quot;High performing schools and institutes of administration: the role of standards of excellence.&quot; in: A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training . New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration: pp.44-61 . </li></ul><ul><li>Wooldridge, B. (2004). Preparing public administrators for an era of globalization and decentralization: A strategic-contingency approach. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 70 (2), 385-403. </li></ul>

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