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Continuous Improvement & Planning EXSITE Tools Strategic Planning for Departments Facilities Management, IT, and Instituti...
Agenda for this session <ul><li>Continuous Improvement Planning update (information and expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Pl...
Outcomes <ul><li>Do the process (begin) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn where to go for resources (specifically, following instruc...
Strategic Planning for Departments/Units <ul><li>Components of your plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul></ul><ul...
Timeline for  Continuous Improvement Planning
Overview of EXSITE Tools <ul><li>UWS Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
IMPORTANT:  Each department is required to address in your planning: <ul><li>the  Liberal Arts Initiative </li></ul><ul><l...
Department Goals <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how your department can help achieve UWS Strategic Prio...
Example:  Facilities Planning <ul><li>Benchmark existing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessment relating to UWS str...
Checklist for Integrated Planning Has your department/unit: Yes No  Unsure <ul><li>Developed a mission statement? </li></u...
Quality at UW-Superior: A Liberal Arts Education   <ul><li>LEARNING OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cult...
Guidelines for Student Persistence <ul><li>What the Non-Academic Environment Can Do To Influence Student Persistence: </li...
What the University of Wisconsin-Superior Can Do to Improve the Relational Experience Management of Its Community: <ul><li...
Key Aspects to Developing a Sense of Community in Relational Experience Management <ul><li>What are you trying to do? </li...
The P-D-C-A cycle to help your department with strategic planning <ul><li>P lan :  Identify an opportunity and plan for ch...
P-D-C-A    ** Deming, W (1986) Out of Crisis.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Who are our stakeholders? Exercise —identify your stakeholders and their needs/expectations (10 minutes) <ul><li>Students ...
What do our stakeholders want? <ul><li>Education has become more experiential--Today's student wants a positively memorabl...
The Service Planning and Improvement Cycle Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012 Last updated: 23 May 200...
The Cycle of Service <ul><li>The best way of obtaining a better understanding of your stakeholders’ needs and expectations...
The RATER Model <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to perform the service dependably and accurately. </li></ul>...
Rater Process <ul><li>Exercise:  Use the following process and the RATER worksheet (handout and next slide) to evaluate yo...
RATER Worksheet Responsiveness Empathy Tangibles Assurance Reliability Barriers Rating/10 Stakeholder’s expectations Dimen...
RATER Worksheet
Obtaining Feedback from Stakeholders <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Written surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone su...
Glossary—Key Terms in Relational Experience Management: <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or groups who p...
Good luck with your plan! <ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
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Continuous Improvement

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  • This overview is designed for non-academic departments/units EXSITE ( Ex perience S uperior I n T his E nvironment) is a methodology used at UWS to focus on measuring community satisfaction in the University environment. In the past, universities traditionally concentrated on their academic and research programs as the focus for quality activities. Now, that focus is turning to the whole student experience, because it is recognized that students’ academic progress and general well-being is influenced by the full range of services provided by the university.
  • First and second bullet points—each campus unit will develop a strategic plan aligned with institutional themes and goals (2008-2009). Also, CIPT has developed templates and instructions to accomplish this task. This training is one of the modules that will be used in the process of getting all units involved in a timely fashion. What this training/information module provides is a step-by-step guide designed for group activity. Training modules will be revised to accommodate department/unit readiness and experience with planning Third and fourth bullet points involve walking the audience through these Web resources.
  • Exercises on succeeding slides will vary by module Emphasis on following instruction links within EXSITE Web pages. Review (since this is covered in general overview of strategic planning): Emphasis on learning what it means to do integrated planning (integrated=formed or united into a whole, in other words, each dept/unit plan MUST align with and be supportive of the overall UWS strategic plan) Each module will have 1-3 exercises for participants to do (or practice what they have learned) Modules will be built to meet time frame of no more than 2 hours
  • Samples of departments’ mission, vision statements and other pieces of existing plans are helpful here. (use handouts) Review (since this follows general overview of strategic planning): Describe or define each of these components using examples.
  • Illustration of timeline for strategic planning at UWS
  • Bullet #1: Follow links in order at CIPT EXSITE web site. Cover the specific goals for each item. http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/quality.cfm Bullet #2: Customer Experience Management is the process of managing the events and personal interactions that make up a customer’s experience. Bullet #3: Adding value to the student experience by intentionally crafting policies and practices that channel students’ energy to the activities that matter to student learning
  • An opportunity to emphasize the 7 strategic themes in the UWS plan and the need to support them (referred to as strategic priorities in some written material) Discuss ways in which departments, academic and non-academic, support these priorities—use examples and ask for feedback/ideas from group
  • This exercise will be optional (perhaps not included in the slide show) if department is not ready after examination of checklist and discussion with department/unit head Each module could use time for goal setting. This exercise is dependent upon department’s readiness.
  • Customization of modules—sample slide to guide discussion Topics as guides for facilities department/unit Remember: academic plan drives master plan
  • Sample of a slide appropriate to many different modules/levels of training Could be used in designing training prior to meeting with department (shared only with department head) or it could be asked during and after planning
  • Discuss Mission, Vision, Values Statement, and Strategic Themes as they relate to liberal arts education. Optional: Use handout of information from http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/quality.cfm--refer to handout of this page which is in binder (there is also one for student persistence)
  • IMPORTANT : Refer to DEEP practices (successful higher education institutions with regard to retention and graduation rates): http://nsse.iub.edu/institute/index.cfm?view=deep/briefs D ocumenting E ffective E ducational P ractice (if time, use link to show resources on this topic) Questions for us: 1. What is special or distinctive to our school? What is special to students? To faculty? To staff? 2. To what extent do the campus physical setting and facilities complement the espoused institutional mission and values? 3. What messages and values are conveyed by built structures? In institutional ceremonies and rituals, such as orientation? 4. What traditions reinforce messages about student success? What traditions need to be changed or eliminated to foster student success? 5. How do prospective students learn about what it takes for academic success? Are all students able to find one or more affinity groups to join? 6. What aspects of the campus can be made to be more distinctive to enrich a sense of place? 7. Are learning opportunities in nearby communities in plentiful supply and used by students?
  • How should our institution create its relationship and experiences -- ones that successfully increase enrollment, minimize transfers, attract desired faculty and students, increasing giving, and positions our institution to compete?  Creating and managing relational experiences can impact each of these areas as well as support the achievement of our unique vision and goals.  Several actions can support an institution’s desire to initiate Relational Experience Management.
  • For non-academic departments (introductory information for the PDCA) What are you trying to do?  What are your core objectives, what are the core objectives for your work team or unit, how are these planned and determined, what are the outcomes you wish to produce or attain?  Why are you trying to do it?   Why are these objectives and outcomes important, how do they fit into university, faculty, divisional or unit priorities, how do you decide which objectives and outcomes are a priority? How are you trying to do it?  What processes do you use to meet these objectives and outcomes, how does your normal pattern of work contribute to these objectives? Why are you doing it this way?  What makes you use the particular processes, what other processes or ways of working are possible, how could you work differently? How do you know it is working?  What information or data do you collect formally or informally to monitor this work, how do you systematically review the results or your work, how do you access external reference points including stakeholder feedback? How do you improve it?  How to you learn from the monitoring and review information you develop and turn that learning into action for improvement? How do you improve?  As well as improving organizational processes, how do you (for example as an individual or as a work team) learn and develop?
  • Each department and unit will develop a strategic plan aligned with the institutional themes and goals, complete with assessment and accountability measures, and annually report on its progress. University of Wisconsin-Superior is committed to continual improvement.  Continual improvement is an ongoing effort to improve our programs, services, and processes.  These efforts can seek &amp;quot;incremental&amp;quot; improvement over time or &amp;quot;breakthrough&amp;quot; improvement all at once. The Deming Cycle explicitly recognizes the cyclical nature of planning , implementation, performance assessment, review, revision and updating. Plan:  Identify an opportunity and plan for change. Plan : denotes formal planning at all levels including university level planning, faculty and divisional planning, school, departmental or unit planning, course of work team planning.  At the individual level it reflects the planning that people do either by project, or over time, including yearly or daily planning. Do:  Implement the change. Do :  Includes all the intentional activities that are undertaken to meet objectives, implement plans and produce outcomes. Check:  Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a difference. Checking includes two major aspects-monitoring and review.  Monitoring is a short and medium term activity mainly for developmental or formative purposes. It may use formal or informal methods and make use of existing data, or generate new data.  Action and monitoring usually develop together, informing each other, hand-in-hand.  Review is a longer term and more formal process that has both formative and summative purposes. Act:  If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess your results.  If the change did not work, begin the cycle again. Taking action identifies the process by which the results of evaluation-both monitoring and review-are fed back in order to generate improvement.  Often this cause modification to an existing plan or development or a new plan, and thus the cycle commences once more.
  • Emphasize the cyclic continuous nature of this planning process.
  • Identifying your stakeholders The table in the slide can be used to identify the different groups of stakeholders for whom you provide a service.  Start by identifying the key service(s) you provide, and then develop a profile of the stakeholders who use or benefit from that service.  Identify stakeholder sub-groups and answer these questions:   What characteristic does each group have in common? What needs and expectations does each group share with respect to your service? An important reason for regarding staff as stakeholders is that research shows a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and external stakeholder satisfaction.  That is, when staff receive high quality services from their own organization, they will be both enabled and motivated to deliver high quality service to their external stakeholders. Students There are many reasons why we need to understand and address the factors that contribute to student satisfaction: One of the principal reasons why universities exist is to educate students The competitive nature of higher education makes relational experience management a key point of competitive differentiation between universities There is a direct association between student satisfaction and retention.  One way to increase retention of students is to ensure they have an enriching experience The greater diversity of students now participating in higher education means greater diversity of expectations, which universities need to understand and address Stakeholder expectations are rising generally as people experiencing high levels of service in one area expect higher levels of service in others ‘ Word of mouth advertising’-both positive and negative-operates as actively in the higher education sector as it does anywhere else
  • &amp;quot;Stakeholders&amp;quot; (students, faculty, staff, alumni, parents, visitors) are the new &amp;quot;assets&amp;quot; of colleges and universities.   Preserving and developing these assets means not only meeting their needs, but exceeding their expectations.  Stewardship of these assets entails not only creating the ideal campus environment but also managing the relational experience. This relational experience can be formulaically viewed as the sum compilation of both academic and nonacademic activity (Exhibit I).  The academic side remains the primary reason for attending college and is central to a student&apos;s education as well as institutional program.  However, the nonacademic operations, historically thought of as &amp;quot;support&amp;quot;, is an equally crucial component in the creation of the learning and living environment.  Together, these functions define the relational experience.  The challenge for higher education, as for other industries, is to harness these functions and define, create, and manage the experience of its stakeholders.
  • Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012 Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by cheq@adm.monash.edu.au
  • Often the service you deliver can involve a series of steps for the stakeholder rather than a single transaction. Sometimes they will deal with a different person and a different kind of service at each of those steps. The experience of each staff member will be only of their part of the service delivery, but for your stakeholder, the series of steps adds up to one whole service experience. This means that you need to start identifying each point of contact your stakeholders have with you, where the stakeholder starts when they first contact you, and going through the whole ‘ service cycle’ until they consider the service they sought has been delivered. A key factor here is that the stakeholders’ view of this can be very different from yours! Hence when you plot a cycle of service, you must do it ‘from the outside in’ that is from the stakeholder’s view of their contact with you. You need to put aside your usual ‘inside out’ perspective, that is, all the behind the scenes work that you have to do to perform the service. While that side of it often represents the guts of the service as far as you are concerned, the stakeholder is simply not interested in it. Plotting a service cycle allows you to ensure that an external perspective is gained and that all possible forms of contact are considered. Some of these contact points may not seem terribly important to you but they may be crucial to the stakeholder. Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012 Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by cheq@adm.monash.edu.au
  • These five dimensions have been found to be relevant for universities.  The model is used by universities to identify and assess stakeholder expectations, to plan and improve services, and to measure stakeholder satisfaction. In examining your ability to deliver to your stakeholders’ expectations, you could ask questions such as these: Reliability Do you deliver the service you promised and what your stakeholders believed they were promised?  Do you do this every time and under all conditions?  Is your service timely, consistent, accurate, and dependable? Assurance Do your staff have the right knowledge and skills to deliver the service you promised?  Are they respectful of your stakeholders?  Do they convey trust and confidence? Tangibles Do your physical facilities, equipment, employees, and communication materials look attractive and appropriate? Empathy Do your staff provide caring, individualized attention to stakeholders, is it easy to access staff, services and information?  Is your communication with stakeholders clear, appropriate and timely?  Do you provide services that are appropriate to the individual needs of the stakeholder?  Do your staff demonstrate they understand the stakeholder’s needs and situation? Responsiveness Are you willing to help the stakeholder, provide prompt service, and resolve problems satisfactorily?
  • Access to the worksheet: http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/upload/Rater_Worksheet.pdf
  • Hand out hard copies Access to the worksheet: http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/upload/Rater_Worksheet.pdf Follow up with other methods of understanding stakeholder’s expectations. See http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/stakeholder_research.cfm Generally, focus groups or structured interviews are the most effective method for identifying what your stakeholders expect, because they allow you to probe further, to explore the reasons why stakeholders have particular preferences or needs, and to engage in two-way discussion.  There are a number of methods for measuring stakeholder satisfaction.
  • Service Quality Dimensions—definitions and what stakeholders/customers use for criteria.
  • Use examples of each method of gathering information from stakeholders.
  • End session with summary of EXSITE process and evaluate progress of group (have them self evaluate).
  • Time for questions and final wrap-up.
  • Transcript of "Continuous Improvement "

    1. 1. Continuous Improvement & Planning EXSITE Tools Strategic Planning for Departments Facilities Management, IT, and Institutional Research and Planning Departments March 17, 2009 Facilitator: Jim Antilla, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Agenda for this session <ul><li>Continuous Improvement Planning update (information and expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and reporting responsibilities of departments/units—learning and doing </li></ul><ul><li>Resources you need are at CIPT Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(process and instructions for Dept/Unit planning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visit EXSITE Web pages for specific information to help you with your department’s planning: </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outcomes <ul><li>Do the process (begin) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn where to go for resources (specifically, following instruction/guide links within EXSITE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to integrate planning </li></ul><ul><li>Make progress on your department’s plan </li></ul>
    4. 4. Strategic Planning for Departments/Units <ul><li>Components of your plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Themes (from UWS Strategic Priorities Document) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action plans or initiatives </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Timeline for Continuous Improvement Planning
    6. 6. Overview of EXSITE Tools <ul><li>UWS Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Strategic Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Experience Management </li></ul><ul><li>Relational Experience Management </li></ul>
    7. 7. IMPORTANT: Each department is required to address in your planning: <ul><li>the Liberal Arts Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Student Persistence (student retention) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: How does your department support these priorities? </li></ul><ul><li>Non-academic departments will determine ways in which they will help UWS achieve the other strategic themes (priorities) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Department Goals <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how your department can help achieve UWS Strategic Priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine other goals needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report back to main group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(20 minutes) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Example: Facilities Planning <ul><li>Benchmark existing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessment relating to UWS strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>Gap analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities repair, renovation, replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Prospective projects </li></ul><ul><li>Master plan </li></ul><ul><li>Development plan </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>Reference: SCUP II Training Presentation
    10. 10. Checklist for Integrated Planning Has your department/unit: Yes No Unsure <ul><li>Developed a mission statement? </li></ul><ul><li>Stated its core values? </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed constituents? </li></ul><ul><li>Established goals and strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>Developed objectives within an operational plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Documented and evaluated the process, the outcomes and the strategic plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Created and implemented a communications plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Continually monitored the implementation of the plan and ongoing planning? </li></ul>Source: SCUP II Training Manual
    11. 11. Quality at UW-Superior: A Liberal Arts Education <ul><li>LEARNING OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Natural and Physical World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual and Practical Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and Social Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrative Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to http://www.uwsuper.edu/cipt/exsite/quality.cfm </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Guidelines for Student Persistence <ul><li>What the Non-Academic Environment Can Do To Influence Student Persistence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The non-academic environment allows learning, teaching, living, and socializing to flourish.  Time spent outside the classroom is equally critical in ensuring a college or university’s competitive success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student housing preferences, campus appearance, technology, fitness and athletics opportunities, dining, and entertainment all make a difference. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. What the University of Wisconsin-Superior Can Do to Improve the Relational Experience Management of Its Community: <ul><li>Determine the touchpoints that affect our relational experience </li></ul><ul><li>Assess our current relational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Enrich the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate academic and nonacademic functions for a unified operation </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a relational experience management ethic and leadership training </li></ul><ul><li>* Adapted from: Customer Experience Management: Competing Successfully in Higher Education, prepared by ARAMARK Education November 2005 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Key Aspects to Developing a Sense of Community in Relational Experience Management <ul><li>What are you trying to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you trying to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you trying to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you doing it this way? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know it is working?  </li></ul><ul><li>How do you improve it? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you improve? </li></ul>
    15. 15. The P-D-C-A cycle to help your department with strategic planning <ul><li>P lan :  Identify an opportunity and plan for change. </li></ul><ul><li>D o :  Implement the change. </li></ul><ul><li>C heck :  Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a difference. </li></ul><ul><li>A ct :  If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess your results.  If the change did not work, begin the cycle again. </li></ul>
    16. 16. P-D-C-A    ** Deming, W (1986) Out of Crisis.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    17. 17. Who are our stakeholders? Exercise —identify your stakeholders and their needs/expectations (10 minutes) <ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni </li></ul><ul><li>External Community </li></ul>Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012  Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by [email_address] Needs and Expectations Stakeholder Subgroup Services
    18. 18. What do our stakeholders want? <ul><li>Education has become more experiential--Today's student wants a positively memorable experience! </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni want a sense of nostalgia and institutional pride. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents seek value for their tuition dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>All seek recognition and appreciation for their efforts. </li></ul>Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012  Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by [email_address]
    19. 19. The Service Planning and Improvement Cycle Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012 Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by cheq@adm.monash.edu.au
    20. 20. The Cycle of Service <ul><li>The best way of obtaining a better understanding of your stakeholders’ needs and expectations is to ask them. However, before you do this, it is useful to put some work into obtaining a view of your services from your stakeholders’ perspective. The Cycle of Service can be used to do this. </li></ul>Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012 Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by cheq@adm.monash.edu.au
    21. 21. The RATER Model <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to perform the service dependably and accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance Employees’ knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Tangibles Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Caring, individualized attention given to customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness Willingness to help stakeholders, provide prompt service and solve problems. </li></ul>  Adapted from 2004 Monash University ABN 12 377 614 012  Last updated: 23 May 2005 – Maintained by [email_address]
    22. 22. Rater Process <ul><li>Exercise: Use the following process and the RATER worksheet (handout and next slide) to evaluate your services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select one of your major stakeholder groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the key service(s) you provide for these stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the worksheet, evaluate the services you offer this stakeholder group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree on the actions needed to address the most significant barriers to service </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. RATER Worksheet Responsiveness Empathy Tangibles Assurance Reliability Barriers Rating/10 Stakeholder’s expectations Dimension
    24. 24. RATER Worksheet
    25. 25. Obtaining Feedback from Stakeholders <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Written surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews (walkup and planned) </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the stakeholders’ place </li></ul><ul><li>Employee feedback regarding stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries research </li></ul>
    26. 26. Glossary—Key Terms in Relational Experience Management: <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or groups who purchase, are provided with, or use, your products and services </li></ul><ul><li>End user stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>People who may benefit from or use the service you provide, although they may have no direct interaction with the service provider </li></ul><ul><li>External stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or organizations external to your organization receiving services or products from your organization </li></ul><ul><li>Internal stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or functional areas within your organization receiving services or products from another individual or functional area within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>People who negotiate services on behalf of their own end user stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Constituencies </li></ul><ul><li>People, organizations, agencies, bodies that have a 'stake' in your organization, or a clear interest in the outcomes of its activities.  They could be the community, employees, owners (government, taxpayers), suppliers, and of course stakeholders. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Good luck with your plan! <ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
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