CHAPTER 13 Strategy, Balanced Scorecard

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CHAPTER 13 Strategy, Balanced Scorecard

  1. 1. Strategy, Balanced Scorecard and Strategic Profitability Analysis
  2. 2. Strategy <ul><li>Strategy specifies how an organization matches its own capabilities with the opportunities in the marketplace to accomplish its objectives </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough understanding of the industry is critical to implementing a successful strategy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Five Aspects of Industry Analysis <ul><li>Number and strength of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Potential entrants to the market </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of equivalent products </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of input suppliers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Business Strategies <ul><li>Product Differentiation – an organization’s ability to offer products or services perceived by its customers to be superior and unique relative to the products or services of its competitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to brand loyalty and the willingness of customers to pay high prices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost Leadership – an organization’s ability to achieve lower costs relative to competitors through productivity and efficiency improvements, elimination of waste, and tight cost control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to lower selling prices </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Implementation of Strategy <ul><li>Many companies have introduced a Balanced Scorecard to manage the implementation of their strategies </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Balanced Scorecard <ul><li>The balanced scorecard translates an organization’s mission and strategy into a set of performance measures that provides the framework for implementing its strategy </li></ul><ul><li>It is called the balanced scorecard because it balances the use of financial and nonfinancial performance measures to evaluate performance </li></ul>
  7. 7. Balanced Scorecard Perspectives <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Business Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Growth </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Financial Perspective <ul><li>Evaluates the profitability of the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the most objective measures in the scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>The other three perspectives eventually feed back into this dimension </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Customer Perspective <ul><li>Identifies targeted customer and market segments and measures the company’s success in these segments </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Internal Business Prospective <ul><li>Focuses on internal operations that create value for customers that, in turn, furthers the financial perspective by increasing shareholder value </li></ul><ul><li>Includes three sub processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-sales service </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Learning & Growth Perspective <ul><li>Identifies the capabilities the organization must excel at to achieve superior internal processes that create value for customers and shareholders </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Balanced Scorecard Flowchart
  13. 13. Balanced Scorecard Illustrated
  14. 14. Strategy and the Balanced Scorecard, Illustrated
  15. 15. Common Balanced Scorecard Measures
  16. 16. Balanced Scorecard Implementation <ul><li>Must have commitment and leadership from top management </li></ul><ul><li>Must be communicated to all employees </li></ul>
  17. 17. Features of a Good Balanced Scorecard <ul><li>Tells the story of a firms strategy, articulating a sequence of cause-and-effect relationships: the links among the various perspectives that describe how strategy will be implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Helps communicate the strategy to all members of the organization by translating the strategy into a coherent and linked set of understandable and measurable operational targets </li></ul>
  18. 18. Features of a Good Balanced Scorecard <ul><li>Must motivate managers to take actions that eventually result in improvements in financial performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominately applies to for-profit entities, but has some application to not-for-profit entities as well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits the number of measures, identifying only the most critical ones </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights less-than-optimal tradeoffs that managers may make when they fail to consider operational and financial measures together </li></ul>
  19. 19. Balanced Scorecard Implementation Pitfalls <ul><li>Managers should not assume the cause-and-effect linkages are precise: they are merely hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should not seek improvements across all of the measures all of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should not use only objective measures: subjective measures are important as well </li></ul>
  20. 20. Balanced Scorecard Implementation Pitfalls <ul><li>Managers must include both costs and benefits of initiatives placed in the balanced scorecard: costs are often overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should not ignore nonfinancial measures when evaluating employees </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should not use too many measures </li></ul>
  21. 21. Evaluating Strategy <ul><li>Strategic Analysis of Operating Income – three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Component – measures the change in operating income attributable solely to the change in the quantity of output sold between the current and prior periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price-Recovery Component – measures the change in operating income attributable solely to changes in prices of inputs and outputs between the current and prior periods </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Evaluating Strategy <ul><li>Strategic Analysis of Operating Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity Component – measures the change in costs attributable to a change in the quantity of inputs between the current and prior periods </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Revenue Effect of Growth
  24. 24. Cost Effect of Growth for Variable Costs
  25. 25. Cost Effect of Growth for Fixed Costs <ul><li>Assuming Adequate Current Capacity: </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cost Effect of Growth for Fixed Costs <ul><li>Assuming Inadequate Current Capacity: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Revenue Effect of Price Recovery
  28. 28. Cost Effect of Price Recovery <ul><li>Variable Costs: </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cost Effect of Price Recovery <ul><li>Fixed Costs with Adequate Capacity </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cost Effect of Price Recovery <ul><li>Fixed Costs without Adequate Capacity </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cost Effect of Productivity for Variable Costs
  32. 32. Cost Effect of Productivity for Fixed Costs <ul><li>With Adequate Capacity </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cost Effect of Productivity for Fixed Costs <ul><li>Without Adequate Capacity </li></ul>
  34. 34. Strategic Analysis of Profitability Illustrated
  35. 35. The Management of Capacity <ul><li>Managers can reduce capacity-based fixed costs by measuring and managing unused capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Unused Capacity is the amount of productive capacity available over and above the productive capacity employed to meet consumer demand in the current period </li></ul>
  36. 36. Analysis of Unused Capacity <ul><li>Two Important Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineered Costs result from a cause-and-effect relationship between the cost driver and the resources used to produce that output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary Costs have two parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They arise from periodic (annual) decisions regarding the maximum amount to be incurred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have no measurable cause-and-effect relationship between output and resources used </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Differences Between Engineered and Discretionary Costs Illustrated
  38. 38. Differences Between Engineered and Discretionary Costs Illustrated
  39. 39. Managing Unused Capacity <ul><li>Downsizing (Rightsizing) is an integrated approach of configuring processes, products, and people to match costs to the activities that need to be performed to operate effectively and efficiently in the present and future </li></ul>

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