CH2

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CH2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 Leadership and the Strategic Management Process McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. The Strategy-Making, Strategy-Executing Process
  3. 3. Revised: Seven Tasks of Strategic management <ul><li>Mission/Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Goals/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>External Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Craft Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key Elements of a Strategic Vision <ul><li>Provides a panoramic view of “where we are going” </li></ul><ul><li>Is distinctive and specific to a particular organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids use of generic language that is dull and that could apply to most any company </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Strategic Vision vs. Mission <ul><li>A strategic vision concerns a firm’s future business path - “where we are going” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets to be pursued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future product/market/ customer/technology focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mission statement of a firm focuses on its present business purpose - “who we are and what we do” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current product and service offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer needs being served </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Crystallizes an organization’s long-term direction </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of rudderless decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a committed enterprise to make the vision a reality </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a beacon to keep strategy-related actions of all managers on common path </li></ul><ul><li>Helps an organization prepare for the future </li></ul>Payoffs of a Clear Strategic Vision
  7. 7. Characteristics of Effectively Worded Vision Statements <ul><li>Graphic —Paints a picture of the kind of company that management is trying to create </li></ul><ul><li>Directional —Is forward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Focused —Is specific enough to provide guidance in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible —Is not so focused that it makes it difficult to adjust to change </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Effectively Worded Vision Statements <ul><li>Feasible —Is within the real of what is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable —Indicates why the directional path makes sense </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to Communicate —Can be explained in simple terms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example of a Strategic Vision Provide a global trading platform where practically anyone can trade practically anything.
  10. 10. Example of a Mission Statement To give our customers the best food and beverage values that they can find anywhere and to provide them with the information required for informed buying decisions. We provide these with a dedication to the highest quality of customer satisfaction delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, fun, individual pride, and company spirit.
  11. 11. Setting Objectives <ul><li>Purpose of setting objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts vision into specific performance targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates yardsticks to track performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-stated objectives are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantifiable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain a deadline for achievement </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Achieving good financial performance is not enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current financial results are “lagging indicators” reflecting results of past decisions and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good strategic performance is thus a “leading indicator” of a company’s capability to deliver improved future financial performance </li></ul></ul>The Need for a Balanced Scorecard
  13. 13. Balanced Scorecard Objectives <ul><li>Financial Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes focused on improving Financial Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Value creation </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Value creating processes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning organizational, information, and human capital with strategy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of Financial Objectives <ul><li>X % increase in annual revenues </li></ul><ul><li>X % increase annually in after-tax profits </li></ul><ul><li>Profit margins of X % </li></ul><ul><li>X % return on capital employed (ROCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient internal cash flows to fund 100% of new capital investment </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winning an X % market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving a customer retention rate of X % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire X number of new customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce product defects to X % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of X number of new products in the next three years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning and Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase employee training to X hours/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce turnover to X % per year </li></ul></ul>Examples of Strategic Objectives
  16. 16. Short-Term vs. Long-Term Objectives <ul><li>Short-term objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets to be achieved soon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones or stair steps for reaching long-range performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets to be achieved within 3 to 5 years </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Objectives Are Needed at All Levels <ul><li>1. First, set business-level objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2. Next, establish functional-area objectives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Then, operating-level objectives are established last </li></ul>
  18. 18. Crafting a Strategy Strategy Making Hierarchy for a Single Business Company
  19. 19. Levels of Strategy-Making in a Diversified Company Corporate Strategy Business Strateg i es Functional Strategies Two-Way Influence Corporate-Level Managers Business-Level Managers Functional Managers Two-Way Influence
  20. 20. Levels of Strategy-Making in a Single-Business Company Business Strategy Functional Strategies Business-Level Managers Functional Managers Two-Way Influence
  21. 21. Uniting the Company’s Strategy-Making Effort <ul><li>A firm’s strategy is a collection of initiatives undertaken by managers at all levels in the organizational hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of strategy should fit together like the pieces of a puzzle </li></ul>

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