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Competing For Advantage Part I – Strategic Thinking Chapter 1 – Introduction to Strategic Management
The Competitive Landscape - An Illustration <ul><li>U.S. Automobile Industry Conditions in 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc...
Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization  – increased economic interd...
Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Reduced restraints on business transactions across national boundaries (su...
Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Hypercompetition resulting from the dynamics of strategic maneuvering amon...
Technological Advances <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Flexibility  – set of capabilities used to respon...
<ul><li>Increasing rate of technological change and diffusion, and increasing speed at which technologies become available...
Changes in the Competitive Landscape
Changes in the Competitive Landscape <ul><ul><li>Quick competitive information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter pr...
Sources of Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Speed to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and use of information </li...
Disruptive Technologies <ul><li>Value of existing technologies is destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Creative destruction process...
Early Influences on the Strategy Concept <ul><li>Key Terms  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency Theory  – the idea that agency pr...
Foundational Concepts <ul><ul><li>The need to establish goals, formulate strategies to achieve them, and set implementatio...
Foundational Concepts (cont.) <ul><ul><li>The idea that political strategies should be used in addition to rational-deduct...
Modern Strategic Management <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic Perspective  – the argument that a firm ...
Three Perspectives on Value Creation <ul><li>Industrial/Organization (I/O) Economic Model </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-Based...
The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Basic Premise of the I/O Model   – to explain  th...
The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Underlying Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That...
The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Underlying Assumptions (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul>...
The Industrial/ Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns
The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Michael Porter’s Five-Forces Model </li></ul><ul>...
The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only two strate...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive Competencies  – attr...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Key Terms (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Competencies  – a f...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Basic Premise of the Resource-Based Model   – to  propose that a...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Three Categories of Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Types of resources that become a competitive advantage </li></ul...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Two types of core competencies  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage...
The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns
The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholde...
The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance <ul><li>Basic Premise of the Stakeholder Model   –...
The Three Stakeholder Groups
Secondary Stakeholders <ul><ul><li>Government entities and administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists and advocac...
The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance
Ways Stakeholder Relationships Contribute to Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Timely and high quality strategic intellige...
Ways Stakeholder Relationships Contribute to Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Transactions costs associated with making a...
Strategic Thinking and the Strategic Management Process <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Management Proce...
Strategic Thinking <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Intent  – organizational term used for a vision that ...
Strategic Thinking <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability  – capacity for a set of resources to perform a task...
Effective Formation of Strategic Intent <ul><ul><li>When all levels of a firm are committed to the pursuit of specific, si...
Elements of Strategic Thinking <ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of unanticipated opportunities as they arise </li></ul></ul><ul...
Encouraging Strategic Thinking <ul><ul><li>Employ top managers who are champions of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put ...
The Strategic Management Process
Ethical Questions What is the relationship between ethics and the firm’s stakeholders? For example, from an ethical perspe...
Ethical Questions Do firms face ethical challenges—perhaps even ethical dilemmas—when trying to satisfy both short-term an...
Ethical Questions What types of ethical issues and challenges do firms encounter when competing internationally?
Ethical Questions What ethical responsibilities does the firm have when it earns above-average returns? Who should make de...
Ethical Questions How should ethical considerations be included in analyses of the firm’s external environment and interna...
Ethical Questions What should top-level managers do to ensure that a firm’s strategic management process leads to outcomes...
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  • The Competitive Landscape - A discussion of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate the impact that environmental influences, particularly global forces and rapid changes in technology, have on the success of businesses today. What conditions in the automobile industry impacted the success of U.S. automakers in the 1970s? Increases in gas prices created demand for smaller, more efficient automobiles in the U.S. The quality of Japanese-made vehicles dramatically increased Why did these trends have such a negative effect on U.S. automakers? They were slow to respond to global forces and to adopt a global mindset. They were unable to effectively compete against new entrants in the large U.S. market. They failed to make the necessary technological changes needed to stay competitive.
  • Globalization of Markets and Industries - Changes in the nature of competition have resulted from a continued increase in the globalization of world markets and the way that globalization has led to a hypercompetitive environment for businesses today.
  • The global economy has significantly expanded and complicated the competitive environment for companies. (Slides 4 and 5 outline some of the ways in which the global economy has done this.)
  • (Continued from slide 4.)
  • Technological Advances - Three major technological trends have significantly altered the nature of competition: Competitive advantage can no longer be achieved through traditional forms of competition (like economies of scale and advertising) Strategic Flexibility involves coping with uncertainty and the accompanying risks Organizational slack, strategic reorientation, and the capacity to learn lead to strategic flexibility (More detail on Strategic Flexibility is covered in Chapter 13.)
  • Three types of technological trends have impacted competition in today&apos;s business environment. Illustrations of each: Increased rate - Rapid introduction of Internet access into American homes compared to the time it took to introduce televisions or telephones into homes a few decades ago Information technology – Examples include personal computers, cell phones, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and massive databases Knowledge intensity - Information, intelligence, and expertise are being acknowledged as corporate assets (Technological trends are discussed more fully in Chapter 6.)
  • Hypercompetition results from the dynamics of strategic maneuvering among global and innovative combatants. It is a condition of rapidly escalating competition based on price-quality positioning, competition to create new know-how and establish first-mover advantage, and competition to protect or invade established product or geographic markets. In a hypercompetitive market, firms often aggressively challenge their competitors in the hopes of improving their competitive position and ultimately their performance.
  • How have these trends affected today&apos;s business environment? It is important for firms to quickly gather information about their competitors&apos; research and development and subsequent product decisions Product life cycles are shorter Products can become somewhat indistinguishable New technologies are rapidly replacing existing technologies Access to significant quantities of relatively inexpensive information is now possible The pervasive influence of electronic-business models is creating a new business culture Continuous learning is necessary to provide businesses with the skills needed to adapt to changes in the environment
  • New sources of competitive advantage have resulted from these technological and global trends: Speed to market The ability to effectively and efficiently access and use information The ability to capture intelligence, transform it into usable knowledge, and diffuse it rapidly throughout the company Innovation Effective integration of new conditions into the mindset of an organization Meeting and exceeding global standards Strategic flexibility
  • Developing &amp;quot;disruptive technologies&amp;quot; has an impact on the marketplace: This type of innovation destroys the value of existing technologies This creative destruction process replaces existing technologies with new ones to create new markets
  • The Emergence of Strategic Management as a Business Discipline – A brief history of the field of strategic management, which serves as a conceptual foundation for strategic management concepts throughout the text Early Influences on the Strategy Concept – The strategy concept evolved from the study of business policy, which was an integrated, multifunctional approach to address management challenges emerging from the increasingly complex and turbulent external environment facing businesses
  • A variety of concepts emerged from earlier study of business policy and changes in the external environment to build a foundation for strategic management philosophy. These are outlined on slides 13 and 14.)
  • A variety of concepts emerged from earlier study of business policy and changes in the external environment to build a foundation for strategic management philosophy. (These are outlined on slides 13 and 14.)
  • Three Perspectives on Value Creation - Three strategic management models are used to organize the critical concepts and activities central to the strategic management process and to creating value (or above-average returns) for the firm.
  • The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns - This model for strategy development predicts value creation when strategy selection is dictated by the characteristics of the general, industry, and competitive environments. Four underlying assumptions to the model are identified and the Porter&apos;s Five-Forces Model is introduced. (Industry characteristics further developed in Chapter 3.)
  • There are four underlying assumptions to the I/O model. They are presented on slides 18 and 19. (See Additional Notes at the end of the slide 19.)
  • There are four underlying assumptions to the I/O model. They are presented on slides 18 and 19. Additional Discussion Notes for the I/O Model - These notes include additional materials that cover the assumptions underlying the model. Two examples of the McDonald’s and Starbucks organizations and their strategies are provided to illustrate the model. Four Assumptions of the I/O Model Both Crock and Schultz identified the strategy that allowed their companies to achieve high profits—McDonald’s through the “assembly line” of its burgers and Starbucks with product marketing that created ambiance and consistency, value perception that allowed it to charge higher premiums for its coffee. Both McDonald’s and Starbucks then spent time and capital to acquire and develop the skills needed to implement the business strategy. Crock became a business partner of the McDonald brothers and sold franchise agreements for them. Schultz took a position in the marketing department of Starbucks. Each later purchased the firm and used what they had learned to rapidly expand the company. Crock was able to use quality, consistency, rapid assembly system, and drive-thru concepts of McDonald’s to continue to realize high profits. Schultz was able to use the Starbucks image, ambiance concept, and marketing strengths to rapidly expand. One interesting note: Initially, Schultz started a Seattle coffeehouse chain (Il Giorande) that competed with Starbucks. His marketing manager was so adamant that Starbucks was a better concept capable of “going global” that Schultz sold his original coffeehouse chain and purchased Starbucks. I/O Model: McDonald’s and Starbucks Respectively, in both cases the CEOs Ray Crock and Howard Schultz were examining the industry in which they worked. Crock was a sales rep for a firm that built malted milkshake machines. Schultz was a sales rep for a company that made home espresso machine accessories. Both noticed that one particular customer was purchasing a large volume of these machines. They made trips to the locations of these stores and noticed that each was in an emerging industry that had high-growth potential and higher-than-average profit margins. McDonald’s is in fast-food and drive-thru restaurants, and Starbucks is in specialty coffee retail.
  • The I/O model suggests that above-average returns are earned when firms implement the strategy dictated by the characteristics of the general, industry, and competitor environments. Companies that develop or acquire the internal skills needed to implement strategies required by the external environment are likely to succeed, while those that do not are likely to fail. Hence, this model suggests that external characteristics rather than the firm’s unique internal resources and capabilities primarily determine returns. Research findings support the I/O model. They show that approximately 20 percent of a firm’s profitability is determined by the industry or industries in which it chooses to operate. This research also shows, however, that 36 percent of the variance in profitability could be attributed to the firm’s characteristics and actions. The results of the research suggest that both the environment and the firm’s characteristics play a role in determining the firm’s profitability. Thus, there is likely a reciprocal relationship between the environment and the firm’s strategy that affects the firm’s performance. As the research suggests, successful competition mandates that a firm build a unique set of resources and capabilities within the industry or industries in which the firm competes. Study the external environment, especially the industry environment. Economies of scale Barriers to entry Diversification Product differentiation Degree of concentration in the industry Locate an attractive industry with a high potential for above-average returns. One whose characteristics suggest above-average returns Identify the strategy called for by the attractive industry to earn above-average returns. Strategy formulation: selection of a strategy linked with above-average returns in a particular industry Develop or acquire assets and skills needed to implement the strategy. Assets and skills: those assets and skills required to implement chosen strategy Use the firm’s strengths (its developed or acquired assets and skills) to implement the strategy. Strategy implementation: select strategic actions linked with effective implementation of the chosen strategy. Result - Superior returns: earning of above-average returns.
  • Michael Porter’s Five-Forces Model makes four contributions to the I/O Model: It reinforces the importance of economic theory It offers an analytical approach that was previously lacking in the field of strategy It describes the forces that determine the nature/level of competition and profit potential in an industry It suggests how an organization can use the analysis to establish a competitive advantage
  • There are two major limitations to the I/O Model: At its basic level, the model only suggests two strategies for establishing a defensible competitive position (cost-leadership and differentiation). The model does not address the need to develop or acquire unique internal resources and capabilities to aid in success. Research shows that both the environment and internal conditions play a role in determining a firm&apos;s profitability.
  • The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns – This model for strategy development predicts value creation when strategy selection is dictated by the firm&apos;s unique collection of resources and capabilities, rather than by the structural characteristics of the industry in which it competes. (More details on resources are covered in Chapter 4.)
  • The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns – This model for strategy development predicts value creation when strategy selection is dictated by the firm&apos;s unique collection of resources and capabilities, rather than by the structural characteristics of the industry in which it competes. (More details on resources are covered in Chapter 4.) Core competencies are the basis for a firm’s competitive advantage, its value creation, and its ability to earn above-average returns.
  • Three categories of resources are identified in the Resource-Based Model: Physical Human Organizational capital
  • Not all of a firm&apos;s resources and capabilities have the potential to be a competitive advantage. There are four criteria that determine which resources and capabilities can realize this potential: Valuable – allow the firm to exploit opportunities or neutralize threats in its external environment Rare – possessed by few, if any, current and potential competitors Costly to imitate – when other firms cannot obtain them or must obtain them at a much higher cost Nonsubstitutable – when the firm is organized appropriately to obtain the full benefits of the resources in order to realize a competitive advantage (See Additional Notes at the bottom of Slide 19 notes.)
  • Managerial competencies are important in most firms. For example, they have been shown to be critically important to successful entry into foreign markets. Such competencies may include the capability to effectively organize and govern complex and diverse operations and the capability to create and communicate a strategic vision. Managerial capabilities are important in a firm’s ability to take advantage of its resources. For example, the Palo Alto Research Center developed by Xerox in the 1970s was the birthplace of the personal computer (PC), the laser printer, and the Ethernet, all technologies subsequently exploited by other firms. Because Xerox managers did not foresee the value-creating potential of these technologies, they did not make efforts to commercially exploit them. The effects of this lack of foresight are suggested by the fact that the Hewlett-Packard division that makes and sells laser printers has more total revenue than all of Xerox. Product-related competencies can also be important, such as a firm’s capability to develop innovative new products and to reengineer existing products to satisfy changing consumer tastes. Firms must also continuously develop their competencies to keep them up-to-date. This development requires a systematic program for updating old skills and introducing new ones. Such programs are especially important in rapidly changing environments, such as those that exist in high-technology industries. Thus, the resource-based model suggests that core competencies are the basis for a firm’s competitive advantage and its ability to earn above-average returns.
  • Figure 1.3 shows the resource-based model of superior returns. Instead of focusing on the accumulation of resources necessary to successfully use the strategy dictated by conditions and constraints in the external environment (I/O model), the resource-based view suggests that a firm’s unique resources and capabilities provide the basis for a strategy. The strategy chosen should allow the firm to effectively use its competitive advantages to exploit opportunities in its external environment. Identify the firm’s resources – strengths and weaknesses compared with competitors. Resources: inputs into a firm’s production process Determine the firm’s capabilities – what it can do better than its competitors. Capability: capacity of an integrated set of resources to integratively perform task or activity Determine the potential of the firm’s resources and capabilities in terms of a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage: ability of a firm to outperform its rivals Locate an attractive industry. Attractive industry: an industry with opportunities that can be exploited by the firm’s resources and capabilities Select a strategy that best allows the firm to utilize its resources and capabilities relative to opportunities in the external environment. Strategy formulation and implementation: strategic actions taken to earn above-average returns Results – Superior returns: earning of above-average returns. Additional Discussion Notes for the Resource-Based Model - These notes include additional material that discusses two axiomatic assumptions. First, resources are distributed heterogeneously across firms, and second, these resources cannot be transferred between firms without cost. Research references are included and extensive discussion here may help you present this concept. There is also discussion regarding “inventions” as an example of resources that are valuable, rare, hard to imitate, and not substitutable. Resource-based model: Patents and Inventions Resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is hedged on two axiomatic assumptions. First, resources are distributed heterogeneously across firms, and second, these resources cannot be transferred between firms without cost. These axioms lend themselves to two additional tenets (cf., Barney, 1991): (a) Resources that simultaneously enhance a firm’s market effectiveness (valuable) and are not widely dispersed (rare) can produce competitive advantage; and (b) when such resources are concurrently expensive to imitate (inimitable) and costly to substitute (nonsubstitutable), the competitive advantage is sustainable. Thus, both value and rarity are necessary before inimitability and nonsubstitutability might yield a sustainable competitive advantage (Priem &amp; Butler, 2001). Despite its face validity and rapid diffusion throughout the management literature, there have only been limited empirical tests of RBV’s tenets (cf., Priem &amp; Butler, 2001). To echo Miller and Shamsie (1996, p. 519), “the concept of resources remains an amorphous one that is rarely operationally defined or tested for its performance implications in different competitive environments.” Many managers use RBV’s terms with little specificity or attention to causal relationships. Researchers have identified several types of valuable and rare resources that could generate rents. Some examples include information technology (Powell, 1997), strategic planning (Powell, 1992), organizational alignment (Powell, 1992a), human resources management (Lado &amp; Wilson, 1994; Wright &amp; McMahan, 1992), trust (Barney &amp; Hansen, 1994), organizational culture (Oliver, 1997), administrative skills (Powell, 1993), expertise of top management (Castanias &amp; Helfat, 1991), and even Guanxicomplex networks (Tsang, 1998). The degree to which RBV is likely to help managers depends on the extent to which it can be used to achieve competitive advantage. Hence, recently, Markman and his colleagues have attempted to clarify three basic questions: (1) Can a single resource be simultaneously valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable? (2) Can an inimitable and nonsubstitutable resource be measured? And (3) To what extent is an inimitable and nonsubstitutable resource associated with competitive advantage? Using five-year data from 85 large, publicly traded pharmaceutical companies, Markman and his colleagues advance the view that a single resource-patented invention could qualify as simultaneously valuable, rare, hard to imitate, and difficult to substitute. In other words, the answer to the first question is yes; some patents are valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable resources. The answers to the second and third questions are “yes” as well. That is, controlling for assets, sales, and investment in R&amp;D, they found that a patent’s quality and scope are significantly related to competitive advantage as captured by new products and, to some extent, to profitability. Four Attributes of Resources and Capabilities (Competitive Advantage) Despite these findings and the intuitive appeal of RBV, challenges remain. Priem and Butler (2001) noted that a resource that is valuable, rare, hard to imitate, and not substitutable is also difficult to assess, manipulate, or deploy, and therefore difficult to exploit. Their analytical assessment spurred an important debate regarding RBV’s practical utility. For example, tacit knowledge, organizational learning, workflow, time, interorganizational ties, communications, and human interactions might be seen as hard to imitate and nonsubstitutable resources, but such resources are neither necessarily rare nor inevitably valuable. Thus, while many “things” might be classified as resources, intangibles are less amenable to managerial manipulation, rendering their associations with competitive advantage tenuous. For example, tacit knowledge is frequently conceptualized as a source of competitive advantage, yet we don’t know how (and at what rate) managers create and use that which is inherently unknowable. Personnel, machinery, land, technical procedures, and financial capital are relatively easy to quantify resources. Brand names, however, and organizational knowledge, learning, and culture are extremely difficult to craft, use, measure, and manage. In sum, the practical utility of RBV to managers remains weak as long as we fail to explicitly parameterize and measure the extent to which certain resources are valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable.
  • The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance - This model is a framework, based on both moral and economic foundations, for understanding how firms can simultaneously manage relationships with internal and external stakeholders to create and sustain competitive advantage.
  • There are three stakeholder groups of primary interests to a firm: Capital Market Stakeholders – major suppliers of capital Banks Private Lenders Venture Capitalists Product Market Stakeholders Primary customers Suppliers Host Communities Unions Organizational Stakeholders Employees Managers Nonmanagers
  • There is a second tier of stakeholders (secondary to primary stakeholder groups) that should not be ignored.
  • Research supports the idea that firms that effectively manage stakeholder relationships outperform those that do not. This research implies that stakeholder relationships can be managed in such a way as to create competitive advantage (see Figure 1.5). The firm: Must maintain performance at an adequate level to retain the participation of key stakeholders Must determine how to divide the returns to keep stakeholders involved Must determine how to increase returns so everyone has more to share
  • Stakeholder relationships based on trust and mutual satisfaction of goals contribute to building a competitive advantage and improved business performance. Competitive advantage may come from a variety of sources. A firm that has excellent stakeholder relationships based on trust and mutual satisfaction of goals is more likely to obtain knowledge from them that can be used to make better strategic decisions. A firm’s ability to create value and earn high returns is compromised when strategic leaders fail to respond appropriately and quickly to changes in the complex global competitive environment. Also, strategic intelligence , the information firms collect from their network of stakeholders, can be used to help a firm deal with diverse and cognitively complex competitive situations. Evidence suggests that trust can be a source of competitive advantage, thereby supporting an organizational commitment to treat stakeholders fairly and with respect. Firms with trustworthy reputations draw customers, suppliers, and business partners to them. This can enhance firm performance by increasing the number of attractive business transactions from which a firm can select. Consequently, the firm may find it easier to acquire or develop competitive resources. For instance, investors may be more likely to buy shares in a company with a trustworthy reputation. In addition, workers may be attracted to employers who are known to treat their employees well. In addition to the resource advantages, the transaction costs associated with making and enforcing agreements are reduced because there is less need for elaborate contractual safeguards and contingencies. Of course, excellent stakeholder relationships also can enhance implementation of strategies because people are more committed to a course of action when they believe they have had some influence on the decision to pursue it, even if it is not exactly what they wanted the firm to do. Responsible behavior with regard to stakeholders such as government regulators, consumers, and employees can lead to intangible assets that buffer and protect a firm from negative actions such as adverse regulation, legal suits and penalties, consumer retaliation, strikes, walkouts, and bad press.
  • Stakeholder relationships based on trust and mutual satisfaction of goals contribute to building a competitive advantage and improved business performance. Competitive advantage may come from a variety of sources. A firm that has excellent stakeholder relationships based on trust and mutual satisfaction of goals is more likely to obtain knowledge from them that can be used to make better strategic decisions. A firm’s ability to create value and earn high returns is compromised when strategic leaders fail to respond appropriately and quickly to changes in the complex global competitive environment. Also, strategic intelligence, the information firms collect from their network of stakeholders, can be used to help a firm deal with diverse and cognitively complex competitive situations. Evidence suggests that trust can be a source of competitive advantage, thereby supporting an organizational commitment to treat stakeholders fairly and with respect. Firms with trustworthy reputations draw customers, suppliers, and business partners to them. This can enhance firm performance by increasing the number of attractive business transactions from which a firm can select. Consequently, the firm may find it easier to acquire or develop competitive resources. For instance, investors may be more likely to buy shares in a company with a trustworthy reputation. In addition, workers may be attracted to employers who are known to treat their employees well. In addition to the resource advantages, the transaction costs associated with making and enforcing agreements are reduced because there is less need for elaborate contractual safeguards and contingencies. Of course, excellent stakeholder relationships also can enhance implementation of strategies because people are more committed to a course of action when they believe they have had some influence on the decision to pursue it, even if it is not exactly what they wanted the firm to do. Responsible behavior with regard to stakeholders such as government regulators, consumers, and employees can lead to intangible assets that buffer and protect a firm from negative actions such as adverse regulation, legal suits and penalties, consumer retaliation, strikes, walkouts, and bad press.
  • Strategic Thinking and the Strategic Management Process - Creative aspects of strategic management result in innovative strategies and organizational changes to enhance competitiveness. These concepts will serve as a foundation to build upon throughout the text.
  • Strategic Thinking – This is a method of viewing a firm and its environment. It defines an intent-focused, comprehensive, opportunistic, long-term, hypothesis-driven medium through which the firm uses the strategic management process to pursue value creation and high financial returns.
  • Strategic Thinking – This is a method of viewing a firm and its environment. It defines an intent-focused, comprehensive, opportunistic, long-term, hypothesis-driven medium through which the firm uses the strategic management process to pursue value creation and high financial returns.
  • The Strategic Management Process - A logical approach for responding to 21st century competitive challenges. Provides an outline of the content of the textbook by each chapter. Chapter 2, Strategic Leadership Strategic leaders are the engines driving the development and use of the strategic management process. Strategic direction is reflected in the firm&apos;s vision, mission, purpose, and long-term goals. Part II, Strategic Analysis The two key sources of information-based inputs to the strategic management process are derived from an analysis of the firm&apos;s external environment (Ch. 3) and its internal organization (Ch. 4). This analysis identifies opportunities, threats, resources, capabilities, and core competencies that are used collectively to establish strategic direction and strategies to create a competitive advantage. Part III, Creating Competitive Advantage An examination of business-level strategies (Ch. 5) illustrates how firms determine the competitive advantages the firm will use to effectively compete in specific product markets. Competitive rivalry and dynamics, the interactive play between rivals in the marketplace, is taken into consideration when firms select and use strategies (Ch. 6). The trend toward cooperation reflects the increasing importance of forming partnerships between firms to share and develop competitive resources (Ch. 7). Corporate level strategies are employed by diversified organizations to determine the businesses in which they plan to compete and how they will allocate resources (Ch. 8). Merger and acquisition strategies are the primary means diversified firms use to create corporate-level competitive advantages (Ch. 9). International strategies can be used to create value and above-average returns for an organization (Ch. 10). Each type of strategy commands the type of organizational structure that an organization should use to effectively support its strategic efforts. Part IV, Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities Corporate governance serves to monitor organizational actions to assess their success, make sure they reflect the firm&apos;s values, and ensure that they are aligned with stakeholder interests (Ch. 11). To compete in today&apos;s competitive environment, firms must continuously seek entrepreneurial opportunities (Ch. 12). Real options analysis is a tool that is useful for evaluating new ventures and increasing strategic flexibility (Ch. 13).
  • Transcript of "CA2e-PPT-Ch.1_R.ppt"

    1. 1. Competing For Advantage Part I – Strategic Thinking Chapter 1 – Introduction to Strategic Management
    2. 2. The Competitive Landscape - An Illustration <ul><li>U.S. Automobile Industry Conditions in 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in gas prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in quality of Japanese-made vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Impact to U.S. Automakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow response to global forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to compete against new entrants to US market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to make technological improvements to stay competitive </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization – increased economic interdependence among countries as reflected in the flow of goods and services, financial capital, and knowledge across country borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypercompetition – extremely intense rivalry among competing firms, characterized by escalating and increasingly aggressive competitive moves </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Reduced restraints on business transactions across national boundaries (such as tariffs) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in recognizing or determining boundaries of an industry (for example, the blur among television, telephone, and computer service providers) </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly increased range of opportunities for acquiring resources (such as equipment, capital, raw material, or even employees) and for selling goods and services </li></ul>
    5. 5. Globalization of Markets and Industries <ul><li>Hypercompetition resulting from the dynamics of strategic maneuvering among global and innovative competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Increased performance standards in many areas, including quality, cost, productivity, product introduction time, and operational efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement in all areas is necessary for continued survival </li></ul>
    6. 6. Technological Advances <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Flexibility – set of capabilities used to respond to various demands and opportunities existing in a dynamic and uncertain competitive environment </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Increasing rate of technological change and diffusion, and increasing speed at which technologies become available and are used </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic information technology changes of recent years, and different ways that information is being used </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing knowledge intensity, the basis for technology and its application </li></ul>Technological Trends
    8. 8. Changes in the Competitive Landscape
    9. 9. Changes in the Competitive Landscape <ul><ul><li>Quick competitive information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter product life cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indistinguishable products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid technology replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of inexpensive information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New business culture from electronic-business models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous learning is necessary </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Sources of Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Speed to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and use of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid diffusion of new, transformed knowledge throughout the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of new conditions into organization mind set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global standard achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic flexibility </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Disruptive Technologies <ul><li>Value of existing technologies is destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Creative destruction process replaces existing technologies with new ones </li></ul><ul><li>New markets are created </li></ul>
    12. 12. Early Influences on the Strategy Concept <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency Theory – the idea that agency problems exist when managers take actions that are in their own best interests rather than those of shareholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions Costs Economics – examination of the efficiency of economic activity that instructs firms to buy required resources through a market transaction, unless certain conditions exist that efficiently allow firms to create them internally </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Foundational Concepts <ul><ul><li>The need to establish goals, formulate strategies to achieve them, and set implementation (resource-allocation) plans to meet them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The integration of external market factors into business planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wisdom of balancing the conflicting needs of internal and external stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of an economic approach to identifying market opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of having or acquiring the resources and capabilities to achieve organizational objectives </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Foundational Concepts (cont.) <ul><ul><li>The idea that political strategies should be used in addition to rational-deductive strategy development to address stakeholder interests and facilitate the achievement of organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of organizational learning processes to achieve strategic success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of Agency Theory to focus on shareholder returns as a primary criterion for firm success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of Transactions Costs Economics to determine whether a business should produce or acquire the resources needed </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Modern Strategic Management <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic Perspective – the argument that a firm should adapt to its environment, establishing &quot;fit“ (environmental situation determines the most effective strategies for achieving success) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enactment – the principle that recognizes the potential of influencing the environment through human action (environmental forces do not entirely determine strategic moves to create a competitive advantage) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Three Perspectives on Value Creation <ul><li>Industrial/Organization (I/O) Economic Model </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-Based View </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Approach </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Basic Premise of the I/O Model – to explain the dominant influence of the external environment on a firm's strategic actions and performance </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Underlying Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That the external environment imposes pressures and constraints that determine the strategies resulting in above-average returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That most firms competing within a particular industry or industry segment control similar strategically relevant resources and pursue similar strategies in light of those resources </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Underlying Assumptions (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That resources for implementing strategies are highly mobile across firms, and that due to this mobility any resource differences between firms will be short lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That organizational decision makers are rational and committed to acting in the firm's best interests, as shown by their profit-maximizing behaviors </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Industrial/ Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns
    21. 21. The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Michael Porter’s Five-Forces Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces the importance of economic theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers an analytical approach that was previously lacking in the field of strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the forces that determine the nature/level of competition and profit potential in an industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests how an organization can use the analysis to establish a competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Industrial/Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only two strategies are suggested: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal resources and capabilities are not considered </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive Competencies – attributes that allow a firm to pursue a certain strategy more efficiently than other firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources – inputs into a firm's production process, such as capital equipment, employee skills, patents, high-quality managers, financial condition, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability – capacity for a set of resources to perform a task or activity in an integrative manner </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Key Terms (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Competencies – a firm’s resources and capabilities that serve as sources of competitive advantage over its rivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Advantage – the successful formulation and execution of strategies that are different from and produce more value than the strategies of competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Competitive Advantage (referred to as &quot;Competitive Advantage&quot; in text) – competitive advantage that is possible only after competitors' efforts to duplicate the value-creating strategy have ceased or failed </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Basic Premise of the Resource-Based Model – to propose that a firm's unique resources and capabilities should define its strategic actions and be used effectively to exploit opportunities in the external environment to ensure successful performance </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Three Categories of Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational capital </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Types of resources that become a competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costly to imitate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsubstitutable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns <ul><li>Two types of core competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial competencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product-related competencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns
    30. 30. The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders – individuals and groups that can affect (and are affected by) the strategic outcomes a firm achieves, and that have enforceable claims on a firm's performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Intelligence – information that firms collect from their network of stakeholders and use to deal with diverse and cognitively complex competitive situations </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance <ul><li>Basic Premise of the Stakeholder Model – to propose that a firm can effectively manage stakeholder relationships to create a competitive advantage and outperform its competitors </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Three Stakeholder Groups
    33. 33. Secondary Stakeholders <ul><ul><li>Government entities and administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists and advocacy groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other nongovernmental organizations </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance
    35. 35. Ways Stakeholder Relationships Contribute to Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Timely and high quality strategic intelligence is gathered to improve a firm's strategic decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A trustworthy reputation draws valuable customers, suppliers, and business partners to acquire or develop competitive resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A trustworthy reputation attracts investors to offer financial resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firms that have fair and respectful treatment of employee relationships attract high-quality human resources </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Ways Stakeholder Relationships Contribute to Competitive Advantage <ul><ul><li>Transactions costs associated with making and enforcing agreements can be reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of strategies can be enhanced by improving commitment from stakeholders who are involved with strategic decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible behavior can protect a firm from the expense and risk associated with negative actions (such as adverse regulations, legal suits and penalties, consumer dissatisfaction, employee work outages, or bad press) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Strategic Thinking and the Strategic Management Process <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Management Process – full set of commitments, decisions, and actions required for a firm to create value and earn returns that are higher than those of competitors </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Strategic Thinking <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Intent – organizational term used for a vision that challenges and energizes a company; the leveraging of a firm's resources, capabilities, and core competencies to accomplish a firm's goals in its competitive environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources – inputs into a firm's production process, such as capital equipment, employee skills, patents, high-quality managers, financial condition, etc. (Described in Chapter 4) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Strategic Thinking <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability – capacity for a set of resources to perform a task or activity in an integrative manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Competencies – resources and capabilities that serve as a source of competitive advantage for a firm over its rivals </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Effective Formation of Strategic Intent <ul><ul><li>When all levels of a firm are committed to the pursuit of specific, significant performance criterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When employees believe fervently in their company's product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When employees are entirely focused on the firm's ability to outperform its competitors </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Elements of Strategic Thinking <ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of unanticipated opportunities as they arise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes all time frames (learning from past experiences, exploiting current competitive advantages, and considering long-term implications of decisions and actions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a sequential process of hypothesis testing (evaluating creative ideas from their generation, to trial market assessment, to full-blown market implementation) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Encouraging Strategic Thinking <ul><ul><li>Employ top managers who are champions of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in place systems and processes to find innovative ideas for operating (&quot;front line&quot;) areas of an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train managers and employees in strategic thinking methods and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide flexibility in strategic management processes to allow incorporation of new ideas that have potential </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. The Strategic Management Process
    44. 44. Ethical Questions What is the relationship between ethics and the firm’s stakeholders? For example, from an ethical perspective, how much information should the firm reveal to each of its stakeholders, and how should that vary among stakeholders?
    45. 45. Ethical Questions Do firms face ethical challenges—perhaps even ethical dilemmas—when trying to satisfy both short-term and long-term expectations of capital market stakeholders?
    46. 46. Ethical Questions What types of ethical issues and challenges do firms encounter when competing internationally?
    47. 47. Ethical Questions What ethical responsibilities does the firm have when it earns above-average returns? Who should make decisions regarding these issues, and why?
    48. 48. Ethical Questions How should ethical considerations be included in analyses of the firm’s external environment and internal organization?
    49. 49. Ethical Questions What should top-level managers do to ensure that a firm’s strategic management process leads to outcomes that are consistent with the firm’s values?
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