A strategic management and planning toolkit


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  • Strategy is concerned with the long term direction of an organisation. It is concerned with the scope of an organisation activities. Should the LKS undertake a Current awareness service to commissioning staff? Advantage for the organisation over the competition. How can the LKS assist the Trust meet its key strategic objectives. Can the quality of the LKS be used to competitive advantage – will the best quality staff /students come to a Trust with the best LKSs . Strategic fit with the external Environment. LKS need appropriate positioning in their environment, for example the extent to which products or services meet clearly identified market needs. Strategy is about exploiting the strategic capability of an organisation in terms of its resources and competencies, to provide competitive advantage or yield new opportunities. And finally the values and expectations of key stakeholders.
  • Not a comprehensive list of External drivers in 15 minutes – these will differ from acute primary and community, and from organisation to organisation. Instead I want to outline a number of strategic planning tools that could be used to identify key environmental or external drivers your strategy will need to be aware of and the likely impact these will have. I have given examples of how these tools can be used to analyse the external environment. However, the tools can also be used to analysis the external environment outside of the Knowledge, Library & Information Environment itself.
  • PEST –used to identify a number of key environmental drivers of change, that is forces likely to affect the organisation
  • Payment By Results
  • More people may be aware of the SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis summarises the key issues from an analysis of the external environment and the strategic capability of the organisation. The questions that need to be askd are. What are the main strengths of the organisational What are the main weaknesses. And then from the external drivers identified through the PEST which ones are opportunities to the Org, and which are threats?
  • This diagram shows how the SWOT and PEST analysisv can be combined to summarise the relationship between key environmental influences, the strategic capability of the org. and hence the agenda for developing new strategies. These represent the organisation main strengths and weakness. The first two are strengths the latter two weaknesses. The Horizontal columns are environmental factors identified through the PEST. Each item is given a Score. The items with the highest or lowest score are seen as the main strengths and weakness.
  • With Both opportunities and strengths are present then the org is in a position to attack competitors, through with good prospect of success. Or perhaps in our World KM initatives around this opportunity are likely to be successful. Conversely the organisation needs to protect itself here and KM may assist in diminishing risk.
  • This is an adaptation of the Product portfolio matrices, which is used for commercial companies. Such as Stars, Dogs, cash cows etc. If the KM service or project can be used to assist in dealing with the issues in this area, it will have a higher priority and significance.
  • A strategic management and planning toolkit

    1. 1. A Strategic Management & Planning Toolkit David Peacock Knowledge Services & E-Learning Manager
    2. 2. Outline: <ul><li>What is Strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing External Drivers: tools to analyse the organisations external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing Strategic capability: tools to determine the organisations resources and competencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing the best fit: tools to aid strategic decision making. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Strategy? <ul><li>“ Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term , which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competencies with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations .” </li></ul><ul><li>- Johnson, Scholes and Whittington. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Strengths & Weakness Capabilities & Resources Mission <ul><li>Opportunities & Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Needs of customers & stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>PEST Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors and allies </li></ul>The Fit Best course of action What do we want to accomplish? What are your capabilities? What is needed and feasible? B.W.Barry
    5. 5. (Open University) Analyse near Environment Analyse Near Environment Organisational purposes and current strategy Analyse capabilities and resources Strategic opportunities and threats Identify alternatives Strategic decision making
    6. 6. Levels of Strategy <ul><li>Corporate-level strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Business-level strategy </li></ul><ul><li>A strategic business unit strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Trust level strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental level strategy </li></ul><ul><li>A divisional strategy </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., Library Knowledge Service </li></ul>
    7. 7. Analysing the External environment <ul><li>PEST </li></ul><ul><li>Porters five forces </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT </li></ul>
    8. 8. PEST :- <ul><li>P - Political / Legal </li></ul><ul><li>E - Economic / Financial factors </li></ul><ul><li>S – Socio-cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>T - Technological </li></ul><ul><li>What environmental factors are affecting the organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these are the most important at the present time? Which will be in the next few years? </li></ul>
    9. 9. PEST (Political / Legal) - <ul><li>The main DOH policy initiatives….. </li></ul><ul><li>World class Commissioning/ Practice Based Commissioning </li></ul><ul><li>Darzi review </li></ul><ul><li>Role of independent contractors/sicial enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Links to Local Government / Social care </li></ul><ul><li>E-Government initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Data Protection & copyright/ FOI </li></ul><ul><li>Records management </li></ul>
    10. 10. PEST (Economic / financial)- <ul><li>WCC </li></ul><ul><li>Practice based commissioning </li></ul><ul><li>PBR and the “internal market” </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Independent sector provision </li></ul><ul><li>Local overspends & deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Government public spending plans </li></ul><ul><li>PFI developments </li></ul>
    11. 11. PEST (Socio-cultural factors) <ul><li>Consumerism & growth of choice </li></ul><ul><li>Development of expert & informed patients </li></ul><ul><li>Local population demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Growing obesity and poor diets </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to family structure - singletonism </li></ul>
    12. 12. PEST – (Technological) <ul><li>NPFiT/CfH </li></ul><ul><li>ESR and additional functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Digital TV </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning and m-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Porters five Forces model Substitutes buyers Industry Competitors Rivalry Potential Entrants Suppliers <ul><ul><li>Threat of new entrants </li></ul></ul>Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of substitute products/ services
    14. 14. Adapted five Forces model Central government Client v citizen Street level public organisations Professional associations Related street level org. Mckevitt, 2000 Suppliers
    15. 15. SWOT <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul>
    16. 16. Opportunities:- issues to consider <ul><li>market developments; </li></ul><ul><li>competitor vulnerabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>political, economic, social and technological trends; </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Selling Points; </li></ul><ul><li>new services; new partnerships; </li></ul><ul><li>and new distribution channels. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Threats:- issues to consider <ul><li>political, economic, social and technological trends; </li></ul><ul><li>competitor strengths and intentions; </li></ul><ul><li>new technologies, services, ideas; </li></ul><ul><li>changing customer/client demand; </li></ul><ul><li>sustaining internal capabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>and new obstacles. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Six planning areas <ul><li>Service/ product (what are we selling/delivering?) </li></ul><ul><li>Process (How are we delivering/selling it? </li></ul><ul><li>Customer/Client (Who are we delivering /selling it to?) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution (How does it reach them?) </li></ul><ul><li>Finance/resources (What are the resources, costs and investments required?) </li></ul><ul><li>Administration (and how do we manage all this?) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Analysing internal strategic capability <ul><li>Strategic capability – the resources and competencies of an organisation needed for it to survive and prosper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Value Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Strengths & weaknesses: issues to consider <ul><li>Capabilities; resources, assets, people? </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation and presence? </li></ul><ul><li>Experience and knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing – reach, distribution, awareness? </li></ul><ul><li>Location and geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Value, impact and quality of service? </li></ul><ul><li>Processes, systems, IT? </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, attitudinal and behavioural issues? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Benchmarking <ul><li>used to compare your services capabilities with similar services in other organisation </li></ul><ul><li>identify issues and problems, and understand what makes others perform “better” than your own service. </li></ul><ul><li>-Data or metrics benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>- Process benchmarking </li></ul>
    22. 22. Analysing the “best fit” <ul><li>SWOT & PEST Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector Portfolio matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Maslin Multi-dimensional matrix </li></ul>
    23. 23. SWOT & PEST Analysis Rising public Expectations New med. Technologies Demographic trends Competitive Market Capacity for innovation ++ + + + ++ Good links with Social care + 0 + + _ Organisation still defining role 0 0 0 _ _ No financial growth _ _ _ _ _ _
    24. 24. Possible responses on the basis of a SWOT analysis (adapted from McLaughlin et al). Opportunity Threat Strength Weakness SI T UA T I On ORG. CAPABILITY Attack “ Go for It” Beware “ Don’t do it” Explore “ If you have time” Project “ Watch yourself”
    25. 25. Public Sector Portfolio matrix <ul><li>HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>LOW </li></ul>HIGH LOW Ability to provide effectively Public need, support & funding attractive- ness Public Sector Star (Short waiting times) (Transplants) (Improved cancer treatments) Political hot box (MRSA/infection control) (Dentists) (New costly drugs) (Closure of Services) Golden Fleece (Community services) (Ambulance Service) Back draw issue (Fertility treatment) (Mental Health)
    26. 26. Maslin Multi-Dimensional Matrix (MMDM) <ul><li>HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>LOW </li></ul>LOW HIGH Needs or wants of client Group Level of Provision Mental Health Oncology Dental Services