4-1 4-2 Recognizing a Firm's

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving Beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter four Part 1: strategic analysis
  • 3. Learning Objectives
    • After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of:
      • Why the management of knowledge professionals and knowledge itself are so critical in today’s organizations.
      • The importance of recognizing the interdependence of attracting, developing and retaining human capital.
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Learning Objectives
    • After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of:
      • The key role of social capital in leveraging human capital within and across the firm.
      • Why teams are critical in combining and leveraging knowledge in organizations and how they can be made more effective.
      • The vital role of technology in leveraging knowledge and human capital.
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Learning Objectives
    • After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of:
      • How technology can help to retain knowledge even when employees cannot be retained by the organization.
      • How leveraging human capital is critical to strategy formulation at the business, corporate, international, and Internet levels.
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Ratio of Market Value to Book Value for Selected Companies McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Annual Market Book Ratio of Sales Value Value Market to Company ($ billions) ($ billions) ($ billions) Book Value Google 3.2 60.4 2.9 20.8 Genentech 3.9 75.0 6.8 11.0 Yahoo! 3.6 47.9 7.1 6.7 eBay 3.2 42.8 6.7 6.4 Southwest Airlines 6.5 11.7 5.5 2.1 Union Pacific (Railroad) 12.2 16.7 12.7 1.3 Note: The data on market valuations are as of May 1, 2005. All other financial data is based on the most recently available balance sheets and income statements. Ford Motor Company 171.6 16.7 16.0 1.0 Exhibit 4.1 Ratio of Market Value to Book Value for Selected Companies
  • 7. The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy
    • Creation of wealth in a knowledge economy
      • Effective management of knowledge workers
      • Intellectual capital
      • Assets such as
        • Reputation
        • Employee loyalty and commitment
        • Customer relationships
        • Company values
        • Brand names
        • Experience and skills of employees
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy
    • How do companies create
    • value in the knowledge-
    • intensive economy?
      • Human capital (individual capabilities, knowledge, skills, and experience of the company’s employees and managers)
      • Social capital (the network of relationships that individuals have throughout the organization)
      • Knowledge
        • Explicit knowledge
        • Tacit knowledge
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intellectual capital = Market value of the firm – Book value of the firm
  • 9. Human Capital: The Foundation of Intellectual Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Exhibit 4.2 Human Capital: Three Interdependent Activities
  • 10. Attracting Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Hire for attitude, train for skill
    • Emphasis on
      • General knowledge and experience
      • Social skills
      • Values
      • Beliefs
      • Attitudes
  • 11. Attracting Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Sound recruiting approaches
      • Scanning pools of available candidates
      • Challenge becomes having the right job candidates, not the greatest number of them
    • Networking
      • Current employees may be best source of new ones
      • Incentives for referrals
  • 12. Developing Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Train and develop at all levels
      • Training is not the sole responsibility of the human resource department
    • Rapid changes in technology
      • Employee skills become obsolete
      • Training is cost effective
    • Monitor progress and track development
  • 13. Developing Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Evaluate human capital
      • Employees must share knowledge and work together, collectively, to reach organizational goals
      • Firms often use 360-degree evaluation and feedback systems
      • Managers’ success cannot compromise the organization’s core values
  • 14. 360-Degree Leadership Assessment McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Has developed and communicated a clear, simple, customer-focused vision/direction for the organization.
    • Forward-thinking, stretches horizons, challenges imaginations.
    • Inspires and energizes others to commit to Vision. Captures minds. Leads by example.
    • As appropriate, updates Vision to reflect constant and accelerating change affecting the business
    Vision Customer/Quality Focus Integrity Accountability/Commitment Communication/Influence Shared Ownership/Boundary-less Team Builder/Empowerment Knowledge/Expertise/Intellect Initiative/Speed Global Mind-Set Ten Characteristics of Leadership Adapted from Exhibit 4.3 An Excerpt from General Electric’s 360-Degree Leadership Assessment Chart Source: Adapted from R. Slater, Get Better or Get Beaten (Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin Professional Publishing, 1994), pp. 152-155. Performance Criteria of “Vision”
  • 15. Retaining Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Provide mechanisms that prevent the transfer of valuable and sensitive information outside the organization
      • Identify with organization’s mission and values
      • Strong alliance to organization (strategic intents)
    • Challenging work and stimulating environment
  • 16. Retaining Human Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Financial and Nonfinancial Rewards and Incentives
      • Rewards are a vital organizational control mechanism
      • However, money may not be the most important reason why people take or leave jobs
      • Exodus of employees can erode a firm’s competitive advantage
  • 17. Enhancing Human Capital: How Diversity Benefits the Organization McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
      • Cost argument
      • Resource acquisition argument
      • Marketing argument
      • Creativity argument
      • Problem-solving argument
      • System flexibility argument
  • 18. The Vital Role of Social Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Attraction, development and retention of talent is a necessary but not sufficient condition for creating competitive advantage
    • Knowledge workers often are more loyal to their colleagues and profession than to their employer
  • 19. How Social Capital Helps Attract and Retain Talent McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Hiring via personal (social) networks
      • Some job candidates may bring other talent with them
      • Emigration of talent from an organization to form start-up ventures
      • Can provide mechanism for obtaining resources and information from outside the organization
  • 20. Microsoft Employees Who Have Left the Company for Other Businesses McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Company What It Does Defectors from Microsoft Crossgain Builds software around 23 of 60 employees XMl computer language ViAir Makes software for Company declines to wireless providers specify CheckSpace Builds online payment Company says “a good service for small businesses chunk” of its 30 employees digiMine Sells data mining service About 15% of 62 employees in addition to the 3 founders Avogadro Builds wireless notification 8 of 25 employees software Tellme Networks Offers information like stock About 40 of 250 employees; quotes and scores over the another 40 from the former phone Netscape Exhibit 4.4 Microsoft Employees Who Have Left the Company for Other Businesses Source: Reprinted by permission of the Wall Street Journal , Copyright ©2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. License number 397221136576 .
  • 21. The Potential Downside of Social Capital McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Groupthink
    • Cost of financial resources
    • Managerial commitment
  • 22. Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Sharing knowledge and information
      • Conserves resources
      • Develops products and services
      • Creates new opportunities
    • Technology can leverage human capital and knowledge
      • Within the organization
      • With customers
      • With suppliers
  • 23. Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Using networks to share information and develop products and services
      • E-mail
      • Electronic or Virtual teams
        • Enhance speed and effectiveness with which products are developed
        • Can be applied to new business ventures
    Using Networks
  • 24. Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Codifying knowledge for competitive advantage
      • Tacit knowledge
        • Personal experience
        • Shared only with the consent and participation of the individual
      • Explicit (codified) knowledge
        • Can be documented
        • Can be widely distributed
        • Can be easily replicated
        • Can be reused many times at low cost
    Codifying Knowledge Using Networks
  • 25. Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Retaining knowledge when employees leave
      • Information technology can save some tacit knowledge
      • Need to create motivation for people to contribute their knowledge to the system
    Retaining Knowledge Codifying Knowledge Using Networks
  • 26. Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Does the organization assess attitude and “general make-up” instead of focusing primarily on skills and background in selecting employees at all levels?
    • How important is creativity and problem solving ability? Are they properly considered in hiring decisions?
    • Do people throughout the organization engage in effective networking activities to obtain a broad pool of worthy potential employees? Is the organization creative in such endeavors?
    Human Capital Recruiting “Top-Notch” Human Capital Adapted from Exhibit 4.5 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63-64.
  • 27. Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Does the development and training process inculcate an “organizationwide” perspective?
    • Is there widespread involvement—including top executives—in the preparation and delivery of training and development programs?
    • Is the development of human capital effectively tracked and monitored?
    • Are there effective programs for succession at all levels of the organization—especially the top-most levels?
    • Does the firm effectively evaluate its human capital? Is a 360-degree evaluation used? Why? Why not?
    • Are mechanisms in place to assure that a manager’s success does not come at the cost of compromising the organization’s core values?
    Human Capital Enhancing Human Capital through Employee Development Adapted from Exhibit 4.5 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63-64.
  • 28. Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Are there appropriate financial rewards to motivate employees at all levels?
    • Do people throughout the organization strongly identify with the organization’s mission?
    • Are employees provided a stimulating and challenging work environment that fosters professional growth?
    • Are valued amenities provided (e.g., flextime, child-care facilities, telecommuting) that are appropriate given the organization’s mission, strategy, and how work is accomplished?
    • Is the organization continually devising strategies and mechanisms to retain top performers?
    Human Capital Retaining the Best Employees Adapted from Exhibit 4.5 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63-64.
  • 29. Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Are there positive personal and professional relationships among employees?
    • Is the organization benefiting (or being penalized) by hiring (or by voluntary turnover) en masse?
    • Does an environment of caring and encouragement rather than competition enhance team performance?
    • Does the organization minimize the adverse effects of excessive social capital—such as excessive costs and “groupthink”?
    Social Capital Adapted from Exhibit 4.5 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63-64.
  • 30. Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Does the organization effectively use technology to transfer best practices across the organization?
    • Does the organization use technology to leverage both human capital and knowledge both within the boundaries of the organization as well as among its suppliers and customers?
    • Has the organization used technologies such as e-mail and networks to develop products and services?
    • Has the organization effectively used technology to codify knowledge for competitive advantage?
    • Does the organization try to retain some of the knowledge of employees when they decide to leave the firm?
    Technology Adapted from Exhibit 4.5 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63-64.
  • 31. The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Leveraging human capital and business-level strategy (Chapter 5)
      • Sustainable over time
        • Integrate primary and support activities in the firm’s value chain
    • Leveraging human capital and corporate-level strategy (Chapter 6)
      • Manage businesses to create synergy
      • Create more value by working together across business units
  • 32. The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Leveraging human capital and international-level strategy (Chapter 7)
      • Achieve economies of scale
      • Adapt to local market needs
      • Facilitate the flow of information and knowledge between business units in different countries
  • 33. The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management, 3/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Leveraging human capital and internet strategies (Chapter 8)
      • Create competitive advantages through digital and Internet-based technologies
      • Lower costs
      • Enhance customer service
      • Improve performance