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  1. 1. SW745: SOCIAL WORK ADMINISTRATION: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND CHANGE LEADERSHIP SYLLABUS, Spring 2009 San Diego State University School of Social Work Dr. Tom Packard Ph. 594-6723 E-mail: tpackard@mail.sdsu.edu Hepner Hall 135 Web site: http://chhs.sdsu.edu/facultydetail.php?ID=68 Office Hours: Mondays 10:45-12:00, 1:15-2:30; Tuesdays and Thursdays 11:00-12:00; other times by appointment I. PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION This course is the second in a two-course sequence for students specializing in social work administration. This specialization is designed for students with some experience in social work. MSW graduates in this specialization will be equipped to assume positions as supervisors, middle managers of small agencies, or staff workers such as analysts or program specialists. Course objectives focus on two closely interrelated dimensions: analytical skills (e.g., conceptual and diagnostic skills) and application skills. The course will address both of these on each topic. This is based on the belief held by many managers and organizational consultants that managers must be able to both think and execute if they are to be effective. Students will be encouraged to think from an organizational perspective - looking at systems dynamics and the functioning of the organization as an entity - and to think like managers, with a broad perspective and an emphasis on both results and process. Students will be taught how to assess, intervene, and evaluate interventions at the administrative level. In the fall, the focus will be on assessing needs for social program intervention and designing a program to respond. This includes attention to the service delivery technology, using evidence-based practice, and management systems including human resources, finance, and information, as well as program evaluation. The spring course focuses on the design of interventions focusing on the organization, including strategic planning and organizational change. Also emphasized will be the importance of an action research perspective: action should be preceded by data collection and analysis (in social work education terms, this can be seen as “using practice experience to inform scientific inquiry and using research to inform practice”). A contingency approach will be a common theme: there is no "one best way" to manage; effective behavior depends on analysis of situational contingencies and action grounded in that analysis. On each topic, students will be encouraged to look for key elements or principles leading to effective administration and organizational performance. These can then be used in the future to guide administrative behavior. Finally, students will be encouraged to integrate concepts and class experience with knowledge and experiences from their field practicum and from other classes in an attempt to develop a comprehensive perspective or "world view." An overriding theme will be organizational learning: how administrators as leaders and change agents can create learning opportunities to enable themselves and employees to make their organizations more thoughtful, purposeful, effective, 1
  2. 2. and responsive. The first semester will address program design and core managerial processes and techniques such as management information systems, financial management, and human resource management. The second semester will focus on strategic management, leadership, supervision, and organizational change management. Both practice courses include attention to evidence-based practice, ethics and values issues, and diversity. SW 740 emphasizes race and ethnicity; and SW 745 emphasizes gender issues including sexual harassment and sexual orientation, and age and disability concerns. II. OBJECTIVES At the completion of the course, students will be able to: Knowledge: 1. appraise organizational issues related to sex discrimination, sexual harassment, homophobia, ageism, and ableism and suggest ways to counteract them 2. critique an organization’s cultural competence and develop strategies for improvement 3. describe and critique key principles of leadership effectiveness 4. describe key principles for supervision in human service organizations Skills: 5. develop a strategic plan for an organization 6. effectively lead an organizational task group or program 7. identify an organization's problems amenable to organizational change and develop a viable change plan 8. use an evidence-based practice process to critique the empirical literature on leadership and use this to develop one’s own approach to leadership to improve agency functioning, policies, and services Values and Ethics: 9. articulate key ethical and value issues affecting human service organizations and suggest ways to manage them III. OUTCOMES After completing this course, the student will be able to: 1. use evidence-based practice processes to appraise the literature in leadership, strategic management, and organizational change to develop an appropriate skill set to function as an agency administrator 2
  3. 3. 2. appraise an organization=s environment and internal strengths and weaknesses and develop appropriate strategies to further growth and development of the organization 3. effectively lead a program, unit, or organizational task group 4. create appropriate and effective strategies to improve operations or processes in an organization 5. use principles of diversity to help create a more culturally competent organization 6. interpret the Social Work Code of Ethics and related humanistic values as they apply to administrative practice IV. TEXTBOOKS AND READINGS Allison, M. & Kaye, J. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Proehl, R. (2001). Organizational Change in the Human Services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Austin, M. and Hopkins, K., Eds. (2004). Supervision as Collaboration in the Human Services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Patti, R. (Ed.) (2009). The handbook of human services management, 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Austin, M., Brody, R., Packard, T. (Eds.) (2008). Managing and Leading Human Service Organizations: A Casebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Reprints at Electronic Course Reserve (password “service”) and Blackboard. V. COURSE ASSIGNMENTS A. Management Audit: Each student will write a 10 - 12 page paper consisting of a management audit of the student's practicum agency. Use the form at Blackboard. There may be a possibility for a group to do a management audit of an existing agency. Details will be presented in class. The due date is indicated on the session schedule below. The paper will be worth 25% of the course grade. A model of a management audit paper is available for review in the professor’s office. B. Organizational Change Plan: Each student will write a 10 -12 page paper consisting of a change plan based on problems or needs identified in the management audit, and using principles of evidence-based practice. Use the attached format. If the above group management audit of an 3
  4. 4. existing agency is done, there may also be the opportunity for the same group to propose a change plan for that agency. Details will be presented in class. The due date is indicated on the session schedule below. The paper will be worth 25% of the course grade. A model of a change plan paper is at ECR. C. Leadership article analysis: Each student will write a 4-6 page paper critiquing two articles from the leadership literature. The student will select articles which seem relevant to human services leadership. Details are attached to the syllabus. The due date is indicated on the session schedule below. The paper will be worth 15% of the course grade. D. 360-degree feedback: Each student will write a 10-13 page paper based on designated instruments and feedback to assess her or his leadership style. Follow the instructions attached to the syllabus. The due date is indicated on the session schedule below. The paper will be worth 25% of the course grade. Students will have the option of grading this paper themselves. Any student interested in this self-grading procedure should e-mail the professor no later than one month before the paper is due. Two models of 360-degree feedback papers are at ECR. Papers will be graded on their responsiveness to the assignment as covered in the syllabus and attachments. Each paper should be typed and double-spaced, with numbered pages. Staple the upper left corner and do not include a cover or binding. Use 1" margins and 12-point type font, and APA format. Additional grading factors are: Content: accurate, comprehensive, documented appropriately Persuasiveness: points are adequately supported Appropriateness & feasibility: ideas are viable Creativity: ideas and connections among themes are creative and insightful Organization, completeness, coherence & clarity: different elements are appropriately sequenced and connected; thoughts are stated specifically Sentence structure, grammar, & spelling: sentences convey meaning clearly & grammatically, no fragments or run-on sentences; writing is free of errors Style: interesting, imaginative use of language; tone suitable to purpose & audience Written feedback will not be provided on deficiencies in style, grammar, etc. If you are weak in any of these areas, consult William Strunk & E. B. White's The Elements of Style, an editor, or a similar source. Any paper may be submitted early (ideally 2 weeks before the due date) for preliminary feedback and rewriting as the instructor’s time allows. Late papers will have the grade lowered one step (e.g., from B to C) for each week they are late. Work incomplete at the end of the semester will receive an F unless prior arrangements are made. NOTE: If you want the final paper returned, provide a stamped, self-addressed envelope at the final session. D. Participation: Attendance at all of each session is expected. Attendance per se will not be part 4
  5. 5. of the participation grade except to the extent that absent students will of course not have an opportunity to participate. It will help to speak to the instructor if you miss all or part of a class due to illness or another unavoidable commitment. Students will be expected to be able to discuss and critique key points of assigned readings at each class session to demonstrate mastery of the material. Ratings of class participation will be based upon students' demonstrations of knowledge and understanding of course readings and class content as reflected in comments, reactions, and questions; reactions to assigned discussion questions; comments which show connections among different concepts and issues; comments connecting the classroom to actual practice (e.g., examples at internships); listening and non-judgmental attitudes; and group process and nonverbal behaviors. All of these behaviors are relevant in an administrative setting and reflect administrative skills. The following standards will be used: A: Consistent, active involvement without dominating; high level of knowledge and insight; comments are on topic; efficient use of air time; interacts with, refers to comments of, and/or draws out other students, class norms followed B: Regular involvement; good level of knowledge and insight; comments are on topic; class norms followed C: Occasional comments; usually on topic D: Rare comments, usually on topic, norms not followed F: No participation, or participation always off topic, norms not followed Additionally, student leadership of discussion of selected readings from their leadership article analysis paper will be included in the presentation grade. A sign up sheet will be circulated for students to volunteer to take the lead in briefly summarizing and critiquing their readings. Details will be covered in class. Participation will be worth 10% of the course grade. E. Overall Grading Criteria: Grades will be based on criteria and standards of the Graduate Bulletin and the School of Social Work Grading Policy documented in the Graduate Student Handbook. As can be seen from the definitions of letter grades, summarized below, “A” grades are for truly outstanding work and are likely to be rare. A: work that not only demonstrates excellent mastery of content, but also shows that the student has a) undertaken complex tasks, b) applied critical thinking skills to the assignment, and/or c) demonstrated creativity in her or his approach to the assignment. The degree to which the student demonstrates these skills determines whether he/she receives an A or an A-. B+: work that is judged to be very good. This grade denotes that a student has demonstrated a more-than-satisfactory understanding of the material being tested, and 5
  6. 6. has exceeded expectations in the assignment. B: work that meets the basic requirements of the assignment. It denotes that the student has done satisfactory work on the assignment and meets the expectations of the course. B-: performance was less than satisfactory on an assignment, reflecting only moderate grasp of content and is below expectations. C: reflects a minimal grasp of the assignments, poor organization of ideas and/or several significant areas requiring improvement. C- to F: a failure to meet minimum standards, reflecting serious deficiencies in a student’s performance on the assignment. NOTE: Students may be asked to bring in documents (e.g., strategic plans) from their internships for analysis and discussion. Confidentiality will be observed. VI. COURSE TOPICS AND READINGS You are encouraged to bring to class copies of ALL readings done for a session to refer to during discussions and activities as needed. NOTE: BB = document is at the course Blackboard site. The ECR password is “service”. SESSION DATE TOPICS AND READINGS 1 1-26 Overview, plans for the course, personal visions, the management audit Patti, Ch. 1: Management in the Human Services (optional) Criteria for the Quality of Working Life BB Management Audit Form BB OPTIONAL: The Management Audit as a Teaching Tool in Social Work Administration in Journal of Social Work Education, Winter 20 00, 36(1), 39-52. AVAILABLE ON LINE THROUGH THE LIBRARY CATALOG (PAC) 2 2-2 Cultural competence, diversity issues in the workplace Managing Diversity ECR Working it Out: What Managers Should Know about Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual People and their Employment Issues ECR Austin & Hopkins, Ch. 5 Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 5.8: Empowering Staff to Advocate for Chicano/Latina Clients Conceptual Frameworks/Models, Guiding Values and Principles available at http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/foundations/frameworks.html A Guide to Planning and Implementing Cultural Competence Organizational Self 6
  7. 7. Assessment available at http://gucchd.georgetown.edu/nccc/documents/ncccorgselfassess.pdf 3 2-9 Strategic Planning: Mission and Vision Allison & Kaye, Chs. 1-3 Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 5.2: Be Careful What You Wish For BRING your internship agency's mission and vision statements and strategic plan, if any. 4 2-16 Strategic Planning: Assessment & Strategy Development Allison & Kaye, Chs. 4-5 Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 5.5: The Achievement Crisis at Girls Works 5 2-23 Strategy Implementation, Marketing MANAGEMENT AUDIT PAPER DUE Allison & Kaye, Chs. 6-8 Patti Ch. 17: Confronting Fundraising Challenges Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 8.4: Jefferson Hospital Strategy Formation: Beyond Strategic Planning at http://www.lapiana.org/downloads/strategy_formation.pdf Demystifying Marketing ECR Marketing Audit BB Marketing Worksheet BB Competition Analysis BB 6 3-2 Organizational Change: Overview Proehl, Chs. 2, 5, 6 Johnson, M. & Austin. M. (2006). Evidence-based practice in the social services: Implications for organizational change, Administration in Social Work, 30(3), 75- 104. AVAILABLE ON LINE THROUGH THE LIBRARY CATALOG (PAC) Essential Elements for Managing Complex Change ECR Change Management ECR Change Technologies BB Cause and Effect Diagram ECR Flowchart Showing Process of Psychological Testing ECR Organization Development BB Employee Attitude Surveys as an Action Research Tool BB Problem Solving Groups for Organizational Change BB Team Building BB Role Clarification BB 7
  8. 8. Transition Management BB 7 3-9 Organizational Change: Change model, initiation Proehl, Chs. 7-9 Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 4.7: Marian Health Center 8 3-16 Organizational Change: Implementation, cutback management Proehl, Chs. 10, 11, 13; Epilogue The Twelve Questions ECR Optional: Cutback Management Strategies: Experiences in Nine County Human Service Agencies ECR Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 4.8: Mosaic County Welfare Department NOTE: Before next class, fill out and score the Personal Style Inventory (ECR). Email your Totals for I, E, N, S, T, F, P, and J to the instructor by March 20. 9 3-23 Leadership overview, 360 degree feedback LEADERSHIP ARTICLE PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSION Patti Ch. 7: Leadership and Performance in Human Service Organizations Austin & Hopkins, Ch. 13 Leadership Style Indicator ECR LSI Adjectives ECR Leadership Style Indicator Description Summary ECR LSI Feedback: Getting the Most out of Your LSI Feedback, Positive leadership Style Characteristics ECR Personal Style Inventory ECR National Network For Social Work Managers Leader and Manager Competency Model BB Personal Development Plan BB Spring Break: March 30-April 5 10 4-6 No Class: Comprehensive Exams 11 4-13 Leadership: assessing the literature 1 LEADERSHIP ARTICLE PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSION ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE PLAN PAPER DUE 12 4-20 Leadership: assessing the literature 2 Austin & Hopkins, Chs. 1, 3, 4, 8
  9. 9. LEADERSHIP ARTICLE PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSION 13 4-27 Supervision 1: Fundamentals Austin & Hopkins, Chs. 8, 12 LEADERSHIP ARTICLE PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSION 14 5-4 Supervision 2: Advanced Austin & Hopkins, Chs. 14, 15, 18 LEADERSHIP ARTICLE ANALYSIS PAPER DUE 15 5-11 Values & ethics, synthesis Austin & Hopkins, Ch. 9 The Essence of Ethical Leadership ECR Patti Ch. 23 Practitioners’ Views on the future of Human Services Management Austin, Brody, & Packard: Case 4.12: What? Me Worry? 5-18: 360 DEGREE FEEDBACK PAPER DUE 9
  10. 10. MANAGEMENT AUDIT To complete the management audit data collection, gather necessary data from your field instructor or others at your internship. You and your field instructor should each do an audit independently, followed by a discussion. After discussion and any new information presented by your field instructor, feel free to adjust your ratings as appropriate. Indicate on the form the final ratings by yourself and your field instructor, with averages by section on the last page. Put your scores and the field instructor scores on the same form. In other words, use only one copy of the form. Append to your paper the entire form, with student and field instructor ratings, and the averages on the final page. The paper should be 10-12 pages in length. Use 1-2 paragraphs to provide an overview of the agency or program selected and your place within it. Mention the number of employees, annual budget, and years in existence. Attach an organization chart to the paper. Then, organize your paper based on the headings in the audit form. Elaborate upon particularly low (e.g., ratings of 1-2) sections and/or specific questions. Also mention significant strengths that may be used to leverage change. Note any prior or current efforts to address any of the problems you identified. Use examples of particularly weak areas if that would help to clarify the problem or change opportunity. The use of course concepts will help demonstrate your ability to apply knowledge (citations are not necessary). In a final section, answer the following questions. What are your overall impressions? What are the areas of strength? What are the weak areas? How do things fit together (e.g., do any of the weak areas seem connected, or are there any that may affect each other?)? Are there serious misalignments or problems? What needs attention most urgently? 10
  11. 11. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE PLAN Develop a plan for an organizational change initiative to address a weak area identified in the Management Audit. Principles of organizational change and leadership covered in readings and class should be used as appropriate. Citations of tactics, techniques, or change interventions should be used to support your plan (use page numbers from readings). The paper should be 10- 12 pages in length. Begin with a section summarizing the organizational setting for the change plan and describing the problem (an organizational condition needing to be improved) to be addressed and then briefly presenting a specific change goal which will solve the problem. Provide detail on the change goal in section 3 below. Refer to your analysis and description of this problem in the Management Audit. Then, apply The Eight-Step Change Management Model in Proehl (summarized below), addressing all of the questions on p. 90, using these eight steps as section headings. 1. Creating a sense of urgency: external forces, force field analysis, internal indicators, high performance standards, share data (e.g., management audit, employee survey); the target for change (all staff, selected staff, upper management, etc.) 2. Building the coalition for change: sponsor, champion, people with credibility, power, interest, informal leaders; formal group e.g., steering committee, task forces; cross- functional representation from all levels (“diagonal slice”); communication systems 3. Clarifying the change imperative: problems, visions, resources needed, written contract including outcomes, legitimacy, communicating the vision 4. Assessing the present: strengths, obstacles, organizational readiness 5. Developing a plan for change: strategies, processes, activities, short-term successes, who will be involved 6. Dealing with the human factors: communication; resistance; involvement of staff; new skills, knowledge, & attitudes; incentives 7. Acting quickly and revising frequently: quick results, timetables, involvement, monitoring, institutionalization 8. Evaluating and celebrating the change: assessing results, celebration, rewards 11
  12. 12. LEADERSHIP ARTICLE ANALYSIS Each student will select two articles from the human services or general management literature and write a short paper summarizing and critiquing each article, using the questions below. The paper should be 4-6 pages in length. Suggested sources include the journals Leadership Quarterly, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Administration in Social Work, and Journal of Applied Psychology. Articles from the on-line journal Leader to Leader, available at the Leader to Leader Institute (http://www.leadertoleader.org/) may also be used. Use the following section headings: Article name, author, source, year, volume, and pages. A summary of key findings or messages. The theoretical framework or model used, if any. Research or data collection methods, data sources. A critique of the strength of the article’s theoretical and evidence base, including its level in the hierarchy of evidence, quality of the source, and research or authority base. Any adaptations in order to apply in human service organizations. Suggestions for practice applications of the findings or assertions in the article. 12
  13. 13. 360-DEGREE FEEDBACK This assignment is designed to enable you to assess your current leadership effectiveness as seen by yourself and a few people who know your work (at the internship or a current or past work setting). Please note that you will not be graded in any way on the substance of the feedback, but only on your thoroughness in collecting and analyzing data, summarizing results, connecting themes with course concepts and theories, and developing a viable action plan for further development. Also please note, for yourself and others, that forms should be filled out anonymously and returned to you for averaging of scores and analysis. Normally, such forms are sent directly to the consultant overseeing the process, but this is not possible here due to the uniqueness of the assignment. Encourage all respondents to check the appropriate boxes in a way that their handwriting will not be recognizable and to provide narrative comments in printed form. If anyone is at all uncomfortable with this process, do not include them. If you have serous problems gathering data, see the instructor as soon as the problem begins to develop. Let each potential respondent read these instructions and call or e-mail the course instructor with any questions or concerns. Indicate your data sources without identifying information, e.g., current or former field instructor, current or former supervisor or subordinates, current or former colleagues, etc. Illustrate your points with examples where relevant. It is not necessary to explain in the paper the instruments or how they were administered. The paper should be 10-13 pages in length. The Leadership Style Indicator: This is a 2-page form at the Electronic Course Reserve. The first page rates whether or not the behavior applies, and the second page indicates the respondent’s opinion on your doing more or less of it. Five copies are included. Fill out one on yourself. Choose potential respondents (you should have at least four respondents besides yourself). Usually this will be your field instructor and three or more people who know your work well. You may also have other students or colleagues at your internship or job fill them out. If you supervise people, or have in the past, ask your supervisees fill out a form. If you want to have more sources, make additional copies of the form for them. Distribute the copies of the form to respondents and agree upon a deadline for them to return them anonymously to you. When you give them the form, let them look at the definitions in the reprint ΑBehavioral Examples of LSI Adjectives≅. Make copies of this for your respondents to use if you like. After the forms are returned, total the frequencies for scores of all respondents but yours and put these next to your own scores. Use "Leadership Style Indicator Description Summary" as the format. Put this summary in the Appendix. Do not include the “Does not describe…” numbers. DO NOT include all the raw data forms in your paper. Summarize the written comments, grouping them by themes and looking for emphasis, patterns, or connections. In your analysis, make sure to refer to the Be More/Be Less results. Add your own observations related to the feedback if you like. Use the reprints "Getting the Most out of Your LSI Feedback" and ΑPositive Leadership Style Characteristics≅ to guide your discussion. In the "Getting the Most out of Your LSI Feedback" reprint, ignore the references to ratios. National Network for Social Work Managers Leader and Manager Competency Model Comprehensive Listing: Download this from Blackboard. This includes only the Leadership 13
  14. 14. section from the full assessment that you completed in the fall. Have your field instructor rate you, and rate yourself on each competency. You may want to consult the fall results after filling out the form for the 360 assessment. You can discuss in your paper any progress you have made, or areas for further development. Attach this as an Appendix item. Competing Values Management Practices survey and Skills Assessment Leadership Role Profile: Refer to this instrument completed in SW 740 to assess your strengths and areas you want to develop. The instrument is at the end of the reading titled “Managing Effectiveness in an Environment of Competing Values”. Update it if you think your scores would be different now. Attach a photocopy of the graph to your paper. Personal Style Inventory: This will be scored and discussed in class. Include your results and analysis of your profile in this paper. Note how strengths and growth areas which emerged in this discussion compare with other pieces of the 360 degree feedback. Your Leadership Aspirations: Briefly discuss your leadership aspirations, visions, and goals, wit particular reference to the setting in which you would like to be a leader and what kind of leader you would like to be come. Refer to specific theories or models of leadership if relevant. Overall Analysis and Development Plan: Analyze the data using concepts and theories covered in class and readings (use citations with specific page numbers) and summarize the findings, noting strengths and opportunities for growth or new experiences. Refer to the results of the different pieces of data, and note any relationships, patterns, or connections. What new insights, if any, did you get from the results? How do your perceptions compare with other raters? Are there any important trends? Use specific examples to illustrate points as possible. You may also include any feedback or discussions you have had with your field instructor as data in this analysis and goal setting process. List three development goals for yourself as a leader and prepare a personal development plan (use as a template the PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN at Blackboard). You are strongly encouraged to visit the instructor to review the results if you have any questions or concerns regarding the meaning or implications of the data. 14
  15. 15. SELF-GRADING CRITERIA FOR THE 360-DEGREE FEEDBACK PAPER Use the following standards (ratings of 4 are at an A level, 3 for B, etc.): Completeness: 4: All respondents as indicated in the assignment were included, all instruments were included 3: Only one required respondent was missing, all instruments were included 2-1: Two or more respondents were missing; one or more instrument was not included Thorough analysis: 4: Each data source was thoroughly analyzed, showing notable insight 3: Each data source was commented upon 2-1: Some data sources were not mentioned Integration of data sources: 4: Explicit connections were made among all data sources, relevant references to theory 3: Connections made among most data sources 2-1: Minimal connection among data sources Thoughtfulness: 4: I gave a great deal of thought to this before I began and during the writing. 3: I gave a fair amount of thought to this. 2: I didn’t think much about this as I was working on it. 1: I did this very quickly, giving it minimum thought. Effort: 4: I treated this assignment very seriously and put a lot of time and energy into it; I gave it my very best effort. 3: I treated this assignment pretty seriously and put a fair amount of time and energy into it. 2: The effort I put into this was a bit above what was minimally necessary. 1: I did the bare minimum (or less) amount of work on this. Honesty: 4: I was very honest and direct with myself, not being afraid to confront things I saw as possible weaknesses, limitations, or contradictions. 3: I was pretty honest and direct with myself and looked critically at what I was thinking. 2: I didn’t go very far below a surface level in looking at myself. 1: I may have faked this in at least some areas. The look of the paper and overall grading factors: A: Exceptional, distinctly superior work; indicates thorough mastery and creativity and excellence in writing. 15
  16. 16. B: General achievement of a high order; intelligent fulfillment of requirements; excellence in some aspects C: Deficiencies in certain areas, including grammar or style; generally below expectations for graduate-level work D, F: Clearly inferior work or lack of fulfillment of basic requirements Provide at the end your numerical rating for each of the above factors. Considering all the factors and ratings above, give yourself a grade, using + or - as you see fit. In the margins and at the end, include some handwritten comments that provide some of your feedback and rationale for the grade. 16
  17. 17. VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gender and Diversity Issues Affila: Journal of Women and Social Work Daly, A., (Ed.) (1998). Workplace diversity: Issues & perspectives. Washington, D.C.: NASW Press. Igelhart, A. (2009). Managing for diversity and empowerment in social services. In Patti, R. (Ed.), The handbook of human services management, 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Lockwood, N. (2003). The Reality of the Impact of Older Workers and Eldercare in the Workplace, HR Magazine. 48(12). Parish, S., Ellison, J., & Parish, J. (2006). Managing diversity, in Edwards, R. & Yankey, J. (Eds.), Effectively Managing Nonprofit Organizations. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 179-194. Salsgiver, R. (1998). The Americans with Disabilities Act & Inclusive Personnel and Employment Policy, in Daly, A., (Ed.). Workplace diversity: Issues & perspectives. Washington, D.C.: NASW Press, 116-131. Singer, T. (1995). Sexual harassment. In R. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., pp. 2148-2157). Washington, DC: NASW Press. Planning & Strategy Strategic Organization (journal) Allison, M. & Kaye, J. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Alter, K. (2004) Social enterprise typology. Virtue Ventures, LLC, retrieved from http://www.virtueventures.com/setypology.pdf, Jan. 12, 2006. Bailey, D. & Koney, K. (2000). Strategic alliances among health and human services organizations: From affiliations to consolidations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Brinckerhoff, P. (2000). Social entrepreneurship: The art of mission-based venture development. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 17
  18. 18. Bryson, J. (2004). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Dees, G., Emerson, J. & Economy, P. (2002). Enterprising nonprofits: A toolkit for social entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dees G., Emerson, J. & Economy, P., Eds. (2002). Strategic tools for social entrepreneurs: Enhancing the performance of your enterprising nonprofit. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Frumpkin, P. (2006). Strategic giving: The art and science of philanthropy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kaplan, R. & Norton, D. (2001). The strategy-focused organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Massarsky, C. & Beinhacker, S. (N.D.) Enterprising nonprofits: Revenue generation in the nonprofit sector. Yale School of Management -The Goldman Sachs Foundation Partnership on Nonprofit Ventures. Retrieved from National Center for Nonprofit Enterprise, http://www.nationalcne.org/. Oster, S., Massarsky, C., & Beinhacker, S., Eds. (2004). Generating and sustaining nonprofit earned income: A guide to successful enterprise strategies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pelton, E. & Baznik, R. (2006). Managing public policy advocacy and government relations, in Edwards, R. & Yankey, J. (Eds.), Effectively Managing Nonprofit Organizations. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 101-137. Stone, M., Bigelow, B., & Crittenden, W. (1999). Research on Strategic Management in Nonprofit Organizations: Synthesis, Analysis, and Future Directions, Administration & society. 31(3), 378-423. Marketing Andreasen, A. (2006). Social Marketing in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Andreasen, A. & Kotler, P. (2003). Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, 6th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Brinckerhoff, P. (2003). Mission-based marketing, 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 18
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