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Planning Teams and Strategic Planning IACT424/924 Corporate Network Design and Implementation
Outline <ul><li>The Strategic Network Plan </li></ul><ul><li>To Plan…or Not? </li></ul><ul><li>The Crouch Diagram </li></u...
The Strategic Network Plan <ul><li>Strategic planning determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where an organization is going over...
To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>The most basic question to ask before starting a strategic planning process is whether to develop ...
To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>What purpose will the strategic plan serve ? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it help the organization ?...
To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>Who should be on the planning team ? </li></ul><ul><li>Does anyone have experience with strategic ...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The future position and value of the organization (present te...
Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization and its purpose (one hundred words or less)...
Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Mission Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadly defines business scope and purpose </li><...
Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>The mission statement answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is our future business?  </li></...
Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Driving Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conditions which &quot;drive&quot; the organizati...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bases on which we want decisions to be made and actions to...
How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>The Values Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The values statement is a summary of the values ...
How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions, ethics, and other standards which influence the w...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>Strategies--where we want to be and what we want to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and o...
Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>The Strategy Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strategy is a statement of direction that s...
Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>Strategy creates a reference point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It focuses on long-term direction...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific action plans to implement our strategies </li></ul></...
How Can We Get There?  -  The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>Tactics can be developed as a  set of goals and accompany...
How Can We Get There?  -  The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>A goal is a written statement describing a defined action...
How Can We Get There?  -  The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>An objective is a written statement describing a specific...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Goals and objectives are hierarchically related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A goals/objectives sta...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Goal  Setting Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: vision, mission, environment </li></ul...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Accomplishing our goals... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the specific task? </li></ul></ul><...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Team  Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams select three top goals by consensus </li></ul></ul...
How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>There are only five: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
Gap Analysis <ul><li>Strategic planning closes the gap between where the company is and where it wants to be </li></ul><ul...
Gap Analysis <ul><li>This will be done by getting answers to such questions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What realignments in...
Gap Analysis <ul><li>These questions represent &quot;critical issues&quot; which are &quot; those major changes , modifica...
The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get ...
The Crouch Diagram <ul><li>For network  design and implementation , I believe the most important questions are: </li></ul>...
Six Tips for Strategic Planning <ul><li>1. Strategic planning is a way of thinking, an on going process </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Six Tips for Strategic Planning <ul><li>4. Emphasize creativity, innovation, and imagination rather than blindly following...
Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>1. Planning the future primarily on the basis of statistical and financial proj...
Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning  <ul><li>3. Giving strategic planning lip-service, but not giving time or support neces...
Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>5. Blaming competitors, customers, payers, regulators, or the sales force for t...
Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>7. Adopting a strategy inherited through the acquisition of a former rival or s...
Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>9. Letting the bean counters in the business office or in accounting or finance...
Four Basic Strategies People oppose loss/disruption but adapt readily change based on building a new organisation and grad...
Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>There is no single perfect strategy …  please consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Degree o...
Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>The Stakes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High stakes need all four strategies in a mix...
Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix the strategies according to the expertise ...
Marketing Strategies STRATEGY III MARKET INNOVATION Low Investment High Return High Risk STRATEGY II MARKET DEVELOPMENT Lo...
Planning Teams <ul><li>The planning design frequently calls for a small team to direct efforts and develop the written doc...
Planning Teams <ul><li>Team Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should understand planning well enough to help others through the...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Establish clear guidelines for membership, for example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>The chief executive and board chair should be included in the planning group <...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>A primary responsibility of a board of directors is strategic planning to effe...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Always include in the group, at least one person who ultimately has authority ...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Involve at least those who are responsible for composing and implementing the ...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Phases in Team membership </li></ul><ul><li>Strong board involvement in determ...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Then more staff involvement in determining the organization’s strategic analys...
Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>In general, where there's any doubt about whether a certain someone should be ...
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  • The most basic question to ask before starting a strategic planning process is whether to develop a strategic plan Unless this question is answered honestly in terms of the organization&apos;s current status and the attitudes of its members and leadership, the planning process may be doomed before it begins
  • If the answers to these questions support the development of a strategic plan, then the process can be initiated. Strategic planning can be accomplished in as little as four to six two-hour planning sessions. (6) It is important to stay focused on the critical issues.
  • Why are we in business? Vision The future position and value of the organization (present tense, seven words or less). The vision statement describes desired future structure, size, services, and markets. It is a sketch, not a blueprint. It shows basic features, not specific dimensions. It is the strategic baseline. It must be challenging and compelling. It must &amp;quot;kick butt&amp;quot;. Effective vision statements capture &amp;quot;the dream&amp;quot;. They are substantive and significant. They make you different. Mission The organization and its purpose (one hundred words or less): Who we are, Who we serve, What products and services we offer, and How we make them available. The mission statement outlines markets, customers, and competitors. It broadly defines business scope and purpose. It presents &amp;quot;a desired position in a predicted future world&amp;quot; and represents the &amp;quot;bulls-eye or target of the strategy&amp;quot; (Yavitz &amp; Newman, Strategy in Action , 1982). It sets down customer needs served and the range of services offered. The mission statement answers: What is our future business? &amp;quot;A mission statement should not commit a firm to what it must do in order to survive but what it chooses to do in order to thrive&amp;quot; (Ackoff, Management in Small Doses , 1986). The greatest obstacle is narrow-mindedness, thinking of the future business as an elaboration of the present. Driving Forces The conditions which &amp;quot;drive&amp;quot; the organization: Products/services offered, Market focus/needs, Technology, Production capability/capacity, Method of sale, Method of distribution, Natural resources, Size and growth, or Profit/return on investment.
  • How do we do business? Values The bases on which we want decisions to be made and actions to be taken. Values are beliefs held by the company. Every organization has them. Values differentiate you from competitors. The values statement is a summary of the values that guide operations and staff. It is the basis for the ethical standards in dealings with employees, patients or customers, vendors, competitors, and payers. The values statement addresses corporate integrity and citizenship, customer benefit, quality, and employee relationships Culture Traditions, ethics, and other standards which influence the way things are accomplished in the organization. Climate The interpersonal and physical environments: is the organization a good place to be and to work?
  • Where are we now? Environmental assessment Identifying factors which can impact our mission: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, competition, and constraints. Strengths and weaknesses are internal to the organization: how can we identify them and capitalize on our strengths and minimize or eliminate our weaknesses? Opportunities and threats are external to the organization: again, how can we identify them and take advantage of the opportunities while countering the threats? Competition and constraints can be either internal or external. Competition is any activity or condition which competes for the same resources. Constraints can arise from social, political, legal, educational, industrial, or managerial activities or conditions which prevent or inhibit accomplishing the organization&apos;s mission. How can we meet the competition and change or accommodate the constraints? The Assessment Statement The assessment statement is an appraisal of the outside forces and inside factors that will affect the company in making its vision and mission realities. The outside forces may be opportunities or threats. They may be changes in demographics, economic conditions, regulation, technology, or competition. The inside factors may be assets or liabilities, and are generally expressed as strengths or weaknesses. Strengths and weaknesses represent factors that are (or should be) under the control of the company. The assessment of internal/external factors impacting present or future prospects is termed a &amp;quot;SWOT&amp;quot; (Strengths/Weaknesses/ Opportunities/Threats) analysis. This starts with an evaluation of how the present internal factors of the company stack up in relation to the organizational attributes to be inferred from the vision statement. Next considered are the external opportunities and threats expected in the transition to the future. Whether an external change or development is an opportunity or a threat depends on the internal strengths and weaknesses of the organization. Some external issues can be both. The external environment of the company must be looked at in regard to: 1. Industry Environment - Trends affecting all industry participants. 2. Competitive Environment - Companies that can supply similar services to the same markets. 3. General Environment - Demographic and regulatory developments. 4. Organization-specific Environment - Developments in relevant markets and customer segments. This is a lot of territory, which is why planning is best done by a team.
  • Where do we want to be? Strategies--where we want to be and what we want to achieve. Goals and objectives--directly support our mission. Goals should be SMART: S-pecific, M-easurable, A-chievable, R-ealistic, and T-imely. The Strategy Statement A strategy is a statement of direction that serves as a central organizational theme guiding and coordinating functional actions. A strategy articulates the nature of a business and its main intentions for the future. A strategy is &amp;quot;the framework which guides those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization&amp;quot;(Tregoe &amp; Zimmerman, Top Management Strategy , 1980). Strategy creates a reference point. It focuses on long-term direction, is qualitative, provides guidance for short-term plans, integrates functional plans into an overall scheme, is realistic and action oriented, and is understood at the top and middle levels of the organization (Yavitz &amp; Newman). A strategy must be clear and lack subtlety.
  • How can we get there? Tactics Specific action plans to implement our strategies--the right people doing the right things at right time in the right way for the right reasons. Action Plans Satisfying our needs (tactics)... What is the specific goal? Who will champion it&apos;s accomplishment? When will action start? End? What tasks are involved? What resources are needed? How shall we monitor? The Goals/Objectives Statement Tactics can be developed as a set of goals and accompanying objectives framing what needs to be done. A goal is a written statement describing a defined action. Goals are broad ends that an organization works towards on an ongoing basis. Goals are general rather than specific, qualitative rather than quantitative, directional rather than measurable, focal rather than achievable, and continuous rather than time-limited. An objective is a written statement describing a specific result, event, or outcome to be accomplished to work towards a particular goal. Objectives are discrete aims to be completed in a preset time frame, they are stated in terms of &amp;quot;what,&amp;quot; &amp;quot;when,&amp;quot; and &amp;quot;who.&amp;quot; Objectives are specific rather than general, quantitative rather than qualitative, measurable rather than directional, achievable rather than focal, and time-limited rather than continuous. Goals and objectives are hierarchically related. A goals/objectives statement takes the form of several goals (usually three or more but less than ten) enumerated in terms of their significance with each goal related to three to five objectives in the order to be accomplished. Goal Setting Process Consider: vision, mission, environment Generate goals Prioritize goals Determine how to defend selections (Goals show &amp;quot;what&amp;quot; not &amp;quot;how.&amp;quot;) Accomplishing our goals... What is the specific task? Who will champion it&apos;s accomplishment? When will action start? End? What activities are involved? What resources are needed? How shall we monitor? Team Process Teams select three top goals by consensus Combine Re-Write, or Create new goals Report to the group, defend choices Begin Action Planning Resources There are only five: people, property, time, money, and technology (or knowledge).
  • Strategic planning closes the gap between where the company is and where it wants to be. This involves translating strategy into the realities of organizational structure, systems, policies, products, and operations. This will be done by getting answers to such questions as: * What realignments in the organizational structure are indicated? * What changes are suggested in leadership style? * What new management skills are necessary? * What will be the implications for policy? These questions represent &amp;quot;critical issues&amp;quot; which are &amp;quot; those major changes , modifications, additions to the organization&apos;s structure and systems, to its capabilities and resources, to its information needs and management that result from setting strategy&amp;quot; (Tregoe &amp; Zimmerman). What makes these issues critical is their functional relationship to the implementation of the strategy.
  • How will we know we&apos;ve arrived? Management--establishing budgets, controls, and reporting systems and designating a coordinator to monitor each element of the strategic plan.
  • The organization&apos;s leader need not be a formal member of the planning team, but leadership and support for the planning process, including implementation, should be clear from the outset
  • With these tips in mind, a planning team can work through the steps of the planning process, adapting and adjusting the procedure to fit the organization and its members
  • Consider the following guidelines when developing the team (Note that reference to boards of directors is in regard to organizations that are corporations.)
  • Consider the following guidelines when developing the team (Note that reference to boards of directors is in regard to organizations that are corporations.)
  • Ask if the board membership is representative of the organization’s clientele and community, and if they are not, the organization may want to involve more representation in planning If the board chair or chief executive balks at including more of the board members in planning, then the chief executive and/or board chair needs to seriously consider how serious the organization is about strategic planning
  • Always include in the group, at least one person who ultimately has authority to make strategic decisions, for example, to select which goals will be achieved and how
  • Consider having the above administrator record the major steps in the planning process to help the organization conduct its own planning when the plan is next updated
  • Note the following considerations: Different types of members may be needed more at different times in the planning process, for example
  • Note the following considerations: Different types of members may be needed more at different times in the planning process, for example
  • Therefore, an organization may be better off to involve board and staff planners as much as possible in all phases of planning. Mixing the board and staff during planning helps board members understand the day-to-day issues of the organization, and helps the staff to understand the top-level issues of the organization
  • Transcript of "02Planning%20Teams%2.."

    1. 1. Planning Teams and Strategic Planning IACT424/924 Corporate Network Design and Implementation
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The Strategic Network Plan </li></ul><ul><li>To Plan…or Not? </li></ul><ul><li>The Crouch Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Six Tips for Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Factors in Selecting Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should Be Involved in Planning? </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Strategic Network Plan <ul><li>Strategic planning determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where an organization is going over the next year or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it's going to get there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it'll know if it got there or not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Far more important than the strategic plan document, is the planning process itself </li></ul>
    4. 4. To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>The most basic question to ask before starting a strategic planning process is whether to develop a strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>The question of whether or not to develop a strategic plan may be based on answers to the following questions: </li></ul>
    5. 5. To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>What purpose will the strategic plan serve ? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it help the organization ? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it be better than the system we use now ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are those in leadership positions committed to strategic planning ? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will it cost in terms of time and personnel effort ? </li></ul>
    6. 6. To Plan…or Not? <ul><li>Who should be on the planning team ? </li></ul><ul><li>Does anyone have experience with strategic planning ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we think we can do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we willing to make decisions about our future? </li></ul><ul><li>Will we actually use the plan? </li></ul><ul><li>What overriding crises would inhibit our ability to plan ? </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived?
    8. 8. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Force </li></ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The future position and value of the organization (present tense, seven words or less) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vision statement describes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desired future structure, size, services, and markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a sketch, not a blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It shows basic features, not specific dimensions. It is the strategic baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It must be challenging and compelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective vision statements capture &quot;the dream“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are substantive and significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They make you different </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization and its purpose (one hundred words or less): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who we are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who we serve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What products and services we offer, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How we make them available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mission statement outlines markets, customers, and competitors </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Mission Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadly defines business scope and purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents &quot;a desired position in a predicted future world&quot; and represents the &quot;bulls-eye or target of the strategy&quot; (Yavitz & Newman, Strategy in Action , 1982) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It sets down customer needs served and the range of services offered. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>The mission statement answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is our future business? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;A mission statement should not commit a firm to what it must do in order to survive but what it chooses to do in order to thrive&quot; (Ackoff, Management in Small Doses , 1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest obstacle is narrow-mindedness, thinking of the future business as an elaboration of the present </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Why Are We in Business? <ul><li>Driving Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conditions which &quot;drive&quot; the organization: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products/services offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market focus/needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production capability/capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and growth, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit/return on investment </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
    15. 15. How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bases on which we want decisions to be made and actions to be taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values are beliefs held by the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every organization has them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values differentiate you from competitors </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>The Values Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The values statement is a summary of the values that guide operations and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the basis for the ethical standards in dealings with employees, patients or customers, vendors, competitors, and payers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The values statement addresses corporate integrity and citizenship, customer benefit, quality, and employee relationships </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. How Do We Do Business? <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions, ethics, and other standards which influence the way things are accomplished in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interpersonal and physical environments: is the organization a good place to be and to work? </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul>
    20. 20. Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>Strategies--where we want to be and what we want to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and objectives--directly support our mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be SMART: S-pecific, M-easurable, A-chievable, R-ealistic, and T-imely </li></ul>
    21. 21. Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>The Strategy Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strategy is a statement of direction that serves as a central organizational theme guiding and coordinating functional actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A strategy articulates the nature of a business and its main intentions for the future </li></ul>
    22. 22. Where Do We Want to Be? <ul><li>Strategy creates a reference point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It focuses on long-term direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides guidance for short-term plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates functional plans into an overall scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is realistic and action oriented, and is understood at the top and middle levels of the organization (Yavitz & Newman) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A strategy must be clear and lack subtlety </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
    24. 24. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific action plans to implement our strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the right people doing the right things at right time in the right way for the right reasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfying our needs (tactics)... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the specific goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will champion it's accomplishment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When will action start? End? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tasks are involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources are needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How shall we monitor? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. How Can We Get There? - The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>Tactics can be developed as a set of goals and accompanying objectives framing what needs to be done </li></ul>
    26. 26. How Can We Get There? - The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>A goal is a written statement describing a defined action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals are broad ends that an organization works towards on an ongoing basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals are general rather than specific, qualitative rather than quantitative, directional rather than measurable, focal rather than achievable, and continuous rather than time-limited </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. How Can We Get There? - The Goals/Objectives Statement <ul><li>An objective is a written statement describing a specific result, event, or outcome to be accomplished to work towards a particular goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives are discrete aims to be completed in a preset time frame, they are stated in terms of &quot;what,&quot; &quot;when,&quot; and &quot;who.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives are specific rather than general, quantitative rather than qualitative, measurable rather than directional, achievable rather than focal, and time-limited rather than continuous </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Goals and objectives are hierarchically related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A goals/objectives statement takes the form of several goals (usually three or more but less than ten) enumerated in terms of their significance with each goal related to three to five objectives in the order to be accomplished. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Goal Setting Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: vision, mission, environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how to defend selections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals show &quot;what&quot; not &quot;how ” </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Accomplishing our goals... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the specific task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will champion it's accomplishment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When will action start? End? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What activities are involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources are needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How shall we monitor? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Team Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams select three top goals by consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-Write, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create new goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report to the group, defend choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin Action Planning </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. How Can We Get There? <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>There are only five: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology (or knowledge) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? GAP ANALYSIS
    34. 34. Gap Analysis <ul><li>Strategic planning closes the gap between where the company is and where it wants to be </li></ul><ul><li>This involves translating strategy into the realities of organizational structure, systems, policies, products, and operations </li></ul>
    35. 35. Gap Analysis <ul><li>This will be done by getting answers to such questions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What realignments in the organizational structure are indicated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What changes are suggested in leadership style? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What new management skills are necessary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will be the implications for policy? </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Gap Analysis <ul><li>These questions represent &quot;critical issues&quot; which are &quot; those major changes , modifications, additions to the organization's structure and systems, to its capabilities and resources, to its information needs and management that result from setting strategy&quot; (Tregoe & Zimmerman) </li></ul><ul><li>What makes these issues critical is their functional relationship to the implementation of the strategy </li></ul>
    37. 37. The Crouch Diagram Why are we in business? How do we do business? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How will we know we’ve arrived? <ul><li>Co-Ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones </li></ul>
    38. 38. The Crouch Diagram <ul><li>For network design and implementation , I believe the most important questions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You need information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Six Tips for Strategic Planning <ul><li>1. Strategic planning is a way of thinking, an on going process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan is never perfect or complete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Keep the planning simple and manageable </li></ul><ul><li>3. Involve the organization’s leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't give away the planning task to support staff or consultants </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Six Tips for Strategic Planning <ul><li>4. Emphasize creativity, innovation, and imagination rather than blindly following a set of planning steps </li></ul><ul><li>5. Don't adopt strategies without careful consideration of how they will be implemented </li></ul><ul><li>6. Strategic planning is not an end in itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a tool to help the organization accomplish its mission </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>1. Planning the future primarily on the basis of statistical and financial projections or forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Over-nighting a thick packet of forms to every branch to complete and return them to the corporate office in 10 business days </li></ul>
    42. 42. Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>3. Giving strategic planning lip-service, but not giving time or support necessary to develop or implement a credible plan </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rolling out a new company-wide, long-term planning process and leaving incentive packages tied to short-term results unchanged </li></ul>
    43. 43. Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>5. Blaming competitors, customers, payers, regulators, or the sales force for the poor strategic performance of the agency or company </li></ul><ul><li>6. Investing in training all line managers in techniques to build an exciting agency future and then downsizing </li></ul>
    44. 44. Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>7. Adopting a strategy inherited through the acquisition of a former rival or simply imitating a current competitor </li></ul><ul><li>8. Starting with a vision or mission that fails to capture the imagination and ownership of the grunts in the field </li></ul>
    45. 45. Ten Pitfalls of Strategic Planning <ul><li>9. Letting the bean counters in the business office or in accounting or finance reduce the future to a series of monthly bottom lines </li></ul><ul><li>10. Trying to step into the future with both feet planted firmly in past because of a myopic view of tomorrow as what we like about today </li></ul>
    46. 46. Four Basic Strategies People oppose loss/disruption but adapt readily change based on building a new organisation and gradually transferring people to the new one Environmental -Adaptive People are mostly compliant, do as they’re told change based on the exercise of authority and the imposition of sanctions Power -Coercive People are social beings and follow social norms change based on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms, & developing commitment to new norms Normative -Re-educative People are rational and follow self interest change based on communication of information and offering incentives Rational -Empirical
    47. 47. Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>There is no single perfect strategy … please consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong: Power-Coercive & Environmental-Adaptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak: Rational-Empirical & Normative-Re-educative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Target Population </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large populations need all four strategies in a mix ‘something for everyone’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>The Stakes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High stakes need all four strategies in a mix ‘nothing left to chance’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Time Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short: Power-Coercive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer: Rational-Empirical & Environmental-Adaptive & Normative-Re-educative </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Factors in Selecting Strategies <ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix the strategies according to the expertise of the Change Agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If organisation is dependant on its people, managements ability to lead is limited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If people are dependant on the organisation, their ability to resist or oppose is limited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual dependency requires negotiation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Marketing Strategies STRATEGY III MARKET INNOVATION Low Investment High Return High Risk STRATEGY II MARKET DEVELOPMENT Low Investment Moderate Return Low Risk STRATEGY I MARKET PENETRATION Low Investment Low Return Very Low Risk Current Services STRATEGY VI Moderate Investment High Return High Risk STRATEGY V DIVERSIFICATION Moderate Investment Moderate Return Moderate Risk STRATEGY IV PRODUCT/SERVICE DEVELOPMENT Moderate Investment Low Return Low Risk New Services in Related Fields STRATEGY IX STARTUP OPERATION High Investment High Return Very High Risk STRATEGY VIII High Investment Moderate Return High Risk STRATEGY VII PRODUCT/SERVICE INNOVATION High Investment Low Return High Risk New Services in Unrelated Fields New Customers in Unrelated Fields New Customers in Related Fields Current Customers
    51. 51. Planning Teams <ul><li>The planning design frequently calls for a small team to direct efforts and develop the written document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input should come from the entire organization so that each member has a stake in the process and outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team members should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work well together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be committed to the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be respected by their peers </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Planning Teams <ul><li>Team Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should understand planning well enough to help others through the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If this is a first-time experience for everyone involved, out side expertise may be useful to provide an initial orientation or a jump start </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Establish clear guidelines for membership, for example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those directly involved in planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who will provide key information to the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who will review the plan document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who will authorize the document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>The chief executive and board chair should be included in the planning group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should drive development and implementation of the plan </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>A primary responsibility of a board of directors is strategic planning to effectively lead the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, insist that the board be strongly involved in planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including assigning a planning committee (often, the same as the executive committee) </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Always include in the group, at least one person who ultimately has authority to make strategic decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that as many stakeholders as possible are involved in the planning process </li></ul>
    57. 57. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Involve at least those who are responsible for composing and implementing the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Involve someone to administrate the process, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranging meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping to record key information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping with flipcharts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring status of prework, etc </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Phases in Team membership </li></ul><ul><li>Strong board involvement in determining the organization’s strategic direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>Then more staff involvement in determining the organization’s strategic analysis to determine its current issues and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Then primarily the staff to determine the strategies needed to address the issues and meet the goals </li></ul>
    60. 60. Who Should Be Involved in Planning? <ul><li>In general, where there's any doubt about whether a certain someone should be involved in planning, it's best to involve them </li></ul>
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