21 Century Skills w pigułce


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21 Century Skills w pigułce

  1. 1. 21st Century Skills MapDESIGNED IN COOPERATION W I T H T H E N AT I O N A L S C I E N C E T E AC H E R S A S S O C I AT I O N ( N S TA )This 21st Century Skills Map The Partnership advocates for the integration of 21st Century Skills into K-12is the result of hundreds ofhours of research, development education so that students can advance their learning in core academic subjects.and feedback from educatorsand business leaders acrossthe nation. The Partnership The Partnership has forged alliances with key national organizations that represent the core academic subjects, including Socialhas issued this map for Studies, English, Math, Science and Geography. As a result of these collaborations, the Partnership has developed this mapthe core subject of Science. to illustrate the intersection between 21st Century Skills and Science. The maps will enable educators, administrators andThis tool is available at policymakers to gain concrete examples of how 21st Century Skills can be integrated into core subjects.www.21stcenturyskills.org. A 21st Century Skills B Skill Definition C Interdisciplinary Theme D Sample Student Outcomes/Examples An example from the Science 21st Century Skills Map illustrates sample outcomes for teaching Flexibility and Adaptability. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 1
  2. 2. Science and 21st Century Skills In the context of science education, 21st Century Skills offer some new ways of framing what have long been valued approaches in the science classroom and some new ideas for enriching students’ investigations with cross-disciplinary modes of learning. The inverse is also true. Science contributes its rich traditions of critical and creative thinking, applied technologies, and collaborative work— along with high standards for communication and personal responsibility— to the benefit of 21st Century Skills discussions in all discipline areas. The linkages between the 21st Century and Science skill sets detailed in this map are rooted in the inquiry, process knowledge, experimental design, and scientific habits of mind elements of these traditions, as referenced in the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy1 and the Atlas of Science Literacy2, and the National Science Education Standards3, and extrapolated from the practices of scientific research as they are changing in the 21st Century. Derived from key principles and reflecting emerging best practices, this document is intended to provide snapshot images of what K-12 science education can look like when students are provided opportunities for technology-rich collaboration, creation, contribution, and metacognition in authentic ways that enhance—not replace—robust science content. This document is neither a set of standards nor a comprehensive sequence of activities, but rather a starting point for ideas and discussions that begin with current practice and look forward. 1 American Association for the Advancement of Science Project 2061. (1993) Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2 American Association for the Advancement of Science Project 2061. (2001, 2007) Atlas of Science Literacy, Volumes 1 and 2. Washington, D.C.: AAAS/ National Science Teachers Association. http://www.project2061.org/publications/atlas/default.htm 3 National Research Council. National Science Education Standards. (1996). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4962 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 2
  3. 3. LEARNING AND INNOVATION Creativity and Innovation 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Science is, by its nature, OUTCOME: Students provide concrete OUTCOME: Students are able to describe OUTCOME: Students explain how scientific a creative human examples of science as a way of thinking that how science and engineering involve creative understanding builds on itself over time, and how endeavor. Scientific and involves both systematic and creative processes processes that include generating and testing advancements in science depend on creative technical innovations that anyone can apply as they ask questions, ideas, making observations, and formulating thinking based on the knowledge and innovations are advanced through solve problems, invent things, and develop ideas explanations; and can apply these processes in of others. processes that build on about the world around them. their own investigations. previous knowledge and EXAMPLE: Students choose a scientific theory the application of theory EXAMPLE: Students examine the ways they EXAMPLE: Student teams design plans for a and research the history of its development, to real world situations. use scientific thinking and experimental problem device that will assist people with disabilities then use concept mapping or timelining Modern societal and solving processes in their day to day activities and create 3-D sketches of their device using software to diagram previous discoveries, ideas, environmental challenges such as cooking, gardening, playing strategy simple computer aided design software. The class and technologies upon which the theory was require new and creative games, fixing a bike, or taking care of a pet. For develops criteria for peer review and then teams predicated and the different disciplines from scientific and technical example, as part of a class gardening project, pass their plans to another team that makes which previous knowledge was drawn. Students approaches, as well as students produce an ongoing podcast or use a recommendations for refinements to improve the report on how this theory represented a creative wiki to illustrate their processes for determining original plans. All teams debrief together on their way of approaching this scientific question. investigations that are the ideal conditions for growth, nutrition, and experience with the engineering/design process more cross-disciplinary. maintenance through the class’s design activities. and identify the different scientific disciplines they had to draw upon to create their design (biology, physics, engineering, etc.) and how those disciplines interrelate when applied to solving the design problem. Students also discuss what other expertise could be drawn upon to improve their designs including input from people with the disabilities their designs address. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 3
  4. 4. LEARNING AND INNOVATION Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Critical thinking and OUTCOME: Students construct their OUTCOME: Students plan and conduct OUTCOME: Students understand that scientific creative problem solving own scientific understanding and develop scientific investigations and write detailed research and experimentation are guided by are the hallmarks of the their scientific process skills by asking explanations based on their evidence. fundamental concepts, and that investigations are scientific process. Students scientific questions, designing and conducting Students compare their explanations to those conducted for different reasons, such as exploring can use abilities developed investigations, constructing explanations made by scientists and relate them to their own new phenomena, building on previous results, in science to think from their observations, and discussing their understandings of the natural and comparing different theories, and addressing logically and reasonably explanations with others. designed worlds. problems facing society. about concepts they are learning, and to apply EXAMPLE: Students plan and conduct EXAMPLE: Students research how the EXAMPLE: Student teams use digital libraries them to their everyday experiments to explore the properties (e.g., physical and chemical properties of different and other online resources to research different lives. Compelling, and absorbency, insulation, durability) of various natural and human-designed materials affect nanoscale materials, including information about often complex, problems natural and human-designed fabrics and record their decomposition under various conditions. their surface to volume ratio. Using computer- are at the root of many their findings into a shared class database, wiki, They compare their findings to the material aided design or other digital design/drafting science investigations. or digital lab notebook. They then use their data evidence used by scientists to reconstruct the tools, students apply this information by creating to design a suit of clothing for use in a high- lives of past cultures, as well as create a map designs for houses that use nanomaterials to performance activity, such as working outdoors of their classroom as a future archeological improve energy efficiency, safety, and durability, in polar regions or competing as an Olympic site (including written descriptions of artifacts) and lower costs of construction. athlete. Students share design choices with their discovered by scientists. peers in the form of an advertisement they create to market the product. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 4
  5. 5. LEARNING AND INNOVATION Communication 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Effective communication OUTCOME: Students prepare and interpret OUTCOME: Students can identify conventions OUTCOME: Students model the practices is central to scientific a variety of methods for demonstrating for writing and speaking scientifically that of research science by informing others about research practices. understanding and explaining the results of distinguish scientific communication from other their work, developing effective explanations, Scientists describe investigations including charts and graphs, types of expression, and describe reasons behind constructing and defending reasoned arguments, their work so that diagrams and illustrations, photographic images, those differences such as the need in science for and responding appropriately to critical comments the research can be and informational and procedural text. precision, detail, and evidence over opinion. about their explanations. duplicated, confirmed, EXAMPLE: A class envisions their school as EXAMPLE: Students view video samples from EXAMPLE: Students produce a school or and advanced by others, a science museum and creates exhibit signage a variety of sources of people speaking about a district-wide electronic journal to communicate but also understood by including text, images, and/or graphs to explain science-related topic (e.g., news reporters, news work they are doing in their science classes on public, non-technical interviews of science experts, video podcasts of a specific unit or topic. Students develop criteria audiences. Scientific the science around them, within the school and on the grounds (e.g., how the water fountain college lectures, segments from public television for peer review and critique each other’s work, thinking is communicated documentaries, or student-made videos of modeling the process for professional journals. in many different ways works, information about school energy usage, or natural history information for identifying parents and professionals in their community). including oral, written, Students rate the videos on the degree to which tree species around the school). mathematical, and the person sounded scientific, then identify graphical representations characteristics of speech pattern, word choice, OUTCOME: Students can explain why of ideas and observations. level of detail, and other factors that influenced mathematical equations and formulae are used as their perceptions. Students discuss ways that representations of scientific phenomena and as a OUTCOME: Students understand that models means of communicating scientific ideas. scientific communication differs from other are simplified representations of real objects forms of expression, and why those differences and processes, and that models serve as a EXAMPLE: Student teams design an might be useful to scientists, then design a card means to communicate ideas and knowledge observational or experimental investigation to game, board game, or video game that will help about how things work. teach their peers some of the “rules” of science explore mathematical relationships commonly communication that they’ve observed. applied in science, as appropriate to the level EXAMPLE: Students seek out a variety of of their math coursework. Students collect two- and three-dimensional models in their and analyze data to support an evidence-based school and home (e.g., a globe, a diagram of description of their chosen mathematical the human body, a toy car) and create a table OUTCOME: Students are familiar with the use relationship. For example, to explore change over to record each model’s type, purpose, and of computational models as tools to describe and time equations in their algebra class, students how it varies from a real object or process predict real-world phenomena. measure the initial circumferences of several (e.g., changes in scale, spatial relationships, balloons filled with helium and several filled by air composition, shape, color, complexity). EXAMPLE: Students interview local scientists exhaled from their lungs. Then make additional Student groups discuss why different models (e.g., university researcher, local television measurements at regular intervals and plot the are useful for different purposes. meteorologist, medical technician) about the ways changes in size versus time. Students discuss in which computer models inform their work. the different rates of change for the two types Students create a digital gallery of images from of balloons and determine the mathematical the different models accompanied by audio files of equations that best describe the results of their the interviews. change over time investigation. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 5
  6. 6. LEARNING AND INNOVATION Collaboration 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Science is inherently a OUTCOME: Students work OUTCOME: Students work collaboratively OUTCOME: Students collaborate collaborative process with collaboratively with others, both with others, either virtually or face-to-face, with peers and experts during 21st Century emphases in small and large groups, in their while participating in scientific discussions and scientific discourse and on interdisciplinary and science classroom. appropriately using claims, evidence, and reasoning. appropriately defend arguments international research, using scientific reasoning, logic, as well as increasing EXAMPLE: Students work with EXAMPLE: Working in collaboration and modeling. collaboration between other local schools and community organizations with other classes in the school, “hard” science and social to conduct a backyard species count. The class students investigate water runoff EXAMPLE: Students participate in a “citizen sciences. A trend toward creates a wiki for collaborators across the in their school grounds and use science” project such as a service learning greater specialization in community to learn the data protocol, enter GPS and GIS technologies to create project, or an environmental issue specific to scientific careers requires their data, and post digital photos. Scientific relevant maps. Students are assigned the community; through which they have the researchers to rely on the experts use the wiki to inform their research specific interdependent roles based on opportunity to work collaboratively with local disciplinary expertise of and help participants identify species. Students their interests and talents including background and remote research scientists, organizations, others as collaborators in present their findings to a local government research, data gathering, GPS and GIS use, creating agencies, and/or universities. Student teams blog entity such as a parks commission or urban graphics, and communicating findings. Students about their experiences and how they connect their work. planning council. meet in their investigation teams, and also meet to their classroom learning, then present their with students in other classes who share their research findings to an external audience, such as role in the project (i.e., GPS operators from each a science fair, junior academy of science, or local class meet together to discuss their work). chapter of a scientific professional society. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 6
  7. 7. INFORMATION, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY LITERACY Information Literacy 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Being information literate OUTCOME: Students are able OUTCOME: Students are OUTCOME: Students are able in the context of science to locate reliable scientific able to locate reliable scientific to determine the verifiability of involves assessing the information in reputable print information in reputable evidence presented in print and credibility, validity, and and electronic resources. reference books, back issues electronic resources to evaluate reliability of information, of journals and magazines, on scientific claims. including its source and EXAMPLE: Students gather websites, and in computer databases. the methods through menus that contain nutrition facts from local EXAMPLE: Students critique the which the information restaurants (including fast food restaurants) and EXAMPLE: Students compare databases of validity of a health profiling or self-assessment and related data are compare the dietetic information with published health-related information (e.g., blood pressure) survey available through general public media derived, in order to medical recommendations for daily intake. These to determine patterns of distribution and (e.g., a diet quiz accessed through a fitness critically interpret scientific comparisons can be drawn from various print implications of those patterns to different magazine website). They then gather scientific arguments and the media, pamphlets, and websites. populations. They then take their own blood research-based resources to assess the accuracy application of science pressure readings, graphically represent those of recommendations made by the tool. Finally, concepts. readings, and compare them to the public they design their own diet assessment tool databases. making modifications based on their research. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 7
  8. 8. INFORMATI ON, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY LITERACY Media Literacy 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Media interpretation OUTCOME: Students can generate OUTCOME: Students are able to identify and OUTCOME: Students are able to critique claims of scientific information guiding questions to help them critique arguments in which the claims are not that people make when they select only data may be different from evaluate media claims based consistent with the evidence given. that support the claim, and ignore data that may the interpretation by the on evidence rather than simply contradict it. scientific community of believing the message as presented. EXAMPLE: Student teams research a local that same information. environmental issue and prepare editorial essays EXAMPLE: Students are provided multiple Complexities in science EXAMPLE: From a variety of sources, in the style of a media release, making sure to examples of popular press and news media do not always convert students collect examples of commercially include evidence of the problem and specific articles, as well as articles in more scientifically- well into short media available products claiming to be “green” claims they make based on that evidence. oriented magazines, about global climate change. messages. or “eco-friendly”. Students discuss the Students develop criteria for peer review, then Students develop criteria for reviewing the manufacturer’s basis for each claim, and how exchange their products and critique each other’s documents including variables of credibility, the meaning of these terms might be different work for consistency of claim and evidence. validity, sources cited, etc. Students evaluate the for different groups (e.g., consumers, scientists, articles, identifying the claims made in each and medical professionals, environmental regulators); the evidence or data that support those claims. then generate lists of questions that different Students then rank the articles, as they interpret groups might use to evaluate these claims. them, from most to least accurate and scientifically defensible. They are then led in discussion of the rankings and any differences between the popular and more scientific press. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 8
  9. 9. INFORMATION, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY LITERACY Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Literacy 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Increased computing OUTCOME: Students can give OUTCOME: Students can articulate how OUTCOME: Students can provide examples capacity enables examples that demonstrate how technology is essential to science for such of how new technologies make it possible for large-scale data technology extends the ability of purposes as sample collection and treatment, scientists to extend their research in new ways analysis, wide-array people to observe and interact measurement, data collection and storage, or to undertake entirely new lines of research, instrumentation, remote with the world including how computation, and communication of information. and how the very availability of new technology sensing, and advanced people communicate, gain knowledge, itself often sparks scientific advances. scientific modeling. ICT and express ideas. EXAMPLE: Students participate innovations provide new in an established national or EXAMPLE: Students are introduced to a variety tools for doing science EXAMPLE: Students exchange “biome boxes” international e-science initiative of computational models used by scientists including gathering and with students from various parts of the country. that uses distributed ICT to study complex biological interactions, such analyzing data and These boxes that contain actual or virtual networks to collect scientific data. as population dynamics. Working in teams, communicating results. examples and/or artifacts of living things from Students gather and analyze local students engage in a conceptual design process their own community are sent to various data or deploy local sensors that contribute to for a computational model that could be used other schools. They then telecommunicate a larger computer-network enabled database. to investigate a particular ecosystem, creating with students in the schools with whom they Examples include studies of butterflies, general schematics that represent different exchanged boxes, learning more about those amphibians, bird migrations, local climate subsystems that would be part of the model, parts of the country and the life in them. variations, and radioastronomy signal analyses. what direct and remotely sensed data inputs would be involved, what external datasets might be useful overlays, what calculations would be run, and what data outputs would be generated. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 9
  10. 10. LIFE AND C AREER SKILLS Flexibility & Adaptability 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Flexibility and adaptability OUTCOME: Students can provide illustrative OUTCOME: Students can identify OUTCOME: Students are able to revise their are valued in science examples of science as an ongoing process that the difference between scientific own scientific ideas and hypotheses based on because evidence-based includes expanding, revising, and sometimes theories (which can be improved new evidence or information. reasoning can change discarding theories based on new evidence, and through new evidence and previously held ideas and that our understanding of a topic can change as expanded through exceptions to EXAMPLE: Students design their hypotheses. Over time, more research is completed. observed patterns) and beliefs (which own means of observing and/ changing technologies may or may not be based on evidence). or testing the Earth’s direction and expanding scientific EXAMPLE: Students research the 2006 of rotation that includes working understanding create new re-designation of Pluto from the status of planet EXAMPLE: Students examine satellite images remotely with students in other fields of interdisciplinary to that of minor planet. Teams of students of the Earth and distinguish geologic structures countries to investigate the commonly study and new ways of prepare arguments and create multimedia props from signs of plant and animal activity—including held idea that water goes down a drain in doing things. recommending for or against the reclassification human-created patterns—then compare those different directions in the northern and based on scientific reasoning and hold a patterns to images of other planets and their southern hemispheres. classroom debate. moons. This information is used as the basis for discussion on what evidence for life on other planets we might be able to detect. OUTCOME: Students are OUTCOME: Students can able to successfully apply their identify how improvements in scientific knowledge and scientific scientific instruments can lead OUTCOME: Students can provide examples reasoning skills to a variety of to new discoveries. that show how people often rely on scientific situations and new areas of study. information to inform personal choices EXAMPLE: Students study the discovery and societal practices, and that EXAMPLE: Student teams choose a habit of microscopic life forms as the source of changes in scientific understanding or practice in which they engage that carries infectious disease. Using inks that illuminate can affect those choices. risks about which they have concerns (sport under ultraviolet light, students work in teams injuries, flying in an airplane, eating fatty foods). to determine the most effective hand-washing EXAMPLE: Students research They research the relative risks for those techniques and then create posters to teach the historical development of a activities compared to other activities about their recommended protocol to fellow students. safety technology such as car seat belts or bike which they don’t generally worry. Students helmets, and examine product test data and develop questions and data analysis measures actuarial data from online resources. Students for an online survey that they administer to present their findings, including multimedia their classmates. They analyze survey results to charts and graphs, and discuss the implications explore any discrepancies they discover in their of laws that require the use of these devices. research between perception and data. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 10
  11. 11. LIFE AND C AREER SKILLS Initiative & Self-Direction 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade As the nature of science OUTCOME: Students are able to design an OUTCOME: Students are aware of the broad OUTCOME: Students have a variety of is to raise questions, investigation based on a question they have range of careers and pastimes that involve opportunities to read/view and interpret scientific science cultivates initiative generated from their own curiosity. scientific inquiry. information through both popular and professional and self-direction, and media in areas that interest them, and are able encourages lifelong EXAMPLE: Students identify a favorite sport, EXAMPLE: The school holds an event to to discuss their thoughts and questions on these learning. Curiosity hobby, or other area of personal interest and showcase opportunities for students to be topics informally with peers. motivates scientific keep a question journal (paper or digital) involved in amateur science interest groups and thinkers to make careful about that interest, writing down a wide range citizen science research projects. Representatives EXAMPLE: Students form discussion groups observations and try of questions they may have about it. After from local astronomy societies, rock and mineral or join with existing groups, either face-to-face things out as a way to a month, students examine their questions clubs, birdwatching groups, science museum or through online social networking tools, to seek answers to questions and categorize them by those that could be volunteer programs, university outreach, and enable regular conversations around science- and to develop solutions scientifically tested, researched, or observed other informal learning groups are invited related topics (current events, books or articles, to identified problems. versus those that would be answered by to present. Students interview guests using television programs, the accuracy of the science opinion. Finally, they share their questions classroom-developed questions that inquire in Hollywood movies). They create shared web with peers and through discussion, determine about initiative, self-direction, and external browser bookmarks to identify resources of whether or not they are investigable questions. influences that affected their career choices and interest for their peers. scientific interests. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 11
  12. 12. LIFE AND C AREER SKILLS Social & Cross-Cultural Skills 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Social and cross-cultural OUTCOME: Students can describe OUTCOME: Students are able to structure OUTCOME: Students can explain skills are important to ways that people from many scientific discussions to allow for differing how personal, societal, and cultural science because doing cultures, backgrounds, and abilities opinions, observations, experiences, and perspectives influence the scientific science involves many participate in science. perspectives. questions people pursue, and different kinds of work how people interpret scientific and engages men and EXAMPLE: Students interact via EXAMPLE: Students learn basic group information. women of all ages, email or webconferencing with teams facilitation techniques and decide as a class how backgrounds, and physical of international scientists, working together on to apply them to improve their own scientific EXAMPLE: After studying the abilities. Science is a research initiative such as the International processes and discussions. Students identify background content of a current advanced by synthesizing Space Station, the Intergovernmental Panel on and rank higher-to-lower quality facilitation scientific or technology related issue, the different observations, Climate Change, or an Antarctic research station. and discussion techniques and norms. Students discovery, or event, student teams use online perspectives, opinions, and videotape class labs and other science activities news sources and internet radio broadcasts interpretations of many to critique their own application of equitable from other countries to compare and contrast individuals. practices, using classroom-developed protocols. international coverage of the topic with that of U.S. media. Students identify different uses of wording, including persuasive, derogatory, etc. Students examine how the informational and editorial aspects of reporting on science might be different in other cultures and in diverse American sub-cultures, then use social networking tools or wikis to discuss these differences with students in other regions of the country or other countries. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 12
  13. 13. LIFE AND C AREER SKILLS Productivity & Accountability 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade The high ethical standards OUTCOME: Students identify a variety of tools OUTCOME: Students can articulate the OUTCOME: Students can and collaborative and techniques that scientists use to gather importance of accurate data collection and describe and provide examples nature of science scientific information depending on what it is record keeping in science, and are able to of how people may be impacted promote expectations they want to know and the circumstances under demonstrate good practices for data collection, positively or negatively by the for accountability and which data will be collected. and identify common sources of error. outcomes of scientific studies, productivity. Scientists technical developments, and scientific use a variety of tools and EXAMPLE: Student teams use various methods EXAMPLE: Student groups in a physical science approaches applied to real world problems. instruments to enhance to record weather data over a two-week period. class design experiments to examine how their ability to produce One group tracks only what is reported in the different sources of error can impact the results EXAMPLE: Students engage in a role-playing and replicate accurate news, one group writes down their observations, of a lab activity focused on the relationship scenario based on real science and geography data, and to meet another makes photographic records of daily between force, mass, and acceleration. Groups that models a city’s decision to either rebuild expectations for sharing weather, another takes readings using probeware. document both the experiment design and their or relocate homes that have been destroyed their findings with the Students discuss the different data collection results, then give their descriptions to another in a natural disaster. Student roles include scientific community and techniques and their relative accuracy, their group to repeat the experiment based solely scientists, civil engineers, government officials, usefulness at different scales and for different on their instructions. Groups compare methods relief workers, insurance industry representatives, general public. purposes, and other pros and cons. and data for their different trials and discuss news media, and homeowners. The class develops similarities and differences in their results. criteria for scientific use of data, analysis processes, and accountability of the impact for different roles on project outcomes. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 13
  14. 14. LIFE AND C AREER SKILLS Leadership & Responsibility 4th Grade 8th Grade 12th Grade Science involves a code OUTCOME: Students can describe how doing OUTCOME: Students understand the OUTCOME: Students recognize the role of of conduct that is openly science carries responsibilities for assuring the importance of proper citations and respect for science in society and can identify potential and frequently discussed, safety and rights of others and can provide intellectual property rights. sources of bias and influence that can affect with high standards for examples of their own responsibilities while scientific research and the use and reporting of ethical responsibility doing science activities at school. EXAMPLE: Students investigate ways that the scientific information. around referencing the works and ideas of others are referenced in work of others, drawing EXAMPLE: Students visit a farm, zoo, or animal different types of media including scientific papers, EXAMPLE: Students gather information conclusions based on shelter to research the basic requirements and news magazines, television programs, and both about alternative energies such as biofuels, evidence, recognizing the ethical issues of keeping live animals in captivity, professional and popular science websites. They wind generators, or nuclear power plants potential for bias, avoiding including a focus on the safety of the animals, gather and compare what they consider to be from a variety of sources. They document political and financial handlers, and visitors. They discuss what would good and bad examples. Students discuss why the location and format of the information, influence, constructing be appropriate and inappropriate ways to keep citations are important and what the challenges what organizations or individuals published it, and conducting safe animals in the classroom and use digital images are for proper referencing (e.g., tracking how it was funded, and the key arguments or investigations, and (photos or video) and text to create a handbook ownership of online materials), then use screen statements made. They analyze and categorize for keeping live animals. capture software to create a tutorial for their the information to determine potential biases appropriately applying peers that explains guidelines and tools (including and to distinguish opinion and hearsay from research results and other citation software and social bookmarking sites) claims based on evidence. scientific knowledge. that can help them adhere to proper intellectual property practices. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 06/09 14
  15. 15. Interdisciplinary Themes Global Awareness Science is an international enterprise that benefits from cross-cultural perspectives and multi-national collaborations. Many pressing issues of scientific study can only be addressed on a global systems scale. Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy Scientific information and the products of science and technology research are increasingly integral to the U.S. and global economies, including new business sectors that are rapidly arising from interdisciplinary research areas (e.g., biotechnology, nanotechnology, alternative energies). Funding basic scientific research and development is an essential precursor to sparking science and technology business innovations. Understanding basic science concepts behind commercial products and services can help inform consumer choices, and the scientific processes of data interpretation and modeling facilitate financial analysis and planning. Civic Literacy Scientific literacy is important to making informed civic decisions, as communities increasingly must determine policies and regulations related to environmental health, natural resources management, civil engineering, and human wellness. Health Literacy Health literacy is developed through understanding of human biology and the role of humans in global ecosystems, including concepts of basic biology, disease transmission, nutrition, biotechnology, and bioethics. It is important that scientific knowledge and peer-reviewed research inform how health science information is gathered, evaluated, and applied at scales from personal choices to healthcare delivery to federal policymaking. 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 11/08 15
  16. 16. Supporting StructuresThe National Science Education Standards (NSES) (National Research Council, 1996) recommend areas of “less” and “more” educational emphasis, many of which alignwith the 21st Century Skills supporting structure categories. 21st Century learning tools, examples of which are provided in the table below, can enrich and supportthe NSES recommendations. Some of the emphasis statements have been paraphrased or combined relative to how they appear in the NSES. Less Emphasis on… More Emphasis on… 21st Century Tools21st Century Standards • Acquiring information and recitation of • Understanding scientific concepts, • Use of probeware, mobile media devices, acquired knowledge developing abilities of inquiry, and learning GIS and various online tools for data subject matter disciplines in the context of collection, as well as online data sets inquiry, technology, science in personal and • Online collaboration, conferencing, and social perspectives, and history and nature communication tools for authentic research of science with peers and scientists • Social networking sites • Digital librariesAssessment of • Using summative tests of discrete, factual • Assessing rich, well-structured knowledge, • Electronic portfolios21st Century Skills information that is easily measured as well as scientific understanding and • Online collaboration, conferencing, • Assessing to learn what students do not reasoning communication tools know, and assessing only achievement • Engaging students in ongoing assessment of • Social networking sites their work and that of others • Media creation tools including software • Assessing to learn what students do for graphic design, digital photo and video understand, as well as achievement and editing, and presentations opportunity to learn21st Century • Rigidly following curriculum • Selecting and adapting curriculum • Access to the Web and personal computingCurriculum and • Presenting knowledge through lecture, text, • Guiding students in active, extended • Brainstorming, concept mapping softwareInstruction and demonstration scientific inquiry • Computer-aided design, modeling software, and • Asking for recitation of acquired knowledge • Providing opportunities for scientific simulation software • Providing textbook and lecture-driven discussion and debate among students • Digital production tools (digital photography curriculum with broad coverage of • Providing curriculum that supports the and video) unconnected factual information standards, includes a variety of components • GIS and GPS tools (e.g., laboratories, emphasizing inquiry and • Graphics software (drawing, painting, image field trips), and includes natural phenomena editing) and science-related social issues that • Digital libraries students encounter in everyday life • Multimedia resources (images, video, audio, animations, simulations, and educational games) • Online courses and self-paced learning modules 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 11/08 16
  17. 17. Supporting Structures (continued) Less Emphasis on… More Emphasis on… 21st Century Tools21st Century • Seeing teachers as based in classrooms, • Treating teachers as professionals and as • Ongoing professional development toProfessional Development learning alone members of collegial communities promote an inquiry approach in the context • Separating theory and practice • Integrating theory and practice in the of laboratory and field, as well as through • Transmitting teaching and content school setting use of technology knowledge through lectures and reading • Encouraging teachers to learn about • Collaboration, conferencing, communication • Seeing teachers as consumers of knowledge science and science teaching through tools (online) • Providing one-shot sessions, courses and inquiry and investigation • Social networking tools workshops to teachers as technicians • Employing long-term coherent plans • Online courses and self-paced learning including a variety of activities for reflective modules practitioners • Seeing teachers as producers of knowledge • Providing opportunities both for continual learning and networking for school improvement21st Century • Treating students alike and responding to • Responding to individual students’ • Brainstorming and concept mappingLearning Environment them as a whole interests, strengths, experiences, and needs software • Maintaining responsibility and authority by • Supporting a classroom community with • Online authoring, brainstorming, graphics, the teacher, and supporting competition cooperation, shared responsibility, and spreadsheet and presentation software rather than collaboration respect • Online collaboration, conferencing, • Learning opportunities that favor one group • Providing challenging opportunities for all communication tools students to learn science • Resources in the local community including people, places, institutions, and information • Digital libraries • Social networking sites • Media creation tools including software for graphic design, digital photo and video editing, and presentations • Online courses and self-paced learning modules 177 N Church Avenue, Suite 305 Tucson, AZ 85701 520-623-2466 21stcenturyskills.org Publication date: 11/08 17