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THE ENVIRONMENTIN SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA              UNIT 2   Geography of 3º E.S.O.  José Antonio Barrera Lara         José...
1. GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF SPAIN:                -Take your maps- European peninsula (Southwestern side). Situated in te...
José Antonio Barrera Lara   3
José Antonio Barrera Lara   4
Coordinates:Latitude: Northern: 43º47’36”N / Southern: 36º00’08”N.    Longitude: Eastern: 3º19’05” E / Western: 9º17’46” W...
Neighbouring countries:           Portugal           Andorra           France           Morocco           United Kingdom  ...
Territory:             Part of the Iberic peninsula             Canary Islands             Balearic Islands             Ce...
2. THE RELIEF AND THE SOILS OF SPAIN:   Distinguish between:   - Peninsular relief: formed by the Plateau and its mountain...
2.1. THE PLATEAU:             Peninsular center.             Surrounded by mountain ranges.             Highlands and lowl...
2.2. Plateau borders:Galaico-leonés Massif: Northeastern part of the peninsula peninsular. In the coasts:   rías. Montes d...
2.3. The exterior depressions:1. Ebro depression: isolated from Mediterranean Sea by a group ofmountains.2. Guadalquivir d...
2.4. Exterior mountain ranges:         1. Basque Mountains: between Cantabric Mountains and Pirineos. Many            vall...
2.5. Coasts:•Wide  and varied.•North: rocky.•Highlight the rías.•At the South and Mediterranean coast: sand beaches and ro...
2.6. The soils:                According to the type of rock:     Siliceous (granite and slate): peninsular west.     Li...
3.1 Rivers: according to its slope:1. Cantabric slope: numerous, shorts, flowing, regular scheme. Ej.: Bidasoa,   Nervión,...
José Antonio Barrera Lara   16
3.2. Lakes and lagoons:According to its origin, we can distinguish three types:        1. Endogenous: movements of Earths ...
4. WEATHER AND VEGETATION:José Antonio Barrera Lara              18
4.1. WEATHER:                 In general: •Terperature  rises to the South. •Higher temperature range in the interior. •Pr...
José Antonio Barrera Lara   20
Kinds of weather:Oceanic: mild temperatures. Heavy rains during the whole year. North and Northwestof the peninsula.Medite...
José Antonio Barrera Lara   22
4.2. Vegetation and naturallandscape: Of the most varied and richest in Europe.                José Antonio Barrera Lara  ...
The most important formations and landscapes(according to the weather) are:1. Oceanic: decidious forests. Ex.: oak, beech,...
Many natural spaces are protected by law:National Parks       We highlight:                       Doñana                  ...
5. NATURAL RESOURCES:Overall: Spain: poor or already overexploited natural resources. Just profitablemines. Few forests (d...
José Antonio Barrera Lara   27
José Antonio Barrera Lara   28
6. The physical environment in Andalusia:                                    The peninsular south.                  José A...
6.1. El relieve:                                                                    Main units: 1. Sierra Morena: Separate...
6.2. Continental waters:            a) Rivers: according to slope:   Atlantic: Highlights Guadalquivir. Irregular regime. ...
6.3. El clima:        a) Highlights mediterranean climate, summer drought and softness            in T °, but with varieti...
6.4. Vegetation:         Differences between interior and coast:         1. Interior: highlights: Mediterranean forest: oa...
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Tema 6: los medios naturales de España

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Transcript of "Tema 6: los medios naturales de España"

  1. 1. THE ENVIRONMENTIN SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA UNIT 2 Geography of 3º E.S.O. José Antonio Barrera Lara José Antonio Barrera Lara 1
  2. 2. 1. GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF SPAIN: -Take your maps- European peninsula (Southwestern side). Situated in temperate zone. Northern hemisphere. José Antonio Barrera Lara 2
  3. 3. José Antonio Barrera Lara 3
  4. 4. José Antonio Barrera Lara 4
  5. 5. Coordinates:Latitude: Northern: 43º47’36”N / Southern: 36º00’08”N. Longitude: Eastern: 3º19’05” E / Western: 9º17’46” W. It means: crossed by meridian 0º (Greenwich). Limits: •Cantabric Sea and Pirineos (N) •Gibraltar Passage (S) •Mediterranean Sea (W) •Atlantic Ocean (E). José Antonio Barrera Lara 5
  6. 6. Neighbouring countries: Portugal Andorra France Morocco United Kingdom José Antonio Barrera Lara 6
  7. 7. Territory: Part of the Iberic peninsula Canary Islands Balearic Islands Ceuta Melilla Small Islands of N. África. José Antonio Barrera Lara 7
  8. 8. 2. THE RELIEF AND THE SOILS OF SPAIN: Distinguish between: - Peninsular relief: formed by the Plateau and its mountain borders. High average altitude (660 m.). - Insular relief: Canary Islands (volcanic. Teide, 3.718 m.) and Balearic Islands (prolongation of betic systems . Puig Major, 1.445 m.). José Antonio Barrera Lara 8
  9. 9. 2.1. THE PLATEAU: Peninsular center. Surrounded by mountain ranges. Highlands and lowlands. Surrounded by: Central System: divides the Plateau in 2 parts: North Subplateau and South subplateau. The mountains of: Somosierra, Gredos, Guadarrama, etc. Highest mountain: Almanzor: 2.592 m. Montes de Toledo: Highest mountain: Las Villuercas (1.601 m.). Divides the South Subplateau in two parts: • North: Tajo basin. • South: Guadiana basin. José Antonio Barrera Lara 9
  10. 10. 2.2. Plateau borders:Galaico-leonés Massif: Northeastern part of the peninsula peninsular. In the coasts: rías. Montes de León (Teleno, 2.188 m).Cantabric Mountains: isolates the Plateau from the influence of the sea. Picos de Europa(Torre Cerredo, 2.648 m).Iberic System: Group of mountains:(Albarracín, Demanda, Picos de Urbión, Serranía de Cuenca).Moncayo (2.313 m).Sierra Morena: step that separates the Plateau from the peninsular South. Bañuela, 1.323 m. José Antonio Barrera Lara 10
  11. 11. 2.3. The exterior depressions:1. Ebro depression: isolated from Mediterranean Sea by a group ofmountains.2. Guadalquivir depression: wide plateau. Triangular shape.Open to Atlantic Ocean. Fertile vegas, contrysides and wetlands. José Antonio Barrera Lara 11
  12. 12. 2.4. Exterior mountain ranges: 1. Basque Mountains: between Cantabric Mountains and Pirineos. Many valleys. Not too high. 2. Pirineos: joins the peninsula with the rest of Europe. Biggest mountain range. Central side highest. Aneto, 3.404 m.ntains: 2 parallel groups of mountains open to the Mediterranean Sea. They close Ebro Depressionheastern peninsular. They are divided in: Penibetic Mountains (parallel to the coast. Mulhacén, 3.841 José Antonio Barrera Lara 12
  13. 13. 2.5. Coasts:•Wide and varied.•North: rocky.•Highlight the rías.•At the South and Mediterranean coast: sand beaches and rocky areas. José Antonio Barrera Lara 13
  14. 14. 2.6. The soils: According to the type of rock:  Siliceous (granite and slate): peninsular west.  Limestone (karst landscape): numerous sierras of the east, south and north.  Igneous (volcanic origin): Canary Islands.  Clays: peninsular center and Ebro and Guadalquivir valleys. José Antonio Barrera Lara 14
  15. 15. 3.1 Rivers: according to its slope:1. Cantabric slope: numerous, shorts, flowing, regular scheme. Ej.: Bidasoa, Nervión, Nalón and Narcea.2. Atlantic slope: In Galicia: numerous and regulars. Eg.: Miño and Sil.The rest: numerous tributaries, long, irregular scheme, drought. Eg. Tajo, Duero,Guadiana and Guadalquivir.3. Mediterranean slope:Except the Ebro, theyre shorts and irregulars. Summer drought.Devastating floods. Eg.: Ter, Turia, Júcar, Segura. José Antonio Barrera Lara 15
  16. 16. José Antonio Barrera Lara 16
  17. 17. 3.2. Lakes and lagoons:According to its origin, we can distinguish three types: 1. Endogenous: movements of Earths soil:Tectonics (Laguna de la Janda, Cádiz)Volcanic (ancient craters). 2. Exogenous: by erosion.Glaciers (Sanabria lake, Zamora)Karsts.Arreicos (undrained) in sunken areas (Tablas Daimiel),Eolic (Ampurdán, Gerona),Littoral (Mar Menor, Albufera, Guadalquivir wetlands, Ebro Delta). 3. Mixed: different combined origins. Ej.: Banyoles Lake (Gerona), of tectonic and karst origin. José Antonio Barrera Lara 17
  18. 18. 4. WEATHER AND VEGETATION:José Antonio Barrera Lara 18
  19. 19. 4.1. WEATHER: In general: •Terperature rises to the South. •Higher temperature range in the interior. •Precipitations: great differences between North & South. José Antonio Barrera Lara 19
  20. 20. José Antonio Barrera Lara 20
  21. 21. Kinds of weather:Oceanic: mild temperatures. Heavy rains during the whole year. North and Northwestof the peninsula.Mediterranean: summer drought. It divides in coastal mediterranean weather(mild temperatures and moderate rain) and interior mediterranean weather(↓ rain. ↑temperature range)High Mountain: Mountains. Cold winters and fresh summers.Subtropical:  T.R. (Temperature Range).  rain. Tipical of Canary Islands. José Antonio Barrera Lara 21
  22. 22. José Antonio Barrera Lara 22
  23. 23. 4.2. Vegetation and naturallandscape: Of the most varied and richest in Europe. José Antonio Barrera Lara 23
  24. 24. The most important formations and landscapes(according to the weather) are:1. Oceanic: decidious forests. Ex.: oak, beech, chestnut, elm, etc. Wildlife: deer, grouse, bear, wolf.2. Mediterranean: xerophytic. Mediterranean forest: holm oak, cork, bush(rockrose, thyme, rosemary, ...). Large predators, lynx.3. Subtropical: xerophytic. Laurel forests, dense and lush. Pigeons,giant lizard of El Hierro and La Gomera.4. Of High mountain: staggered floors. Ospreys, vultures, wild goat. José Antonio Barrera Lara 24
  25. 25. Many natural spaces are protected by law:National Parks We highlight: Doñana Monfragüe Tablas de Daimiel Sierra Nevada Picos de Europa Cabrera Islands Teide José Antonio Barrera Lara 25
  26. 26. 5. NATURAL RESOURCES:Overall: Spain: poor or already overexploited natural resources. Just profitablemines. Few forests (desertification).Spain has not petrol. Need to invest in renewable and clean energy.Difficulties in communications uneven floors-Expensive infrastructures-.Scarcity of water, especially in the Levant and South.Need of consciousness in saving of water. Exhausted fisheries.Generally poor soils.Favorable climate for tourism. José Antonio Barrera Lara 26
  27. 27. José Antonio Barrera Lara 27
  28. 28. José Antonio Barrera Lara 28
  29. 29. 6. The physical environment in Andalusia: The peninsular south. José Antonio Barrera Lara 29
  30. 30. 6.1. El relieve: Main units: 1. Sierra Morena: Separates Andalusia from the Plateau (400 km). Relief fractured. Difficults communication.. Ej.: Despeñaperros. 2. Depresión del Guadalquivir: three distinct areas: the valley (around the river), countryside (central and west) and marshes. 3. Sistemas béticos: It occupies 2 / 3 of the surface of Andalusia. Divided into: Subbética (interior): Mountains of Cazorla, Segura and La Sagra in North. Center: Mágina, Jabalcuz and Cabra. West: Grazalema. Penibética (coast): Sierra of Ronda, of los Filabres and Sierra Nevada. Depresión intrabética: parallel the mountain ranges Subbética and Penibética. Pits and depressions can highlight. Ej.: Baza, Guadix, Loja, Antequera. 4. Coast: extensive Mediterranean and Atlantic coast. Atlantic coast: low and sandy coast. Usual dunes. Highlights: Gulf and Bay of Cádiz and CapeTrafalgar. Mediterranean coast: dominated by rocky coastlines and cliffs. Highlights: Cape of Gata, Gulf of Almería and Bay of Algeciras. José Antonio Barrera Lara 30
  31. 31. 6.2. Continental waters: a) Rivers: according to slope: Atlantic: Highlights Guadalquivir. Irregular regime. Several tributaries (Ej.: Jándula, Genil, Corbones, Guadaira). Another rivers: In Huelva: Odiel, Tinto. In Cádiz: Guadalete and Barbate. Mediterranean: Irregular regime. They are short and with steep slopes. Dry season. Ej.: Guadiaro, Guadalhorce, Adra, Andarax, Almanzora. b) Lakes and lagoons: Highlights lagoons: La Janda (Cádiz), Fuente de Piedra (Málaga) and glacial lakes of Sierra Nevada. José Antonio Barrera Lara 31
  32. 32. 6.3. El clima: a) Highlights mediterranean climate, summer drought and softness in T °, but with varieties: ● a.1.) Mediterranean climate of coast: is divided into: ● In Málaga and Granada coasts it is subtropical. ● In southeastern Almeria is semi-desert. ● On the Atlantic coast, milder temperatures and more rain. ● a.2) Mediterranean climate of interior: Greater thermal amplitude than in the coast. b) In Sierra Nevada and Sierra de la Sagra: high mountain climate: cold and long winters with frequent snowfall. José Antonio Barrera Lara 32
  33. 33. 6.4. Vegetation: Differences between interior and coast: 1. Interior: highlights: Mediterranean forest: oaks, cork oaks and scrub (mastic, thyme and rosemary, garrigue -and esparto grass, palm, rock-). 2. Coast: sand dunes. Stone pines. 3. In marshes and estuaries, rush and junk. José Antonio Barrera Lara 33

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