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  • 1. Population in GlobalPerspective Demography: study of size, composition, growth, & distribution of populations The New Malthusians vs The Anti-MalthusiansWhy Are People Starving? More Food Produced Per Person Now than in past  Droughts & war diminish food supply for certain populations Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 1 
  • 2. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 2 
  • 3. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 3 
  • 4. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 4 
  • 5. Population GrowthWhy do Least Industrialized Nations have so manychildren?Status of ParenthoodCommunity SupportChildren as Economic AssetReliance on Children in Old Age Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 5 
  • 6. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 6 
  • 7. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 7 
  • 8. Population GrowthDemographic Variables: Fertility  Crude Birth Rate = # live births/1000 population per year Mortality  Crude Death Rate = # deaths/1000 population per year Migration  Net Migration Rate = Immigrants/1000 – Emigrants/1000**Growth Rate Equation** = Fertility – Mortality + MigrationIssues: Zero Pop Growth Pop Shrinkage (AKA Negative Growth Rate) Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 8 
  • 9. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 9 
  • 10. Urbanization The Development of Cities  Protection, safety  Efficiency of food gathering The Process of Urbanization  Metropolises  Megalopolises  Megacities Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 10 
  • 11. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 11 
  • 12. Urbanization Urbanization  gentrification Suburbanization Rural Rebound Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 12 
  • 13. Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 13 
  • 14. Models of Urban Growth The Concentric Zone Model The Sector Model  Modified version of the Concentric Zone Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 14 
  • 15. Models of Urban Growth The Multiple-Nuclei Model  Specialized activities clustered together The Peripheral Model  Highways impact commuting and city layout Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 15 
  • 16. Models of Urban GrowthCritique of the Models: They are Time-Bound They Do Not Account for Urban Planning Fall Short with Cities in Least Industrialized Nations Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 16 
  • 17. City LifeAlienation in the City  Impersonality, Self-Interest  Indifference  Alienation  Avoid Needless Interactions  Norm of Noninvolvement  Diffusion of ResponsibilityCommunity in the City  Gans Research Despair vs Prosperity – both are present in cities Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 17 
  • 18. City LifeGans’ Research on who lives in the city:The CosmopolitesThe SinglesThe Ethnic Villagers_____________________________The DeprivedThe Trapped Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 18 
  • 19. Urban Problems andSocial PolicyPrinciples of Building Community:  Scale  Livability  Social JusticeSpecial Issues:  Gated Communities Chapter 20: Population and Urbanization 19 