A license to produce?

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Presentación en la conferencia Europe Aquaculture en Oporto. Oct-2010

Presentación en la conferencia Europe Aquaculture en Oporto. Oct-2010

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  • 1. Seafarming Tomorrow
    A License to Produce?
    Javier Ojeda
    APROMAR
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 2. A License to Produce ?
    By Javier Ojeda
    APROMAR
  • 3. Seafarming Tomorrow
    A License to Produce?
    Javier Ojeda
    APROMAR
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 4. What’s APROMAR?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 5. APROMAR
    • Spanish Marine Aquaculture Producer’s Association
    • 6. 45 000 t. Sea bream, turbot, sea bass, meagre, etc.
    • 7. Producer’s Organisation (OP-30)
    • 8. With a strong European approach
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 9. APROMAR
    Objectives
    • Improve the competitiveness of our members
    • 10. Promote responsible attitudes for the sustainable development of aquaculture
    • 11. Represent the profession
    • 12. Communicate
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 13. APROMAR
    Participation
    • In all Spanish forums related to aquaculture
    • 14. FEAP
    • 15. EU institutions (ACFA/EP/EESC)
    • 16. FAO
    • 17. Technological Platforms
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 18. EU Aquaculture:
    Quo Vadis?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 19. Quo Vadis?
    The EU aquaculture industry is sinking...
    and few seem to notice!
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 20. Quo Vadis?
    • Politicians still speak about a promising industry
    • 21. Fish markets are full with aquatic products, many coming from aquaculture
    • 22. Research institutes in Europe continue developing powerful aquaculture projects
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 23. Quo Vadis?
    • Restaurants accept aquaculture products as “normal”
    • 24. European processors & retailers realise the advantages of aquaculture products
    • 25. Doctors continue recommending the consumption of more aquatic products
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 26. The potential of EU aquaculture
    • Entrepreneurial capacity of EU fish farmers
    • 27. Knowledge & technological edge
    • 28. Superior professional skills
    • 29. Cutting-edge research sector
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 30. The potential of EU aquaculture
    • The EU is one of the main seafood markets
    • 31. Capture fisheries landings continue declining
    • 32. EU waters have the capacity to hold (much) larger aquaculture productions
    • 33. The environmental awareness of EU aquaculture producers is high
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 34. EU aquaculture
    • A modern and technological industry, though artisanal care
    • 35. By 2000 was harvesting more than 1.4 million t
    • 36. Market value of over 2.5 billion Euros
    • 37. Provides 60 000 jobs & new business opportunit.
    But growth stopped after 2000!
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 38. EU aquaculture production
    3.8%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 39. EU aquaculture production
    3.8%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 40. 3.3%
    3.0%
    3.8%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 41. -1.2%
    3.3%
    -1.9%
    0.5%
    3.0%
    3.8%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 42. World aquaculture production
    3.8%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 43. World aquaculture production
    6.3%
    3.8%
    9.3%
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 44. EU aquaculture
    “A shrimp that doesn’t swim gets swept away by the current”
    Today EU aquaculture is a non-swimming shrimp.
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 45. Consequences of this situation
    • Growing aquatic products trade deficit (2009)
    CatchesAquacultureNon-food uses
    Supply
    ImportsExports
    Total consumption
    AIPCE
    4.98 Mt1.40 Mt-1.10 Mt
    5.28 Mt
    9.51 Mt-1.99 Mt
    12.80 Mt
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 46. Consequences of this situation
    • Growing aquatic products trade deficit
    • 47. Shrinking industry network
    • 48. The EU is wasting an important economic opportunity
    • 49. A source of quality employment misses to deliver its potential
    • 50. EU food security base weakens
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 51. EU aquaculture
    “Stop dedicating so much effort (and money) on capture fisheries. It’s a sunset industry...
    Pay more attention to aquaculture, a dawning industry”.
    Richie Flynn (2005)
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 52. EU aquaculture
    Unfortunately, we have gone directly from dawn to sunset without enjoying nice afternoons.
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 53. Why is this happening?
    Consumer rejection?
    Imports?
    Fish diseases?
    Low market prices?
    An image problem?
    Environmental-NGO pressure?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 54. EU aquaculture
    No. The most important cause is (believe me) …
    the restriction on the availability of appropriate sites!
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 55. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 56. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 57. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 58. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 59. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 60. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 61. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 62. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 63. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 64. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 65. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 66. Why is this restriction relevant?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 67. Why are aquaculture sites so special?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 68. Why are aquaculture sites so special?
    Physical conditions
    • Always close to the waterfront
    • 69. Relatively protected from the sea energy
    • 70. A port in the vicinity
    • 71. Space in harbours for ancillary activities
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 72. Why are aquaculture sites so special?
    Environmental conditions
    • Good water quality
    • 73. Suitable for the biological requirements of fish
    • 74. Local carrying capacity must be respected
    • 75. Basic fish health considerations
    • 76. Limited presence of predators
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 77. But why can’t we access these sites?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 78. But why can’t we access these sites?
    They are in public domain areas
    • Require obtaining governmental leases
    • 79. Procedures are cumbersome, long & expensive
    • 80. Numerous public offices involved
    • 81. Other citizens have a saying
    • 82. Competition from other uses
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 83. But why can’t we access these sites?
    We do not face technically insoluble problems, it’s worse...
    … we face anadministrative/political problem!
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 84. Mounting problems…
    • Lengthy biological cycles require lengthy leases
    • 85. Inadequate relations between administrations
    • 86. One-stop-shop isn’t enough
    • 87. Widespread ignorance on what aquaculture is
    • 88. Authorities give in with respect to other interests
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 89. Mounting problems…
    And (never forget) we are in the EU
    • We suffer a legislative volcano
    • 90. Our society exaggerates the value of landscape (more valued than Sustainability)
    • 91. We suffer the NIMBY syndrome
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 92. The solutions
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 93. The solutions
    IUCN-FEAPGuide 2 for the Sustainable Development of Mediterranean Aquaculture
    Aquaculture Site Selection & Site Management
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 94. The solutions
    Sorry, too long for this presentation…
    … you may read the guidehttp://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2009-032.pdf
    … or ask François Simard, that comes up here next
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 95. The solutions
    Concepts
    • The importance of knowledge
    • 96. The participatory approach
    • 97. Social acceptability
    • 98. The precautionary principle
    • 99. The scale approach
    • 100. The adaptive approach
    • 101. Economic aspects
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 102. The solutions
    Frameworks
    • The importance of governance
    • 103. The legal framework
    • 104. Administrative procedures
    • 105. Sectoral planning
    • 106. Private sector organizations
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 107. The solutions
    Methods
    • Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)
    • 108. The site selection process
    • 109. The ecosystem approach
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 110. The solutions
    Tools
    • Carrying capacity, indicators and models
    • 111. Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
    • 112. Environmental monitoring programme (EMP)
    • 113. Geographical information systems (GIS)
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 114. The big picture:
    SUSTAINABILITY
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 115. The 3 pillar Sustainability
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 118. But there is a 4th pillar...
    Administrative, regulatory and political issues...
    “GOVERNANCE”
    Sustainability 4
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 119. Governance
    The manner in which authority is exercised in the management of an economic resource(adapted from FAO)
    “Governance” derives from the Greek verb κυβερνάω [kubernáo] which means to steer
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 120. Governance
    Rule of law and adequate legislative frameworks Official rules & regulations (“hard laws”)
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 124. Governance
    + other indirect instruments (“soft laws”)To support & encourage entrepreneurship:
    • Leveling of the playing field
    • 125. Integrated zone management
    • 126. Vigilance of fair competition (value chain)
    • 127. Mitigation policies against market failures
    • 128. Implementation of compulsory labelling
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 129. Governance
    + other indirect instruments (“soft laws”)To support & encourage entrepreneurship:
    • Supporting focused RTDi
    • 130. Appropriate incentives
    • 131. Proportionate taxes & fees
    • 132. Encouraging BMP
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 133. Governance
    Good Governance requires intelligent planning, coordination and constructive work
    Poor Governance is the result of political idleness and uncoordinated administration
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 134. Governance
    “If someone does not know to which port he is sailing, no wind is ever favourable”
    Seneca (circa 300 BC)
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 135.
    • Which is the food supply model EU wants?
    • 136. Where does the EU want to go with respect to aquaculture?
    • 137. Does it know?
    • 138. Does it care?
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 139.
    • Does the EU want to strongly depend on imported aquatic products?
    • 140. Which is the appropriate balance between EU production & imports? 65%? 85%? 95%?
    • 141. Organic and low level proximity productions are excellent but not enough
    • 142. Conventional intensive aquaculture production isn’t necessarily incompatible with sustainability
    • 143. Environmental regulations shouldn’t suffocate responsible producers
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 144. It’s becoming impossible to compete with underpriced imports
    • EU producers have to add more costs: social welfare, environmental, animal welfare, e.g.
    • 145. Third countries are also losers (unpaid negative externalities)
    • 146. Exporters & traders are those that benefit from this unfair situation
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 147. [2002] A Strategy for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture
    • The fist document of its type at EU level
    • 148. But too weak
    • 149. Approached aquaculture with precaution & fears
    • 150. Too few proactive measures to invest, produce & promote
    • 151. And a strong environmental precautionary approach
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 152. [2009] A New Impetus for the Strategy for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture
    • Better focused
    • 153. Accurately diagnosis the situation
    • 154. Aims at growth, competitiveness, investment, innovation in a sustainable way
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 155. [2009] A New Impetus for the Strategy …
    Promotion of competitiveness
    • A diverse aquaculture industry
    • 156. Supported by research and technology
    • 157. Covering the whole supply chain
    • 158. Meeting consumer demands
    • 159. Image improvement
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 160. [2009] A New Impetus for the Strategy …
    Sustainable “growth”
    • High level of protection of the environment
    • 161. Consumer health
    • 162. Consumer safety
    • 163. Animal welfare
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 164. [2009] A New Impetus for the Strategy …
    Improving Governance
    • Role of national/regional authorities
    • 165. A level-playing field in the EU market
    • 166. Better implementation of EU legislation
    ***
    • Reduction of the administrative burden
    • 167. Equal competitor in terms of space
    • 168. Compatibilities & synergies with other activities
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 169. Final remarks
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 170. The time for action is now!
    • Aquaculture in the EU risks becoming an insignificant activity
    • 171. The recommendations of the new Strategy are correct but must be put into practice now (at all levels)
    • 172. Revision of the CFP, Market Policy and Structural Funds
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 173. “Successful aquaculture nations have availability of sites, favourable legislation and political will”
    Bjorn MyrsethAquaculture Europe 2005
    Aquaculture Europe 2010. Porto. Portugal. September 7th 2010
  • 174. Thanks for your attention
    Sponsors of APROMAR