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  2. 2. Inauguration of Science Express - Biodiversity Special  The Science Express – Biodiversity Special exhibition was inaugurated at Delhi Safdarjung station on 5 June 2012, World Environment Day.  Smt. Sheila Dikshit, Hon’ble Chief Minister of Delhi was the Chief Guest of the ceremony.  The function was hosted by Smt. Jayanthi Natarajan Hon’ble Minister of State for Environment & Forests.  The dignitaries inaugurated the exhibition at 9:00 am and then proceeded for a brief overview of the exhibition. Smt. Sheila Dikshit and Smt. Jayanthi Natarajan flagged off the train at 10:00 am after which the exhibition was open for visitors.
  3. 3. JOURNEY OF SCIENCE EXPRESS Science express has brought to the people across India, four times, Flagged off on 30 Oct. 2007 by the Honble Prime Minister of India Dr. Man Mohan Singh and German Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel. Science Express exhibition train covered over 68,000 km across the country during its four phases. With over 63.60 lakh visitors at its 220 halts during 801 exhibition days. Science Express is now the largest, longest and most visited mobile science exhibition in India. ‘Science Express - Biodiversity Special’ in its fifth phase. The Science Express - Biodiversity Special moved to Bihar. The SEBS exhibition train was welcomed at Patna Railway Station by Mr. Varun Bharthuar, General Manager, East Central Railway.
  4. 4. Mr. ChanderMr. Varun Bharthuar, GM, E C Mohan, Director, NCSTC with theRailway Chief Guest after welcome ceremonywelcomed the SEBS at Patna
  5. 5. BIODIVERSITY BIO-LIFE DIVERSITY-VARIETY Biodiversity means differences in living beings. It implies infinite variations in the species, both plants and animals, of nature and their living environment. Species diversity is represented by morphological, physiology and genetic features.IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Ecosystem and Ecological value( The differences in habitats and biological communities. ) Economic and scientific value Scientific cultural
  7. 7. According to the Global Taxonomy Initiative and the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy, the total number of species - 10–30 million insects;(of some 0.9 million we know today) 5–10 million bacteria; 1.5 million fungi;(of some 0.075 million we know today) 1 million mites The number of microbial species is not reliably known. PLANT AND ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY Ranchi: India ranks fourth in Asia and tenth in the world in plant diversity, the Birsa Agricultural University (BAU) Vice Chancellor, N N Singh, has said. ("India boasts of 45,000 plants and 91,000 animal species,“)
  8. 8.  India is the centre of 30,000 to 50,000 varieties of rice, pigeon pea, mango, turmeric, ginger, pepper, banana, bitter gourd, okra, coconut, cardamom, jack fruit, sugarcane, bamboo, indigo, goos e berries, besides hundreds of species of wild crop relatives and forest trees. Invertebrates - vertebrates insect ---- reptile 460 bird-1232 amphibians-248 mammal-347 fresh fish-678 Fig-shows the plant diversity
  9. 9.  ENDANGERED SPECIESAll species on earth are endangered because of the serious environmental challenges our planet faces. Fig-shows the animal diversity
  10. 10. Our 10 Most Endangered Animals1. Ivory-Billed Woodpecker A North American bird so endangered it may actually be extinct.2. Amur Leopard The world’s rarest cat: Only 40 left in Russia’s Far East.3. Javan Rhinoceros No more than 60 of these swamp-dwelling Asian rhinos exist.4. Greater Bamboo Lemur Here’s the scarcest of Madagascar’s fast-dwindling lemur species.5. Northern Right Whale Hunted to near extinction, 350 right whales still swim the Atlantic.6. Western Lowland Gorilla Disease and illegal hunting are taking an alarming toll on this gentle giant of a primate.
  11. 11. 7. Leatherback Sea Turtle The population of the world’s largest turtle is dropping at an alarming rate.8. Siberian (or Amur) Tiger The world’s biggest cat weighs as much as 300 kilos (660 pounds).9. Chinese Giant Salamander Humans are eating the world’s largest amphibian into extinction.10. Kakapo Parrot So few of these flightless parrots remain that the survivors all have names.
  12. 12. ENDANGERED SPECIES Only A Few Thousand The Mountain Gorilla African Wild Dogs Remain, And The Species Is Listed As Endangered
  13. 13. Black Rhinos In Kenya A Great White Shark
  14. 14. PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY MEETING THE CHALLENGES Government of India is doing this through a number of strategies both in situ and ex situ. The ministry of environment and forest and a number of organization and bodies are engaged in biodiversity conservation, research education and awareness. Such as- AWBI(Animal welfare board of India ) BSI(Botanical survey of India) CZA(Central zoo authority) COE (centre of excellence) FSI(Fishery/forest survey of India) NBA(National biodiversity authority) NZP(National zoological park) WII(Wildlife institute of India) ZSI(Zoological survey of India)
  15. 15. NATIONAL MICROBES Mucor Rhizobium (found in the roots of pulse plants and helps in fixing nitrogen in the soil.) Blue mold (used to make antibiotics.) Wild yeast Bacteriophages ( found in river Ganges that eats bacteria.) Spirogyra (an algae that traps carbon dioxide and is a source of energy. ) E.coli (found in the human intestines and helps producing Vitamin K2.) Lactobacillus(to make curd.)
  16. 16. DOLPHIN Dolphins are marine mammals closely related to whales and porpoise Dolphins are among the most intelligent animals, and their often friendly appearance and seemingly playful attitude have made them popular in human culture. Dolphins have a streamlined fusiform body, ada pted for fast swimming. The tail fin, called the fluke, is used for propulsion.
  17. 17.  The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. Dolphins breathe through a blowhole on top of their head. Snout-elongated mouth. CROCODILES A crocodile are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Austria Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates - fish, reptiles, and mammals, and sometimes on invertebrates -molluscs and crustaceans, depending on specieslia. The saltwater crocodile and Nile crocodile are the most dangerous, killing hundreds of people each year in parts of Southeast Asia and Africa. The mugger crocodile, American crocodile, American alligator and black caiman are also dangerous to humans.
  18. 18. Crocodile products Crocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. The meat is white and its nutritional composition compares favorably with that of other meats. It tends to have a slightly higher cholesterol level than other meats.
  19. 19. SEVEN BIOGEOGRAPHIC AREA 1.TRANS HIMALAYA Himalaya, is a mountain range immediately to the north of the Indian subcontinent Himalayas originate from the northward movement of the Indian tectonic plate .The five highest peaks in the Himalaya are: Everest, 8,848 meters (29,029 ft) K2, 8,611 meters (28,251 ft) Kangchenjunga, 8,586 meters (28,169 ft) Lhotse, 8,516 meters (27,940 ft) Makalu, 8,462 meters (27,762 ft)• The Himalaya region is dotted with hundreds of lakes
  20. 20. THE GANGETIC PLAIN region of north-central India. It stretches westward, centered on the Ganges River, from the Brahmaputra River valley and the Ganges delta to the Indus River valley. It contains the richest and most densely populated areas. The greater part of the plain is made up of alluvial soil, deposited by the extensive network of rivers in the region. The eastern part of the plain has summer rainfall . It becomes progressively drier toward the west, where it incorporates the Thar Desert.
  21. 21. NORTH EAST INDIA Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram,Nagaland and Tripura), Sikki m, and parts of North Bengal (districts of Darjeeling,Jalpaiguri, and Koch Bihar). 51 forest types are found in the region .classified into six major types – tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi evergreen forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, subtropical forests, temperate forests and alpine forests. These forests harbor 80,000 out of 15,000 species of flowering plants. 60% of their geographical area under forest cover. North East India is a part of Indo Burma hotspot. The hotspot is, the second largest
  22. 22. WWF has identified the following priority Eco regions in North-East India: Brahmaputra Valley Semi Evergreen Forests The Eastern Himalayan Broadleaved Forests The Eastern Himalayan Sub-alpine Coniferous Forests India–Myanmar Pine Forests Forest reserves of North East India Namdapha National Park Spread over an area of 1985 sq. kilometers in Arunachal Pradesh, Namdapha National Park is the largest national park of the northeast region. The Namdapha Tiger reserve in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, spread in an area of 1850 sq. kilometers , species such as - Tiger, Clouded Leopard, Snow Leopard and Lesser cats. Manas National Park 55 mammals, 50 reptiles, 380 birds and 3 amphibians . It is also an Elephant Reserve and Biosphere Reserve.
  23. 23. Kaziranga National Park Spread over an area of approximately 430 sq. kilometers, at a distance of 217 kilometers from Guwahati. Kaziranga National Park on the bank of Brahmaputra river. SPECIES-leopard, elephant, barasingha or swamp deer, barking deer, wild boar, hog deer, bison, otter,Hoolock Gibbon, Golden langur, wild water buffalo, capped langur, pygmy hog, bear.Orang National Park Also known as Mini Kaziranga. The Orang National Park is situated on the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, in the state of Assam. One-horned Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asiatic elephant, hog deer, wild boar, civet, leopard, hare,porcupines and commonly found birds and reptiles in the region. .
  24. 24. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Situated in the Morigaon district of Assam. protects Asian Buffalo, Leopard,Wild bear, civet, various reptiles and some 2000 migratory birdsKeibul Lamjoa National Park Keibul Lamjao National Park is about 53 kilometers from Imphal in Manipur.
  25. 25. THE WESTERN GHAT The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river.Mountains Hill ranges Nilgiris