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  • Evolution through historyScienceConstruction
  • The guitar originates in SpainGuitar seems to appear during the 15th century, and thought to be invented by the people of MalagaWas originally a small, four “course” instrumenthttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm -Course: course is a pair of strings, so early guitars were strung with 8 strings, in a 4 pair arrangement
  • In the renaissance the Lute > Guitar-It was not considered a serious instrumentAlonso Mudarra’s “TresLibros de Musica en CifrasparaVihuela -The first publication of the guitar. Soon the guitar attracted more players, who began to turn out more publicationshttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm
  • During Baroque period fifth course was added - 1600-1750 The Baroque period was a period when music took on a “highly ornate, lavishly textured, and intense” soundThe courses, or pairs, were replaced by 6 single strings at the end of this periodhttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm
  • The guitar’s popularity flourished during the Classical periodMany new composers arose and methods began to be published-Some composers: Fernando Sor, Mauro Guilliani, MatteoCarcassi, Fernando Carulli. Guitar concerts were commonplace.At the end of the 19th century, the guitar lost its appeal, until Francisco Tarrega re-popularized the instrument -He wrote “Receurdos De La Alhambrahttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm
  • The first person to drastically rethink the design of the guitar was Antonio de Torres (1817 -1892) -Until this point, the guitar had a small and narrow shape. Torres increased its size and experimented to improve its sound, his main concern being volume. discovered that the top of the guitar is the origin of the majority of the sound produced by a guitar. “Father of modern guitar”http://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htmhttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htm
  • Andres Segovia (1893-1987) dramatically popularized the instrument -First to perform in a concert hall. Also traveled around the world to perform, truly turning the guitar into a globally respected instrumenthttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm
  • As the instrument began to gain a following, performances became more common and on a even larger scaleThe ever increasing size of 19th century performances sparked the desire for louder instrumentshttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • Many new design changes were soon madeSteel strings“Archtop” design1920’sHigher volume was desired for new music styles and mediaThe possibility of using electricity came into considerationhttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • By the end of the 1930’s electric amplification had proved to be an effective method to increase volumeCountry music and Jazz were the first genre’s that fully utilized the electric soundFurther innovation came when electric guitars with wooded bodies were explored (1940’ss &50’s)http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • George Beauchamp1931 “Frying Pan”Also worked with Harry Watson and Alfred RickenbackerCast aluminum solid body guitarfrying-pan-esque shape from which it got its namehttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • The first commercially produced Spanish solid-body style electric guitarhttp://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htmhttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • Les Paul“The Log”http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • -True solid body guitar, 4x4”log” with pickups. Designed to eliminate unwanted feedback caused by hollow guitars’ acoustic characteristicshttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • Paul A. BigsbyMerle Travis GuitarForeman in a machine shop and country music fanCreated as a result of a collaboration between Bigsby and country music star, Merle Travishttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • Leo FenderEsquireBroadcaster/TelecasterRadio repairman, first to mass-produce a spanish solid body style electric guitarSingle pickup solid body electric. First guitar to exhibit the unique fender shapeDouble pickup solid body electric. Originally named “Broadcaster” but due to copyright infringement, the name was changed to “Telecaster”.http://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.htmlhttp://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htmhttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • musicians began to experiment with new tones, techniques, and sounds. -ability to alter the sound of the guitar. As well as bend & sustain notesled to one of the greatest and most influential musical movements in history, Rock N’ Roll -assumed to be a fad that would soon pass, however, soon the genre proved to be a staple of American culture and was here to stayFamous Rock n’ Roll pioneersBuddy HollyChuck BerryElvis “The King” Presleyhttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • After Rock music and the electric guitar had cemented itself within musical culture, it soon produced superstars who would take the world by storm.The BeatlesOne of the most influential bands in history.Its safe to say that almost every musician would say they have been influenced by the beatlesThe Rolling StonesSelf proclaimed as “The greatest rock and roll band”Jimi HendrixArguably the greatest guitarist of all time.created an entirely new guitar style. Changed the way the world looked at the guitar. Unfortunatley died at age 27 due to a drug related mishapThe WhoAnd many morehttp://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htmhttp://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/
  • Acoustics: 1) The scientific study of sound, especially of its generation, transmission, and reception. 2) The total effect of sound, especially as produced in an enclosed spacehttp://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • Sound is caused by the compression of air, which sends a “wave” of compression through the air which is then picked up by the eardrum.The top one expresses how air molecules are compressed. Then the compression causes those air molecules to push against the molecules adjacent from them, causing those molecules to compress. It creates a chain reaction which sends a wave of compression through the airThe bottom animation is a representation of how a sound wave has a particular shape which it maintains as it travels through the air.http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • When something vibrates, the frequency is the term which relates to how quickly it vibrates back and forthThe slower the vibration, the deeper the sound, and vice versaAmplitude is the height of the sound wave or the severity of the vibrationThe higher the amplitude, the louder a sound will be.http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • The top plate- the top plate needs to be a relatively large surface so it can push a lot of air. It also needs to be able to vibrate up and down easily, so it is made of spruce or another type of wood that is light and springy in nature, and is generally around 2.5 mm thick. A series of braces are usually installed inside to strengthen the plate, and keep it flat. These braces also have an effect on the vibration of the top plate.http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • -An electric guitar is the same basic setup as an acoustic guitar. 6 strings, tuned by tuning pegs, with frets that run down a long neck. Only an electric guitar lacks the “acoustic” characteristics that allow it to vibrate air and create sound.-(self explanatory) -(self explanatory)-more specifically, when the steel string vibrates within the magnetic field, it produces a similar vibration within the field. Then that vibration is transmitted as likewise “electrical vibrations” through the coil. -The unamplified signal is sent to the amp. The first stage is a “pre-amp” stage, which is meant to match the “impedance” of the input signal with the input impedance of the amp. (impedance is simply the amount of resistance against the electrical signal, and if the impedance is not matched, it can cause many problems such as overloading the amplifier) -Once the pre-amp has done its job, more often then not, the signal goes through a signal modulation stage. During this stage the signal is affected in various ways to create effects such as distortion. This step is not theoretically essential to amplifying the signal, although it is an important to achieve the desired sound. -Next is the business step, but also the most straightforward. Just as the name says, the signal will be given a much greater amplitude, however, not altered in any other way. -Now that the signal’s power has been dramatically increased, it now has the power to drive the loudspeaker, which vibrates the air in a similar way the acoustic guitar does. Which creates the sound.http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
  • Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • The neck is generally made out of the same wood as the bodyThen a strip of another type of wood is laid on top of the neckThe wood on top of the neck effects the soundThe body is shaped into whatever shape is desired, since the shape will have little to no effect on the sound.The body generally has a cut away section which allows easier access to the higher notes
  • After the neck and body have been assembled, the guitar must then be finished, before final assembly can take place.To prep for finishing, thorough sanding is needed1) Sand with #150 grit sandpaper2) Resand with #220 grit sandpaper3) Rub entire body with wet cloth to raise the wood grain, then resand with#22o grit4) Repeat step 3Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Before finishing the guitar’s body, all of the holes must be masked off in order to prevent paint getting in them, to ensure a proper fit when comes time to assembleSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • The guitar is now ready to be stained if that is the desired lookFor painting, a primer must be applied1) apply primer2) sand primer smooth with #320 sandpaperSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Now the body can be sprayed down with the desired color of paintSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • The next step is to mount the neck onto the bodyInsert the neck into the neck hole and check it is a proper fitStick a drill bit into the neck holes in the body and twist it by hand to mark the locations to drillThen use a 1/8” drill bit to drill holes in the proper positions on the body.Use a depth stop with a properly sized screw to ensure the tip of the screw goes no further than halfway through the neckYou may now proceed to drill the screws into the body and secure the neck in placeSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • To position the bridge, use a screwdriver to adjust the saddles so they are all alignedThen you will run a straight edge down the center of the neck inlays to establish a center line to align the bridge withThen measure 25 ½ inches from the base of the nut slot to find where to align the saddlesThe pick guard and the control plate can then simply be positioned in their respective positionsThen use a marker to mark the position of all the screw holes for all the componentsSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • The first step in installing the tuners is to remove the neck from the bodyThen insert the tuners into their holes and align them so they are parallelThen I used an awe to mark the position of the holes to be drilledThen after removing the tuners I drilled the holes with a drill pressThen the tuners can be fitted in with their screwsSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Now its time to start wiringFeed the wires from the pickups through the holes into the control plate cavityThen solder the wires according to the wiring diagramThe end result leaves you with the pickups and output jack wired to the volume and tone controlsAlso, the pick guard can be fastened to the body at this timeSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Installing the output jack comes nextI had to sand the hole in order to make it fitOnce I had it the right size, just screw on the end of the output jackThen gently fit it into the cavity (i.e. smack it with a hammer till it goes in right)Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • The ground wire will have been fed into the bridge cavity during the wiring stepTake the ground wire and bend it at a 90 degree angle so it hangs over the topThen tape the wire to the side of the cavity to hold it in placeWhen you place the bridge onto the body, make sure the ground wire is making good contact with the metal of the bridge assemblyIt’s time to secure the bridge with the screwsThe control plate is also secured in this step by simply screwing it in.Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Sand the nut down to sizeTest fitApply glueSpread glueInstall nutSource: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual
  • Feed string through hole in bridge, then bring it up through the hole in the tunerLeave enough slack to make 2 or 3 rotations, tighten to playing tension.Source: Grizzly Instruction Manual

Transcript

  • 1. Guitar: History, Science, and Construction
    By John Widmaier
  • 2. A Quick Overview
    I explored the evolution of the guitar throughout history, how it has changed into what we know today. Also, I looked into the science behind the sound that we all recognize. Last but not least, I researched, and put into use, the process of constructing a guitar.
  • 3. Why is it Relevant?
    Who can honestly say that they don’t listen to music that utilizes the guitar. Almost all modern music has been influenced by a guitar, whether it’s the lead instrument, or if it was used to simply compose a melody for another instrument. If you listen to music the guitar, you probably listen to guitar.
  • 4. Originates in Spain
    15th Century
    http://www.helmink.com/Antique_Map_Blaeu_Spain/Antique_Map_Blaeu_Spain.jpg
  • 5. The ladies loved a lute player
    http://www.music.iastate.edu/antiqua/images/lute1.jpg
    http://gallery.photo.net/photo/1046936-md.jpg
  • 6. The Baroque Period: The Guitar Changes
    6 Strings!!
  • 7. The Guitar wasn’t always popular
  • 8. The Guitar gets
    Better!!
    Brilliant!!
  • 9. Andres Segovia
  • 10. Louder!!
  • 11. New Design
    New Sound
  • 12. The 1930s
    It’s Electric!
  • 13. 1st!
  • 14. The guitar makes it’s commercial debut
  • 15. Les Paul
    =
    ?
  • 16.
  • 17. Paul A. Bigsby
    Merle Travis
  • 18. Leo Fender
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Acoustics
  • 22.
  • 23. Characteristics of a Sound Wave
    Frequency
    Amplitude
  • 24. How an acoustic guitar makes noise
    It is important to understand what the source of a guitar’s sound is if one is to understand it completely
    Contrary to what one may think is, the strings of a guitar make very little noise. The purpose the string is to transmit particular frequencies of vibrations to the bridge of a guitar. Through the bridge, those vibrations are then transmitted to the top plate of the guitar body. The guitar’s top plate is actually the surface which transfers the vibration to the air.
  • 25. How strings affect the sound
    The pitch of a string as it’s vibrating has many variables
    Mass of string
    Thicker strings vibrate slower, therefore are lower pitched
    String tension
    The tighter a string is tuned, the faster it will vibrate, creating a higher pitch
    The length of the string available to vibrate freely
    This is what is being changed as the finger presses down on a string
    Shortening the string (finger higher on the neck) creates a higher pitch
  • 26. How Electric Guitars Work
    Electric Guitars are not all that different than their acoustic counterparts
    Electric guitars, however, use “pickups” to transmit vibration into electrical signals.
    A pickup is essentially a magnet that is wrapped in coil, creating an electromagnet.
    When the steel guitar string vibrates, the pickup senses it, then transmits it as an electrical signal
    From there, the electrical signal is sent to the amplifier, where it is boosted so it has enough power to drive a speaker.
    Pre-amp
    Signal Modulation
    Signal Amplification
    Output
  • 27. Guitar Construction
    Additional Electronics
    Neck
    Basic parts of an electric guitar
    Pickups
    Body
  • 28. Types of Wood
    The body of an electric guitar is made of solid wood, lacking air pockets to resonate sound because they are not necessary
    Common Woods used in guitars
    Basswood
    Mahogany
    Walnut
    Soft or Hard Maple
    Spruce
    Ect.
  • 29. Construction of main parts
    The neck is generally made out of the same wood as the body
    Then a strip of another type of wood is laid on top of the neck
    The body is shaped into whatever shape is desired, since the shape will have little to no effect on the sound.
    The body generally has a cut away section which allows easier access to the higher notes
  • 30. Prep for Finish
  • 31. Prep for finish cont.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Installing the neck
  • 36. Positioning Bridge & other components
  • 37. Installing
    Tuners
  • 38. Feeding Wires
    Soldering
    End Result
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. The Nut
  • 42. How to string a guitar
    To string a guitar:
    Feed the string through its appropriate hole in the bottom of the guitar body
    Then pull the string through and feed it through the tuner
    Wrap the end which is sticking out the other end of the tuner around once or twice
    Feed it through once more
    Then turn the tuning peg to add sufficient tension to the string to bring it to the correct pitch
    Repeat with the remaining strings
  • 43.
  • 44. ALL DONE
  • 45. Conclusion
    To conclude, I would just like to say that guitar has played an important role in my life. It’s one of my favorite pastimes. Also, weather you realize it or not, the guitar’s influence is everywhere, and is a major driving force behind the entire music industry.
  • 46. Works Cited
    “Guitar and Lute". Earthlink. May 10, 2010 <http://home.earthlink.net/~guitarandlute/gtrhstry.html>.
     
    "A Brief History of the Guitar". Riff TV. May 10, 2010 <http://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm>.
     
    "The Invention of the Electric Guitar". Smithsonian. May 10, 2010 <http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/credits.htm>.
     
    “Gibson About Us". Gibson USA. May 10, 2010 <http://www.gibson.com/en-us/Support/AboutUs/>.
     
    "How Electric Guitars Work". How Stuff Works. May 10, 2010 <http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm>.
     
    "Guitar Acoustics". The University of New South Wales. May 10, 2010 <http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music/guitar/>.
  • 47. Articles Used
    History of the Guitar
    http://guitar.about.com/od/education/a/history_guitar.htm
    How Electric Guitars Work
    http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/electric-guitar.htm
    A Brief History of the Guitar
    http://www.rifftv.com/guitar_history.htm
  • 48. Works Cited
  • 49. http://www.flickr.com/photos/70321513@N00/113453239
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/30127486@N00/269194762
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