University of the Book:Reading, Libraries, and Inquiry Learning James W. Marcum, Ph.D. August 2010
A different (millennial) generation• Technologically savvy (natives)• Diverse; different learning styles• Visually engaged• Comfortable with multitasking• Learn by doing• Instinctively collaborative• Smartest generation? • D. Tapscott, Grown Up Digital (2008)• Or…Dumbest generation? • M. Bauerlein, The Dumbest Generation (2009)
DANGER: The Shallows• Internet is rewiring our brain• An ―ecosystem of interruption technologies‖• A permanent state of distractedness and forgetfulness• … a far-reaching effect on reading, writing, and language itself… – N. Carr, The Shallows (2010)
Start: greater emphasis on reading• Reading is the essential skill upon which other intellectual powers depend – Jacques Barzun, (1991). Begin Here: The Forgotten Conditions of Teaching and Learning. U Chicago Press, 20-27.
VALUE of Reading• Deep reading is the best antidote for the distracted (shallow) minds being created by the internet• Good books have provided the means to better understanding and perspective (… i.e. leadership) for generations
Challenge: Revive ―reading”• Free voluntary (extended) reading produces better – vocabulary – spelling – writing – with longer retention and – more and better reading in the future.• …than formal instruction. – S. Krashen, The Power of Reading, 2nd ed. 2004.
The Library College Idea• Assumption: good book collections provide a rich ―wherewithal‖ for learning• Professional librarians can guide reading inquiry.• This is not a new idea • Louis Shores. The Library-College. Philadelphia: Drexel, 1966. • Marie Schuster. The Library-Centered Approach to Learning. Palm Springs, CA: ETC, 1977.
Louis Shores‘ ―Case‖• Culmination of independent study movement• Revolt against ―lockstep‖ classes• Good reading compares with classroom instruction for effect• Learning mode: match the resource to the individual• Utilize the well selected and ‗presented‘ books in the library
New ‗Learning‘ Theories• Multiple learning styles• Self-directed learning• Active learning• Social learning• Connectivism
New Education Practices• Beyond Lifelong Learning – Undergraduate research – Inquiry learning – Problem-based learning – Discovery learning – Communities of Learning – Distance and Online Learning
New Technologies Create Opportunities• Internet/web-based information sharing and communication• Learning management systems• Collaborative knowledge building• Weblogs, wikis, social learning tools• Mobility and miniaturization (wireless, cell phones laptops, PDAs)
And New Learning Resources• Learning Management Systems (Blackboard)• Open academic content exchanges (Merlot, MIT‘s OCW, etc.)• Publisher databases, resources (Elsevier, Emerald, ACS, etc.)• Social Learning (blogs, wikis, collaboration tools)
Key methodology:• Resource (research)-based inquiry – Puts learner at the center of the process – Uses clear objectives and a … – Rich learning environment • Multiple, varied resources • Technology support • Individual or social learning – Incorporating face-to-face knowledgeable guidance
And new methods:• Engaging, constructivist self-identity development via autobiography - Antikainen, Living in a Learning Society (1996)• Guided Inquiry: – Rich learning environment – Intervention, at critical moment – Frequent feedback – Assessment – Connects learning to students‘ ―life,‖ interests, goals, questions • C. Kuhlthau, et al. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century.
Discovery LearningTo break free of known facts (dogma) requires:• Allowing for initiative and self- direction• Encouraging work in teams• Questioning authority• Using constructivist, problem- solving pedagogies• Considering alternative examples and scenarios – Marcum, ―From Information Center to Discovery System‖ (2001)
And DIY Learning• Technology enabled• Open Content (MIT, 2001)• Open University/Education• Personal Learning Networks• Ex: – School of Everything – Omniuniversity – Massive Open Course (CA) – College Unbound – Open Learning Initiative, etc. • A. Kamenetz, DIY U (2010)
UNIVERSITY OF THE BOOK• All of which sets the stage for a renewed emphasis on deep/extended reading (i.e. books)• Grounded at the 25,000 public and academic libraries in the U.S.• With librarians and others serving as F2F liaison/tutors between learners and networks of scholars and specialists
Facing the ―post Web‖ world• ―Google: The Search Party is Over,‖ Fortune (Aug 16, 2010)• ―The Closing of the Digital Frontier,‖ The Atlantic (July 2010)• ―The Web is Dead,‖ Wired (Sept 2010) * * * – ―How we use the web—and how it looks—is going to be completely different in five years than it is today‖ - Mike McCue, founder, Flipboard