Knowledge, the University, and the LibraryA 21st Century Perspective<br />James W. Marcum, Ph.D.<br />January 2010<br />
I: 	Competition<br />II:	Millennial Generation<br />III:	The Future of Knowledge<br />CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGESFor the Unive...
Higher education in America is a major industry and is viewed as ‘fertile ground’ and opportunity for:<br />For-profit uni...
Readiness to Compete?<br />The university does not “come to the table” with a clear strategy and purpose (beyond “protecti...
Consider technology indispensable<br />Learn<br />By doing<br />From each other<br />Differently from elders<br />Visually...
Millennial Generation<br />“Our call phones often serve as web browsers, digital phones,and game consoles”  <br />      - ...
Challenges (con’t):University  and ‘Net Gen’<br />Critics: the University lives in a “time warp,” locked in to:<br />Agric...
University vs. Net Gen 2<br />While “millennial” generation expects:<br />Interactive, collaborative activity<br />Instant...
In their career, today’s college student will:<br />experience repeated career changes<br />face problems never experience...
Nature and Future of Knowledge<br />The Biggest Challenge<br />
III: THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE<br />Perhaps the gravest, if subtle, danger the university faces is the future status, creati...
We must remember that most major transformational revolutions:<br />Scientific(17th Century)<br />Enlightenment(18th Centu...
Communicated effectively via prices            -Hayek<br />Bringing forth the world through the process of living itself		...
Explaining knowledge (con’t)<br />With fundamental “criticisms”:<br />Socially constructed	- Rorty<br />With occasional ma...
We have moved from knowledge in the individual mind <br />(I think…)<br />To socially constructed knowledge               ...
Cogito, ergo sum<br />- Descartes<br />
Modern/Western Intellectual Achievement<br />Adam<br />Smith<br />great minds, working alone…<br />Descartes<br />Newton<b...
Library = Books =  Organized Knowledge<br />
But now…<br />“We participate, <br />therefore we are”<br />- John Seely Brown<br />  (Educom, 2001)<br />
To CONNECTIVITY<br />“I am a part of the electronic universe. I am visible to Google.  I link, therefore, I am.”<br />Will...
The tacit knowledgeof the virtuoso, the scholar, the expert, is of value to the extent of their individual performance and...
Since the emergence of ‘intellectual capital’ as the key to innovation in the 1990s, corporations have jumped into ‘knowle...
Library  (300 BC–500 CE)<br />Monastery  (100–1100)<br />University  (1100–1500)<br />Republic of Letters  (1500–1800)<br ...
We won’t presume to define what philosophers have debated for millennia<br />Nonaka and Takeuchi, The Knowledge Creating C...
The New Knowledge of the Day<br />Big Bang Theory<br /> <br />Stem-cell<br />  <br />Genome<br />sequencing<br /> <br /> <...
The search for today’s knowledge requires searching:<br />Databases<br />Laboratory findings; research reports<br />Newsle...
Levels of Knowledge: An emerging  approach…<br />Cognitive    (know-what)       book learning<br />Competence (know-how)  ...
Knowledge: emergent, dynamic, and shared<br />                                -Eisenstadt and Vincent, Knowledge Web (1998...
COMPLEXITY<br />Information gathering<br />Growth produces complexity (and some redundancy)<br />Cope with systems and hie...
To focus on…<br />COMPLEXITY<br />Cope with systems and hierarchy (can understand processes)<br />Herbert Simon<br />Infor...
Preserving existing knowledge of value while coming to understand, participate in, and disseminate to future generations t...
Let’s talk about it ….<br />
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Knowledge and university09

  1. 1. Knowledge, the University, and the LibraryA 21st Century Perspective<br />James W. Marcum, Ph.D.<br />January 2010<br />
  2. 2. I: Competition<br />II: Millennial Generation<br />III: The Future of Knowledge<br />CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGESFor the University<br />
  3. 3. Higher education in America is a major industry and is viewed as ‘fertile ground’ and opportunity for:<br />For-profit universities<br />Corporate universities (Becton Dickinson)<br />Global universities (including ‘rising’ powers)<br />Open universities and Open Education<br />Complacency is a high-risk attitude<br />I: COMPETITION<br />
  4. 4. Readiness to Compete?<br />The university does not “come to the table” with a clear strategy and purpose (beyond “protecting what exists”)<br />
  5. 5. Consider technology indispensable<br />Learn<br />By doing<br />From each other<br />Differently from elders<br />Visually engaged<br />Like multitasking<br />Find many courses “obsolete” <br />II: NEW STUDENT GENERATION<br />"Millennials"<br />
  6. 6. Millennial Generation<br />“Our call phones often serve as web browsers, digital phones,and game consoles” <br /> - “Net gen”<br />Gadgets Rule on<br />College Campuses<br />By Paul Davidson,<br /> CHAPEL HILL, N.C. —The American college campus, long an oasis of scholarship and coming-of-age, is now being transformed by an armada of laptops, cell phones and perpetual connectivity. <br />“I store a lot of knowledge <br />in my friends”<br />
  7. 7. Challenges (con’t):University and ‘Net Gen’<br />Critics: the University lives in a “time warp,” locked in to:<br />Agriculture age seasons<br />“seat time as learning equivalent”<br />Lectures as “solo performances”<br />Disciplinary silos of declining influence<br />Students: Perceive low levels of technological competence of many faculty and staff <br />Is the University ‘out of step’ with the times?<br />
  8. 8. University vs. Net Gen 2<br />While “millennial” generation expects:<br />Interactive, collaborative activity<br />Instantaneous, mobile communication<br />Flexible, comfortable spaces<br />Curricula geared to new realities, professions, challenges<br />They also expect traditional learning … but tire quickly if not engaged in the process<br />Carole Barone, The New Academy, in Educating the Net Generation (Educause 2005)<br />
  9. 9. In their career, today’s college student will:<br />experience repeated career changes<br />face problems never experienced before<br />have to develop expertise that we cannot imagine.<br />Ergo: they must develop inquiry and lifelong learning skills*; we cannot teach them what they will have to know….<br />*(includes learning and creating knowledge socially)<br />We must keep in mind…<br />
  10. 10. Nature and Future of Knowledge<br />The Biggest Challenge<br />
  11. 11. III: THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE<br />Perhaps the gravest, if subtle, danger the university faces is the future status, creation, transmission, and uses of knowledge <br />Long considered the ‘turf’ and arena for the university . . .<br />We now face unprecedented challenges<br />
  12. 12. We must remember that most major transformational revolutions:<br />Scientific(17th Century)<br />Enlightenment(18th Century)<br />the Industrial(19th Century) <br />all developed outside the university<br />Will the same be said of today’s “networked learning and knowledge revolution”?<br />Knowledge vs. Academia?<br />
  13. 13. Communicated effectively via prices -Hayek<br />Bringing forth the world through the process of living itself -Maturana and Varela<br />Genealogy of discourses of practice producing power relationships -Foucault<br />Most ‘research’ reports are false -Ionnidis<br />Increasingly interdisciplinary -J. T. Klein<br />Social and developmental –Valsiner & van der Veer<br />From reason to agency and meaning -Kauffman<br />… we can go on and on…<br />Seeking to explain knowledge<br />
  14. 14. Explaining knowledge (con’t)<br />With fundamental “criticisms”:<br />Socially constructed - Rorty<br />With occasional major, “paradigmatic” revolutions - Kuhn<br />Suggesting many ways of knowing the world have “equal validity,” <br />Supporting the relativism of post-modernism<br />… and many other fashionable but false “isms” - Baghossian, Fear of Knowledge<br />
  15. 15. We have moved from knowledge in the individual mind <br />(I think…)<br />To socially constructed knowledge (I participate…)<br />To knowledge as connections (I am networked….)<br />But we should talk about how we know?A CHANGE of great consequence…<br />
  16. 16. Cogito, ergo sum<br />- Descartes<br />
  17. 17. Modern/Western Intellectual Achievement<br />Adam<br />Smith<br />great minds, working alone…<br />Descartes<br />Newton<br />Machiavelli<br />Einstein<br />
  18. 18. Library = Books = Organized Knowledge<br />
  19. 19. But now…<br />“We participate, <br />therefore we are”<br />- John Seely Brown<br /> (Educom, 2001)<br />
  20. 20. To CONNECTIVITY<br />“I am a part of the electronic universe. I am visible to Google. I link, therefore, I am.”<br />William L. Mitchell. Me++. MIT, 2003.<br />
  21. 21. The tacit knowledgeof the virtuoso, the scholar, the expert, is of value to the extent of their individual performance and persuasion <br />The explicit knowledgearticulated by the ‘master,’ the expert, can be shared (website) and preserved (book) and recognized for its importance over time<br />The shared knowledgeof the team, the lab, (as it is verified) becomes the new theory, the ideology, the paradigm… that can shape a history, a science, or a nation <br />The Social Power of Knowledge<br />
  22. 22. Since the emergence of ‘intellectual capital’ as the key to innovation in the 1990s, corporations have jumped into ‘knowledge creation’ and ‘knowledge management’ in pursuit of competitive advantage in global competition<br />Is the focus of knowledge creation shifting from the campus to the laboratory?<br />… and what would be the implications of that for the university?<br />Knowledge as Intellectual Capital<br />
  23. 23. Library (300 BC–500 CE)<br />Monastery (100–1100)<br />University (1100–1500)<br />Republic of Letters (1500–1800)<br />Disciplines (1700–1900)<br />Laboratory (1870–1970)<br />McNeely and Wolverton, Reinventing Knowledge (Norton, 2008)<br />What form will it take next?<br /> What institutions will represent it?<br />Knowledge: “Reinvented” 6 times<br />
  24. 24. We won’t presume to define what philosophers have debated for millennia<br />Nonaka and Takeuchi, The Knowledge Creating Company (1995).<br />We should take cue from two wise men…<br />
  25. 25. The New Knowledge of the Day<br />Big Bang Theory<br /> <br />Stem-cell<br />  <br />Genome<br />sequencing<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Parallel<br />computing<br />Field Research<br />WikiS<br />Cloud computing<br />
  26. 26. The search for today’s knowledge requires searching:<br />Databases<br />Laboratory findings; research reports<br />Newsletters<br />Conference proceedings<br />Deep Web<br />Social Web (twitter, facebook, etc.)<br />Blogs, listservs, media news archives and features, institutional repositories, etc., etc.<br />In addition to the traditional print materials collected by libraries.<br />
  27. 27. Levels of Knowledge: An emerging approach…<br />Cognitive (know-what) book learning<br />Competence (know-how) implementation<br />Understanding (know-why) meaning<br />J. B. Quinn, et al., “Managing Professional Intellect,” Harvard Business Review, (March 1996); <br />People (know who) expertise <br />Positioning (know where) context<br />Timing (know when) strategy<br />Donald Norris, et al. “A Revolution in Knowledge Sharing,” Educause Review<br />(Sept. 2003); K. E. Sveiby, The New Organizational Wealth (1997)<br />Innovation (change how) engagement<br />Problem solving (try how) teams, social<br />Forecast (consider if) scenarios<br />skills<br />network<br />naviga-<br />tion<br />
  28. 28. Knowledge: emergent, dynamic, and shared<br /> -Eisenstadt and Vincent, Knowledge Web (1998)<br />Digital wisdom: digital enhancement of human thought-Marc Prensky, Innovate, 3/09<br />A Google monopoly? -ABC News, 7/12/08<br />Shotgun (gene sequencing) - J. Craig Ventner<br />From reason to agency and meaning<br />–S.A. Kauffman, Reconstructing the Sacred<br />End of Theory: petabytes of data and cloud computing make scientific method obsolete –C. Anderson/Wired, 8/09<br />ALERT: PROPOSALS EMERGINGFor the ‘New Knowledge’<br />
  29. 29. COMPLEXITY<br />Information gathering<br />Growth produces complexity (and some redundancy)<br />Cope with systems and hierarchy (can understand processes)<br />Herbert Simon<br />We must lift our perspective from…<br />
  30. 30. To focus on…<br />COMPLEXITY<br />Cope with systems and hierarchy (can understand processes)<br />Herbert Simon<br />Information gathering<br />Growth produces complexity (and some redundancy)<br />SUPERCOMPLEXITY<br />Accelerating change<br />Borders & disciplines crossed and smudged<br />Uncertainty and unpredictability<br />Concepts, systems, theories overloaded, undependable<br />Ron Barnett <br />
  31. 31. Preserving existing knowledge of value while coming to understand, participate in, and disseminate to future generations the new knowledge generated (diffused) by a LARGE number of educated people from many cultures interacting in a new global and digital information ecology.<br />Can—and should—we endeavor to be certain that the university continues to play a central role in this process?<br />How do we proceed?<br />Greatest challenge?<br />
  32. 32. Let’s talk about it ….<br />

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