Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) Challenge for Local Governments


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Presentation made to the Clean Cities Coalition Conference sponsored by the Western Riverside Council of Governments at Temecula in April 2008

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Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) Challenge for Local Governments

  1. 1. California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32, H&S Code § 38500, et seq.) Prepared and Presented by Joel Ellinwood, AICP/Attorney, Sacramento “ Respect Local Control . . . Provide Regional Perspective” Western Riverside Council of Governments Challenge for Local Government
  2. 2. Think Globally Act Locally
  3. 3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Goals & Challenges <ul><li>Lower to 1990 levels by 2020 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 – 30 % below current levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population increase of 18 – 20 % (7 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower to 80% of 1990 level by 2050 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population increase of 10 – 15 million MORE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? – catch me later </li></ul><ul><li> “ Scoping Plan” by 1/1/2009 </li></ul><ul><li>New regulations by 1/1/2011 to be </li></ul><ul><li>effective on 1/1/2012 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Climate Action Team Players <ul><li>Cal Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Air Resources Board (CARB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California Resources Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Energy Commission (CEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California Business Transportation & Housing Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cal Dept. of Transportation (CalTrans) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Climate Action Team Bench <ul><li>Land Use Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Governor’s Office of Planning & Research (OPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Charged with State Planning & Coordination of all State, Regional & Local Agencies – Issue Delegated to Energy Commission (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Level Rise </li></ul><ul><li> California Coastal Commission </li></ul><ul><li> SF Bay and Delta Commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding and Drought </li></ul><ul><li> Flood Control Commission (Reclamation Bd) </li></ul><ul><li>Levee Districts </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Ag Dept, Dept of Forestry, Water Resources </li></ul>
  6. 6. Climate Action Team Also Rans Playing Catch-Up Big Time <ul><li>State Legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pending implementation measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attorney General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents State in suits by automakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sues Federal Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sues Local Governments (CEQA) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Climate Action Team No Shows <ul><li>Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>COGs Metro Planning Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Local & Regional Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference of Mayors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley Leadership Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Cities Coalition </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Emission Source Inventory <ul><li>Industrial sources (refineries, cement </li></ul><ul><li>plants, steel etc.) 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Power plants 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation – internal combustion </li></ul><ul><li>powered VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED 39% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>historic trend 2% average annual increase in VMT </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Greenhouse Gas End Users <ul><li>Built environment (materials, lighting, </li></ul><ul><li>heating & cooling) 48% </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation 27% </li></ul><ul><li>Industry 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Trending up </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: AIA) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Potential Means of Emissions Reduction <ul><li>New technology / rethink old choices </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. natural gas vs. nuclear power) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation – command & control </li></ul><ul><li>Market Mechanisms – Trading, Carbon Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit & Infill – reduce existing sources </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Carbon Footprint of new growth & development </li></ul>
  11. 11. Locus of government authority <ul><li>Federal control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy; Tax Policy; Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State seeks exemptions or power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Air Act Vehicle Emissions standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ports and maritime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Credit Trading Markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>State control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and public utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and air quality enforcement; Tax policy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Locus of government authority <ul><li>Local Control = Key to VMT reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Use – Where people live and work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public transit – How they get there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redevelopment – Rebuilding the core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local districts – means to finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Intermediate Regional Legal Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatch of scale between problems, solutions and authority to plan & implement </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Locus of government authority <ul><li>Local Control with Responsibility for Global Impacts and Regional Scale of Problems and Solutions = </li></ul><ul><li>Local Powerlessness & Loss of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment and Incentives for Local Control to Implement Regional Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of all personal & local decisions are as important as state or national decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Rationalization of Existing Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Powers & Priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAFCos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Councils of Governments – Metro Planning Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Transportation Planning Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Transit Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Air Quality Enforcement Districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Water Quality Control Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Air Quality Control Boards </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Authority to Implement Regional Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Impact Fees (Mitigation Fee Act JPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of Open Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, Entitlements and Financing for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Sustainable Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of Transportation & Land Use </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Top Down – State Mandates to Existing Local </li></ul><ul><li>Governments, e.g. new General Plan element </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One Size Fits All ● Unfunded Mandates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrational equality for diverse contexts and problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentives and Funding for Regional </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation – Tolerance for Diversity of Means </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up - Local Vision, Initiative, Cooperation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Key Interest Groups Will Influence Outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Agencies (CalTrans vs. CARB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities & Counties, COGs & LAFCos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional & Advocacy Groups (APA, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Groups, Chamber, Farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Industry Association (BIA) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Pending Legislation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SB 375 – Steinberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTIP/Blueprint becomes key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEQA Climate Change Compliance Incentive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Sustainable Community Strategy” (SCS) to accommodate new growth & development </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Reform of Regional Planning and Development Decision Making <ul><li>Pending Legislation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AB 842 – Jones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each regional transportation plan provide for 10% reduction in the growth increment of VMT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCD to administer the Infill Incentive Grant Program to fund capital improvement projects ranking applicants based upon reduction of VMT resulting from project </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Current Issues for Local Government from Climate Change What to do while waiting for the sky to fall <ul><li>CEQA Climate Change Impact Analysis of Pending Projects – litigation issue de jour </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & Building Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government GHG Reduction Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Public/Private Partnerships for Innovation </li></ul>
  21. 21. CEQA Climate Change Analysis <ul><li>Quantification – Baseline, Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold of Significance – MND or EIR? </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Unavoidable Impact / Finding of Overriding Considerations? </li></ul><ul><li>OPR Guidelines Coming 7/1/2009 – SB 97 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Planning & Building Standards <ul><li>LEED Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Solar / Alternative Energy Mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian & Bicycle Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Transit-Oriented Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher density near transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality and Special Sense of Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Open Spaces </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Local Government GHG Reduction <ul><li>Department level employee and public participation </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term and longer term strategies and goals, regular assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can contribute and make a difference – empowerment & hope </li></ul><ul><li>Less can mean better </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful context and support for personal responsibility </li></ul>
  24. 24. Public/Private Partnerships for Innovation <ul><li>Millennial Challenge for Survival on a </li></ul><ul><li>Global Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Remake economic, social and natural relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Shared risk and common interest surpassing race, class, religion, culture, even species </li></ul>
  25. 25. Attitudes Toward Climate Change What to do while waiting for the sky to fall <ul><li>Denial / Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Let Someone Else Figure It Out </li></ul><ul><li>Why Bother if China and India Don’t Act First ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do Anything and Everything Because We Need It All - Henny Penny </li></ul><ul><li>If We Each Do What is Within Our Power It Increases the Likelihood that Together We Will All Do Enough </li></ul>
  26. 26. Big Government / Local Government <ul><li>Who first said: </li></ul><ul><li>“ That government is best which governs least .” </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Reagan ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Paine ? </li></ul><ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul>
  27. 27. Big Government / Local Government <ul><li>“ The least government that can govern is best .” </li></ul>(most local) ^ v (Solve the Problem, Meet the Need) The greater the power of remote and unaccountable government the less we can control our own community and individual liberty.
  28. 28. Think Globally Act Locally “ Respect Local Control . . . Provide Regional Perspective”