Endangered and Threatened Species in PA
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Endangered and Threatened Species in PA

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This presentation briefly covers human impacts on wildlife such as habitat destruction and pollution, along with the importance and benefits of wetlands. Most of the imformation leads into several ...

This presentation briefly covers human impacts on wildlife such as habitat destruction and pollution, along with the importance and benefits of wetlands. Most of the imformation leads into several Pennsylvania species labeled as threatened or endangered. Being that my main interests are in snakes, I throw additional color photos of a few PA snakes into the end of the presentation. Hope you enjoy.

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Endangered and Threatened Species in PA Endangered and Threatened Species in PA Presentation Transcript

  • In Pennsylvania
  •  
    • Consumption has been the fastest cause of removal.
    • The more people want, the more people who have it will give. If its in high demand, people are willing to pay more. People who see profit and don’t have it will try to gain access to it, even if it means killing off millions upon billions of help-less lives to get it.
    • Trees for building and burning are cut at faster rates as the demand to house more families increases. Everyone wants space, to be different, to have bigger and better.
    • More people mean more mouths to feed, meaning more crops to plant, more fertilizer to use, more machines made, more forests cut..etc.
    • More people means a higher need for medicine, meaning more money into research, more test animals used, more waste produced..etc.
    • People take without concern for other beings, even those in their backyard.
    View slide
  • Both AIR and WATER Pollution effect the health and normal functions Of all species. Fumes from household cleaning supplies, car exhaust, factories, nuclear plants, cigarettes and other harmful gases cause respiratory problems. Pesticide, herbicide, Nitrates, and fertilizer runoff flow into streams ending up in larger and all bodies of water. Oil tankers, boaters and other water pollutant emitters effect fish and ultimately all that need water. http://awearnessblog.com/mandar_sengupta/2008/04/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/lenaah/2239440631 View slide
  • Habitat destruction is one of the biggest and most immediate threats to the numbers in species. Bulldozers make leveling fast and easy. http://www.flickr.com/photos/7498782@N05/454604243/
  • A system that combines elements of freshwater and dry land.
    • ALSO KNOWN AS:
    • Freshwater marshes
    • Swamps
    • Bogs
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/scilit/2790748831
    • They clean the water
    • Recharge water supplies
    • Reduce flood risks
    • Provide fish and wildlife habitat
    • Recreational activities
    • Aesthetic benefits
    • Hold commercial fishery benefits
    • Sites for research and education
    • Amphibians are unique creatures that can live on land and in water .
    • Their skin must be moist and it literally breathes, so they are especially vulnerable to environmental contaminants .
    • Habitat destruction, disease, pollution, climate change, and other expanding human–related impacts have an entire class of the animal kingdom in serious decline.
    • During the 20 th century amphibians were exclusively used for pregnancy tests.
    • Amphibians are currently undergoing the 6 th largest extinction; following the dinosaurs.
    • Found along the river or by bodies of water.
    • Breeding programs between 1980-1986 helped by hand raising and releasing 111 ospreys into NE Pennsylvania
    • Upon monitoring from 1982-1990, more than 30 of the released birds returned as adults.
    • By 1990 the adults produced 49 young
    • A rate of 8-12 fledglings hatched per year
    • Habitat destruction and water pollution was
    • the cause for their declining numbers, pesticides
    • affected reproductive capabilities.
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ozoni11/132352675/
    • Barn owls require open areas and cavities for nesting
    • Barn owls were rare throughout Pennsylvania before the removal of the primeval forests, which made way for open farm lands containing an array of rodents.
    • Shifting in agricultural practices are reducing rodent numbers and therefore reducing Barn Owl populations.
    • http://www.ardgrain.com/barn-owls
    • Smallest of the venomous snakes (20-30 inches)
    • Most hibernate(mid October) in water saturated areas, located 6-24 inches underground. Crayfish burrows can be used to gain access to them.
    • Require open fields and wet meadow habitats, with low lying saturated areas and drier ground close-by.
    • Dam building, highway construction, urbanization, forest succession, surface mining and agricultural activity is the cause for their loss.
    • FOUND IN
    • NORTHWESTERN
    • PA
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/michiganherper/3473844762
  • http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/northern_water/northern_watersnakex600.jpg http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/black_rat/black3x350.jpg
  • http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/ringneck/northern_ringneckx500.jpg http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/rattlesnake/timber_yellow_phasex450.jpg http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/rattlesnake/timber_black_phasex700.jpg
    • We live amongst them, that’s right, they were here first.
    • We need them (ex. Pest control, medicine, for better understanding of systems and individual roles..etc)
    • Aesthetic purposes (unique specimens have unique traits)
    • They keep balance in the ecosystems that surround us.
    • Much of our current technology is modeled off the characteristics of nature.
    • WORK CITED
    • “ Birds and mammals.” Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources . 1 Mar.
    • 2009. < http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/wrcf/bandm.aspx >.
    • “ Endangered Species Program.” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service . 11 March 2009. 16 Mar. 2009.
    • < http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/wrcf/bandm.aspx >.
    • “ Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles.” Fishandboat.com . March 2009. Endangered and Threatened
    • Species of Pennsylvania. 1 Mar. 2009. < http://www.fishandboat.com/etspecies.htm >.
    • Garlicki, Laurel. “On the Road to Extinction.” Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Fish and Boat
    • Commission . 1997-2009. 17 Mar. 2009.
    • < http://www.fishandboat.com/anglerboater/2000/janfeb2000/extinctt.htm >.
    • Jabonski, David. “Extinct and Endangered Species.” Encyclopedia Americana . 2009. Grolier
    • Online. 19 Mar. 2009. < http://www.fish.state.pa.us/endang1.htm >.
    • “ Threatened and Endangered Species.” Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission . 2009. 16 Mar.
    • 2009. < http://www.fish.state.pa.us/endang1.htm >.
    • United States. Army. Environmental Command. “Army’s Commitment to Endangered Species
    • Unparalleled.” 15 May 2008. 17 Mar. 2009.
    • < http://www.army.mil/-news/2008/05/15/9198-armys-commitment-to-endangered-species-unparalleled/index.html/ >.
    • “ Wetlands.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency . 12 Jan. 2009. Wetlands and Nature. 1 April
    • 2009. < http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/vital/nature.html/ >.
    • IMAGES
    • Ozoni11. Osprey Surfacing with Fish. 21 April 2006. flickr.com . 2009. Yahoo! Inc. 04
    • May 2009. <www.flickr.com/photos/ozoni11/131485421/>.
    • Scilit. A Florida Wetland. 23 April 2008. flickr.com . 2000. Yahoo! Inc. 29 April 2009.
    • < www.flickr.com/photos/scilit/2790748831/ >.
    • Lenaah. Pollution. 7 April 2008. flickr.com . 2009. Yahoo! Inc. 29 April 2009.
    • < www.flickr.com/photos/lenaah/2239440631/ >.
    • Michigan Herper. Sistrurus catenatus (Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake). 25 April 2009.
    • flickr.com. 2009 Yahoo! Inc. 04 May 2009.
    • <www.flickr.com/photos/michiganherper/3473844762/>.
    • Sengupta, Mandar. Photo Finish: Mandar Sengupta. Awearnessblog.com.7 April 2008. 4 April
    • 2009. < http://www.awearnessblog.com/mandar_sungupta/2008/04/ >.
    • Also check out:
    • < http://www.fish.state.pa.us/water/amprep/snake/00snake_photos.htm/ >.
    • for more images on PA snakes.