SCIENCEPROCESS SKILLS
What is science process skills?   How a scientist works, thinks and studies    problem.                    (friedl 1995)
What is sps?A way of investigation that involves specific  skills which require the following steps:~ planning course of a...
BASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS.      OBSERVING      CLASSIFYING      MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS      MAKING INFERENCES ...
WHAT IS MEANT BY            OBSERVING?   Observing involves collecting information    about objects or phenomenon by usin...
What are the characteristic of    objects and phenomenon that we             are observing?   Picture.   Photograph   V...
Why do we need to observe?   To compile / gather as much information    as possible about objects or phenomena.
How do we observe?   ~Focus on the objects or phenomena to     be studied.   ~Identify the characteristics.   ~Compare ...
You are observing whenyou are …
1. Using the five senses effectively.
Using the five senses effectively.
2. Identifying relevant particulars of   an objects and its environment.
Identifying relevant particulars of anobjects and its environment.
Focusing on relevant particulars frommassive information.
3. Focusing on relevant particulars   from massive information.
4. Identifying similarities and differences.
4. Identifying similarities and differences.
5. Identifying strange / unusual  features.
Identifying strange / unusual features.
6. Realizing changes in environment.
Realizing changes in environment.
Identifying the correct sequence.
7. Identifying the correct sequence.
8. Using appropriate instrument(s)   to enhance senses for the details.   MICROSCOPE            STETHOSCOPE
What is meant by classifying? Classifying is a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristic for a purp...
When do we need to classify?When there are:~ many items or information.~ items or information are not organised
How do we classify? Identify the general characteristics of the  items. Sort out items of the same characteristics into ...
You are classifyingwhen you are….
You are classifying when youare…. 1. Detecting similarities. 2. Grouping objects based on certain    criterion. 3. Using o...
Classify
1. Detecting similarities .             Same shape             Same Colour
2. Grouping objects based on   certain criterion.                ..
3. Using other criterion in grouping   objects.                                       ..
4. Grouping objects in different  ways.     ..
CLASSIFYING
Grouping objects based on certain criterion.
Using other criterion in grouping objects.
Grouping objects in different ways.
What is meant by measuring and usingnumbers? Measuring  and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using ...
Why do we need to measure and usenumbers?   To obtain more accurate observations.
How do we measure and usenumbers?   Identify the measurement required.   Specify the instrument to be used.   Compare t...
You are measuring and   using numbers   when you are….
1. Able to count and compare quantity of   items in different groups.
Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.
1. Able to count and compare quantity of   items in different groups.
Able to count and compare quantity of items in  different groups.
Able to recognized the pattern from a table of  numbers.
2. Able to recognized the pattern from a   table of numbers.
3. Using numbers to record phenomenon.                      0 = STOP                      1 = SLOW                      2 ...
Using numbers to record phenomenon.                  1 = SLOW                  2 = FAST                  3 = FASTER       ...
3. Using numbers to record phenomenon.
4. Using scales and explaining ratios.
5. Compare objects using numbers.    24, Putra Road,    26, Putra Road,     Kota Kinabalu,     Kota Kinabalu,         Saba...
5. Compare objects using numbers.
6.   Using tools correctly.
7.   Recording unit correctly.
8.   Choosing and using standard unit.
Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units.
10. Determining the accuracy in          measurements.  Which is more accurate?
What is meant by making              inferences?• Making inferences is a process of making early  conclusions by relating ...
Why do we need to infer?• 1. To plan actions or to make a choice.• 2. To analyse the cause of effect of decisions.
How do we infer?• Observe the situations or circumstances.• State the reason why the situation or  circumstances happens.•...
You are making inferences when      you are……………..
1. Using information from observations   to make reasonable early conclusions.
2. Making various possible interpretations   from single observation.
3. Able to identify the limitations of   inferences.
4. Testing the accuracy of inferences  through additional observations.
5. Using inferences as a tool to determine     the appropriate additional  observations.
1. Using information from observations   to make reasonable early conclusions.
Making various possible interpretations fromsingle observation.
Able to identify the limitations of inferences.
Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.
Using inferences as a tool to determine theappropriate additional observations.
What is meant by predicting?• Predicting is a process of  forecasting events based on  observations and previous  experien...
Why do we need to predict?• When accuracy is not essential in :• ~reducing the number of choice.• ~planning.• ~considering...
How do we predict?• Observe to gather data.• Identify the pattern of the data.• Based on the pattern or past  experiences,...
You are predicting whenyou are…. 1. Using previous or present evidence to    state incoming events. 2. Able to differentia...
You are predicting whenyou are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption    about a certain pattern of data beyond    the e...
Using pattern of data explicitly to makeprojections.
Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool     to predict.
What is meant by communicating? Communicating   is a process of receiving.spreading and sharing of information and ideas.
Why do we need to communicate?   To spread ideas or information.   To share idea or information.
How do we communicate?   Record information obtained from various    resources.   Translate the information into other f...
You are communicatingwhen you are….   1. Speaking, listening or writing to      express ideas or meanings.   2. Recording ...
You are communicatingwhen you are….   5. Using charts, graphs and tables to      present information.   6. Posting questio...
Drawing and making notes.  It is yellow in colour, tastes  sour,rectangular in shape
Control variables                 Volume of waterSize of salt                          Rate of stir               Temperat...
Identify variables in an investigation (manipulated and responding variables)                 Volume of waterSize of salt ...
Identify fixed variables                 Volume of waterSize of salt                          Rate of stir               T...
Suggest suitable explanations in line with theevidence at hand        Quantity of     Time taken to          sugar        ...
Suggest suitable explanations in line with theprinciples and concepts of science.         Quantity of      Time taken to  ...
Using previous knowledge to make explanations        Quantity of    Time taken to          sugar          dissolve        ...
Aware that there are more than oneexplanation for events.Aware that the explanation is just a suggestion.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN    SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND          THINKING SKILLS.   SCIENCE       THINKING SKILLS    PROC...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN      SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND            THINKING SKILLS.                   -CHARACTERIZE   CL...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN    SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND          THINKING SKILLS.   MEASURING    - TO RELATE       AND    ...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN       SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND             THINKING SKILLS.                    - TO RELATE     ...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND       THINKING SKILLS.              -   TO RELATEPREDICTING           ...
Thank You.
You are observing when you are…   1. Using the five senses effectively.   2. Identifying relevant particulars of      an o...
You are observing when you are…   5. Identifying strange / unusual      features.   6. Realizing changes in environment.  ...
You are measuring and using numberswhen you are….1. Able to count and compare quantity of   items in different groups.2. A...
You are measuring and using numberswhen you are….  6.    Using tools correctly.  7.    Recording unit correctly.  8.    Ch...
You are making inferenceswhen you are….   1. Using information from observations      to make reasonable early conclusions...
You are making inferenceswhen you are….  4. Testing the accuracy of inferences    through additional observations.  5. Usi...
You are predicting whenyou are….5. Confident with the accuracy of the   prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of relate...
MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS
MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESS        SKILLS
9.    Comparing time, distance, area     and volume with relevant units.
You are making inferences   when you are ….
MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS
You are predicting whenyou are….1. Using previous or present evidence to   state incoming events.2. Able to differentiate ...
You are predicting when   you are….5. Confident with the accuracy of the   prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of rel...
You are predicting whenyou are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption    about a certain pattern of data beyond    the e...
You are communicatingwhen you are….1. Speaking, listening or writing to   express ideas or meanings.2. Recording informati...
You are communicatingwhen you are….5. Using charts, graphs and tables to   present information.6. Posting questions clearl...
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
Science prosess skills
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  • Remind MT that at the state level , their target group are teachers so the objectives must be modified
  • Science prosess skills

    1. 1. SCIENCEPROCESS SKILLS
    2. 2. What is science process skills? How a scientist works, thinks and studies problem. (friedl 1995)
    3. 3. What is sps?A way of investigation that involves specific skills which require the following steps:~ planning course of actions.~ carrying out activities.~ collecting data.~ organising & interpreting data.~ reaching a conclusion.
    4. 4. BASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS.  OBSERVING  CLASSIFYING  MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS  MAKING INFERENCES  PREDICTING.  COMMUNICATING.  CONTROLLING VARIABLES  MAKING HYPOTHESES.  USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP  INTERTING DATA  DEFINING OPERATIONALLY  EXPERIMENTING
    5. 5. WHAT IS MEANT BY OBSERVING? Observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five senses. -sight -hearing -touch -taste -smell
    6. 6. What are the characteristic of objects and phenomenon that we are observing? Picture. Photograph Video presentation Audio recording Real life thing or condition Real object or 3D model Life or preservation specimen
    7. 7. Why do we need to observe? To compile / gather as much information as possible about objects or phenomena.
    8. 8. How do we observe? ~Focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied. ~Identify the characteristics. ~Compare the objects or phenomena. ~Identify changes & sequence of events. ~Use appropriate apparatus for more detailed observations.
    9. 9. You are observing whenyou are …
    10. 10. 1. Using the five senses effectively.
    11. 11. Using the five senses effectively.
    12. 12. 2. Identifying relevant particulars of an objects and its environment.
    13. 13. Identifying relevant particulars of anobjects and its environment.
    14. 14. Focusing on relevant particulars frommassive information.
    15. 15. 3. Focusing on relevant particulars from massive information.
    16. 16. 4. Identifying similarities and differences.
    17. 17. 4. Identifying similarities and differences.
    18. 18. 5. Identifying strange / unusual features.
    19. 19. Identifying strange / unusual features.
    20. 20. 6. Realizing changes in environment.
    21. 21. Realizing changes in environment.
    22. 22. Identifying the correct sequence.
    23. 23. 7. Identifying the correct sequence.
    24. 24. 8. Using appropriate instrument(s) to enhance senses for the details. MICROSCOPE STETHOSCOPE
    25. 25. What is meant by classifying? Classifying is a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristic for a purpose.
    26. 26. When do we need to classify?When there are:~ many items or information.~ items or information are not organised
    27. 27. How do we classify? Identify the general characteristics of the items. Sort out items of the same characteristics into their respective groups. Identify other characteristics. Repeat steps 1-3 until there is only one item in each group.
    28. 28. You are classifyingwhen you are….
    29. 29. You are classifying when youare…. 1. Detecting similarities. 2. Grouping objects based on certain criterion. 3. Using other criterion in grouping objects. 4. Grouping objects in different ways.
    30. 30. Classify
    31. 31. 1. Detecting similarities . Same shape Same Colour
    32. 32. 2. Grouping objects based on certain criterion. ..
    33. 33. 3. Using other criterion in grouping objects. ..
    34. 34. 4. Grouping objects in different ways. ..
    35. 35. CLASSIFYING
    36. 36. Grouping objects based on certain criterion.
    37. 37. Using other criterion in grouping objects.
    38. 38. Grouping objects in different ways.
    39. 39. What is meant by measuring and usingnumbers? Measuring and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using numbers and standard or standardised measuring tool as the reference unit.
    40. 40. Why do we need to measure and usenumbers? To obtain more accurate observations.
    41. 41. How do we measure and usenumbers? Identify the measurement required. Specify the instrument to be used. Compare the measurement with the specific instyrument. Add up the total measurement.
    42. 42. You are measuring and using numbers when you are….
    43. 43. 1. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.
    44. 44. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.
    45. 45. 1. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.
    46. 46. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.
    47. 47. Able to recognized the pattern from a table of numbers.
    48. 48. 2. Able to recognized the pattern from a table of numbers.
    49. 49. 3. Using numbers to record phenomenon. 0 = STOP 1 = SLOW 2 = FAST 3 = FASTEST
    50. 50. Using numbers to record phenomenon. 1 = SLOW 2 = FAST 3 = FASTER 4 = FASTEST
    51. 51. 3. Using numbers to record phenomenon.
    52. 52. 4. Using scales and explaining ratios.
    53. 53. 5. Compare objects using numbers. 24, Putra Road, 26, Putra Road, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Sabah
    54. 54. 5. Compare objects using numbers.
    55. 55. 6. Using tools correctly.
    56. 56. 7. Recording unit correctly.
    57. 57. 8. Choosing and using standard unit.
    58. 58. Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units.
    59. 59. 10. Determining the accuracy in measurements. Which is more accurate?
    60. 60. What is meant by making inferences?• Making inferences is a process of making early conclusions by relating previous experiences with immediate observations.
    61. 61. Why do we need to infer?• 1. To plan actions or to make a choice.• 2. To analyse the cause of effect of decisions.
    62. 62. How do we infer?• Observe the situations or circumstances.• State the reason why the situation or circumstances happens.• Give reason to your statement(s).• Check if the reasons given are based on the opinions or observations from the situations.If based on opinions,state why.
    63. 63. You are making inferences when you are……………..
    64. 64. 1. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.
    65. 65. 2. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.
    66. 66. 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.
    67. 67. 4. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.
    68. 68. 5. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.
    69. 69. 1. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.
    70. 70. Making various possible interpretations fromsingle observation.
    71. 71. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.
    72. 72. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.
    73. 73. Using inferences as a tool to determine theappropriate additional observations.
    74. 74. What is meant by predicting?• Predicting is a process of forecasting events based on observations and previous experiences or certain pattern of reliable data.
    75. 75. Why do we need to predict?• When accuracy is not essential in :• ~reducing the number of choice.• ~planning.• ~considering choices.
    76. 76. How do we predict?• Observe to gather data.• Identify the pattern of the data.• Based on the pattern or past experiences, make suitable predictions.
    77. 77. You are predicting whenyou are…. 1. Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events. 2. Able to differentiate between prediction and guessing. 3. Able to determine the outcomes from an action. 4. Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.
    78. 78. You are predicting whenyou are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand. 8. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.
    79. 79. Using pattern of data explicitly to makeprojections.
    80. 80. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.
    81. 81. What is meant by communicating? Communicating is a process of receiving.spreading and sharing of information and ideas.
    82. 82. Why do we need to communicate? To spread ideas or information. To share idea or information.
    83. 83. How do we communicate? Record information obtained from various resources. Translate the information into other forms such as charts,graphs and table. Spread the information through various means and way.
    84. 84. You are communicatingwhen you are…. 1. Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings. 2. Recording information from investigations. 3. Drawing and making notes. 4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols.
    85. 85. You are communicatingwhen you are…. 5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information. 6. Posting questions clearly. 7. Using references. 8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment.
    86. 86. Drawing and making notes. It is yellow in colour, tastes sour,rectangular in shape
    87. 87. Control variables Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
    88. 88. Identify variables in an investigation (manipulated and responding variables) Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
    89. 89. Identify fixed variables Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
    90. 90. Suggest suitable explanations in line with theevidence at hand Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
    91. 91. Suggest suitable explanations in line with theprinciples and concepts of science. Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
    92. 92. Using previous knowledge to make explanations Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
    93. 93. Aware that there are more than oneexplanation for events.Aware that the explanation is just a suggestion.
    94. 94. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS. SCIENCE  THINKING SKILLS PROCESS SKILLS -CHARACTERIZE -TO COMPAREOBSERVING -TO RELATE
    95. 95. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS. -CHARACTERIZE CLASSIFY - TO COMPARE AND TO CONTRAST - TO COLLECT AND CLASSIFY
    96. 96. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS. MEASURING - TO RELATE AND USING -TO COMPARE AND NUMBERS TO CONTRAST
    97. 97. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS. - TO RELATE - TO COMPARE AND MAKING TO CONTRAST INFERENCES - TO ANALYZE - INFERRING
    98. 98. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS. - TO RELATEPREDICTING - MENTAL IMAGE
    99. 99. Thank You.
    100. 100. You are observing when you are… 1. Using the five senses effectively. 2. Identifying relevant particulars of an objects and its environment. 3. Focusing on relevant particulars from massive information. 4. Identifying similarities and differences.
    101. 101. You are observing when you are… 5. Identifying strange / unusual features. 6. Realizing changes in environment. 7. Identifying the correct sequence. 8. Using appropriate instrument(s) to enhance senses for the details.
    102. 102. You are measuring and using numberswhen you are….1. Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups.2. Able to recognized the pattern from a table of numbers.3. Using numbers to record phenomenon.4. Using scales and explaining ratios.5. Compare objects using numbers.
    103. 103. You are measuring and using numberswhen you are…. 6. Using tools correctly. 7. Recording unit correctly. 8. Choosing and using standard unit. 9. Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units. 10. Determining the accuracy in measurements.
    104. 104. You are making inferenceswhen you are…. 1. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions. 2. Making various possible interpretations from single observation. 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.
    105. 105. You are making inferenceswhen you are…. 4. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations. 5. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations. 6. Determining the accuracy in measurements.
    106. 106. You are predicting whenyou are….5. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.
    107. 107. MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS
    108. 108. MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS
    109. 109. 9. Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units.
    110. 110. You are making inferences when you are ….
    111. 111. MODULE OFBASIC SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS
    112. 112. You are predicting whenyou are….1. Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events.2. Able to differentiate between prediction and guessing.3. Able to determine the outcomes from an action.4. Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.
    113. 113. You are predicting when you are….5. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.
    114. 114. You are predicting whenyou are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand. 8. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.
    115. 115. You are communicatingwhen you are….1. Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings.2. Recording information from investigations.3. Drawing and making notes.4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols.
    116. 116. You are communicatingwhen you are….5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information.6. Posting questions clearly.7. Using references.8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment.
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