Female reproductive system

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An overview of the female reproductive system

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Female reproductive system

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  2. 2. The Female reproductiveThe Female reproductive systemsystem The ovaryThe ovary
  3. 3. Follicullar growth and developmentFollicullar growth and development • Each ovarian follicle consists of an immature ovum, PRIMARY OOCYTE,Each ovarian follicle consists of an immature ovum, PRIMARY OOCYTE, surrounded by spheroidal cells, with large vesicular nucleus and a prominentsurrounded by spheroidal cells, with large vesicular nucleus and a prominent nucleolus.nucleolus. • Infants has 400,000 follicles, with progressive reduction in number as theInfants has 400,000 follicles, with progressive reduction in number as the female matures and menstruate until virtually none is left after menopause.female matures and menstruate until virtually none is left after menopause. • AS it grows the flattened follicular cells becomes cuboidal then columnar inAS it grows the flattened follicular cells becomes cuboidal then columnar in shape, divide actively to produce a stratified layer around the ovum.shape, divide actively to produce a stratified layer around the ovum. • It soon increase in size, becomes a cavity ( ANTRUM) filled with clear fluidIt soon increase in size, becomes a cavity ( ANTRUM) filled with clear fluid ( Liquor folliculi) rich in hyaluronic acid,( Liquor folliculi) rich in hyaluronic acid, • Cumulus oophorus, is formed by a projection into the antrum.Cumulus oophorus, is formed by a projection into the antrum. • Membrana granulosa, is formed as a continuous stratified follicular cellsMembrana granulosa, is formed as a continuous stratified follicular cells around the antrum cavity.around the antrum cavity.
  4. 4. Follicullar growth and developmentFollicullar growth and development • Theca folliculi is then formed as the follicle increase in size and is organizedTheca folliculi is then formed as the follicle increase in size and is organized into capsules. It is separated from the membrana granulosa by basal lamina –into capsules. It is separated from the membrana granulosa by basal lamina – Glassy membrane.Glassy membrane. • It then differentiates into 2 layers;It then differentiates into 2 layers; a. inner vascular, Theca interna, with enlarged epitheloid stromal cells witha. inner vascular, Theca interna, with enlarged epitheloid stromal cells with numerous capillaries inbetween.numerous capillaries inbetween. b. outer fibrous layer, Theca externa, composed of closely packed collagenousb. outer fibrous layer, Theca externa, composed of closely packed collagenous fibers and fusiform cells merge peripherally into the surrounding ovarianfibers and fusiform cells merge peripherally into the surrounding ovarian stroma.stroma. ..
  5. 5. The follicle with the Theca Interna and the Theca ExternaThe follicle with the Theca Interna and the Theca Externa
  6. 6. Mature Graafian folliclesMature Graafian follicles • Requires 10 to 14 days to reachRequires 10 to 14 days to reach maturity.maturity. • 10 mm in dm. and occupies the10 mm in dm. and occupies the whole breadth of the cortex andwhole breadth of the cortex and indents the medulla.indents the medulla. • It bulges on the free surface of theIt bulges on the free surface of the ovary – Stigma.ovary – Stigma. • The enlarged antrum is filled withThe enlarged antrum is filled with fluid and is bound by thefluid and is bound by the membrana granulosa, ismembrana granulosa, is surrounded by a thick Zonasurrounded by a thick Zona pellucida.pellucida. • On maturity the cell spaces areOn maturity the cell spaces are filled with fluid weakening thefilled with fluid weakening the connection between the ovum andconnection between the ovum and the membrana granulosa.the membrana granulosa.
  7. 7. The cortex of theThe cortex of the ovaryovary contains numerous follicles embedded in a thickcontains numerous follicles embedded in a thick stroma.  Most of the follicles are resting primordial follicles.  Folliclesstroma.  Most of the follicles are resting primordial follicles.  Follicles which have been stimulated to develop progress through primary andwhich have been stimulated to develop progress through primary and secondary stages to become mature tertiary orsecondary stages to become mature tertiary or Graafian folliclesGraafian follicles
  8. 8. • Maturation of the Ovum:Maturation of the Ovum: OOgenesisOOgenesis • The large cell within each follicle isThe large cell within each follicle is anan oocyte.  The cells whichoocyte.  The cells which surround each follicle aresurround each follicle are granulosa cells.  Flattenedgranulosa cells.  Flattened granulosa cells indicategranulosa cells indicate resting primordial follicles.resting primordial follicles.  Cuboidal granulosa cells Cuboidal granulosa cells indicate primary follicles,indicate primary follicles, which have begun thewhich have begun the process of maturation towardprocess of maturation toward ovulation.  Atretic folliclesovulation.  Atretic follicles have begun to degenerate.have begun to degenerate.
  9. 9. The cortex of the ovary contains numerous follicles embedded in a thick stroma.  Most of the follicles areThe cortex of the ovary contains numerous follicles embedded in a thick stroma.  Most of the follicles are resting primordial follicles. Follicles which have been stimulated to develop progress through primaryresting primordial follicles. Follicles which have been stimulated to develop progress through primary and secondary stages to become mature tertiary or Graafian follicles, in which a large fluid-filled cavity,and secondary stages to become mature tertiary or Graafian follicles, in which a large fluid-filled cavity, the antrum, is surrounded by many layers of granulosa cells.  Stromal cells around the follicle form thethe antrum, is surrounded by many layers of granulosa cells.  Stromal cells around the follicle form the theca interna, whichtheca interna, which secretes estrogen.secretes estrogen.
  10. 10. At the end of the monthly cycle, or at the end of pregnancy, the corpusAt the end of the monthly cycle, or at the end of pregnancy, the corpus luteum degenerates into a fibrous scar called aluteum degenerates into a fibrous scar called a corpus albicans.corpus albicans. The corpus luteum forms by reoganization of granulosa and theca cells followingThe corpus luteum forms by reoganization of granulosa and theca cells following ovulation.ovulation.
  11. 11. • Ovulation = the follicle reaches maturity, filled with wateryOvulation = the follicle reaches maturity, filled with watery liqour secretions & expands, called PreOvulatory swelling.liqour secretions & expands, called PreOvulatory swelling. • Maturation of the Ovum: OOgenesisMaturation of the Ovum: OOgenesis • The ovum that is released at ovulation is a secondaryThe ovum that is released at ovulation is a secondary oocyte ( immature).oocyte ( immature). • Oogonia = primitive ova with diploid chromosomes divideOogonia = primitive ova with diploid chromosomes divide by mitosis to produce the primary Oocytes in the fetalby mitosis to produce the primary Oocytes in the fetal ovary.ovary. • On ovulation, the nucleus of the 2ndary oocyte starts the 2On ovulation, the nucleus of the 2ndary oocyte starts the 2ndnd maturation division which stops in the metaphase andmaturation division which stops in the metaphase and remains in this condition until fertilization. Theremains in this condition until fertilization. The penetration of the spermatozoa triggers the completion ofpenetration of the spermatozoa triggers the completion of the 2the 2ndnd maturation division.maturation division.
  12. 12. The Corpus LuteumThe Corpus Luteum • The folded collapse follicleThe folded collapse follicle • Granulosal cell differentiateGranulosal cell differentiate into large vesicular nucleiinto large vesicular nuclei called the “Granulosa Luteincalled the “Granulosa Lutein cells”cells” • Theca interna becomes theTheca interna becomes the “Theca Lutein Cells”“Theca Lutein Cells” • Corpus luteum ofCorpus luteum of menstruation = unfertilized,menstruation = unfertilized, discharges ovumdischarges ovum • 400 follicles reach maturity at400 follicles reach maturity at 30 years and only 1 ovum is30 years and only 1 ovum is discharged every month.discharged every month. • Atresia = involution of aAtresia = involution of a follicle.follicle.
  13. 13. • Interstitial cells = large Spheroidal cell filled withInterstitial cells = large Spheroidal cell filled with small lipid droplets,found in the ovarian stroma.small lipid droplets,found in the ovarian stroma. • Hormones of the Ovary = produce sexHormones of the Ovary = produce sex hormones estrogen ( from the follicle ) andhormones estrogen ( from the follicle ) and progesterone ( Uterine glands).progesterone ( Uterine glands). • Blood vessels and lymphatics = branches fromBlood vessels and lymphatics = branches from the ovarian and uterine arteries, form a spiralthe ovarian and uterine arteries, form a spiral vessel called helicine vessel.vessel called helicine vessel.
  14. 14. The Fallopian tubesThe Fallopian tubes
  15. 15. The regions of the fallopian tubesThe regions of the fallopian tubes • Infundibulum – funnel shaped opening into theInfundibulum – funnel shaped opening into the peritoneal cavity with margins drawn out intoperitoneal cavity with margins drawn out into numerous folds called fimbriae.numerous folds called fimbriae. • Ampulla – the expanded intermediate segment, 2/3rdsAmpulla – the expanded intermediate segment, 2/3rds of the total length.of the total length. • Isthmus – slender, narrow tube connects the fimbriaeIsthmus – slender, narrow tube connects the fimbriae to the uterus.to the uterus. • Intramural(interstitial) portion, the continuation of theIntramural(interstitial) portion, the continuation of the canal thru the uterine wall.canal thru the uterine wall. • The walls of the tube thickens progressively towardsThe walls of the tube thickens progressively towards the uterus, the lumen diminishes in size.the uterus, the lumen diminishes in size.
  16. 16. Layers of the fallopian tube wallsLayers of the fallopian tube walls • Mucosa = lining are in longitudinal folds, simpleMucosa = lining are in longitudinal folds, simple columnar cells both ciliated (occur in small groups) andcolumnar cells both ciliated (occur in small groups) and non ciliated (narrow and peg-shaped, secretory innon ciliated (narrow and peg-shaped, secretory in nature).nature). • Muscularis – broad inner circular layer and thin outerMuscularis – broad inner circular layer and thin outer layer with scattered bundles of fibers orientedlayer with scattered bundles of fibers oriented longitudinally. Peristaltic contractiosn aid the ovum triplongitudinally. Peristaltic contractiosn aid the ovum trip to the uterine cavity.to the uterine cavity. • Serosa – invested with a fold of reflected peritoneum,Serosa – invested with a fold of reflected peritoneum, with loose connective tissue surfaced withwith loose connective tissue surfaced with mesothelium. Deeper layer contains the longitudinalmesothelium. Deeper layer contains the longitudinal bundles of the muscularis.bundles of the muscularis.
  17. 17. Blood vessels , Lymphatics andBlood vessels , Lymphatics and nervesnerves • Blood vessels and lymphatics are numerous andBlood vessels and lymphatics are numerous and found in the lamina propria and the serosa.found in the lamina propria and the serosa. • Nerves form rich plexus and supply muscleNerves form rich plexus and supply muscle fibers and the mucosa.fibers and the mucosa.
  18. 18. The wall of theThe wall of the fallopian tubefallopian tube includes an elaborately foldedincludes an elaborately folded mucosamucosa surrounded by asurrounded by a muscularismuscularis.  In the ampulla, shown here, the mucosa is quite elaborate and the.  In the ampulla, shown here, the mucosa is quite elaborate and the muscularis is relatively thin.   Mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenalmuscularis is relatively thin.   Mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenal space, so that cilia on the epithelial surface can effectively move the egg toward thespace, so that cilia on the epithelial surface can effectively move the egg toward the uterus.   The simple columnar epithelium of the mucosa contains bothuterus.   The simple columnar epithelium of the mucosa contains both secretorysecretory cellscells andand ciliated cellciliated cell
  19. 19. The wall of theThe wall of the fallopian tubefallopian tube includes an elaborately foldedincludes an elaborately folded mucosamucosa surrounded by asurrounded by a muscularismuscularis.  The thickness of both.  The thickness of both layers varies along the length of the tubelayers varies along the length of the tube
  20. 20. In the isthmus, shown here, the mucosa is relatively simple and theIn the isthmus, shown here, the mucosa is relatively simple and the muscularis is quite thick.  The ampulla, where elaborate mucosal foldsmuscularis is quite thick.  The ampulla, where elaborate mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenal space and the muscularis is relativelyoccupy most of the potential lumenal space and the muscularis is relatively thin.thin.
  21. 21. The uterusThe uterus
  22. 22. Layers of the Uterine WallLayers of the Uterine Wall • Outer layer = the Serosa or perimetriumOuter layer = the Serosa or perimetrium • Middle layer = the muscularis ore myometrium.Middle layer = the muscularis ore myometrium. • The Inner layer = the mucosa of theThe Inner layer = the mucosa of the endometrium.endometrium.
  23. 23. • Perimetrium = typical serosa with single layer ofPerimetrium = typical serosa with single layer of mesothelial cells supported by a thin layer of connectivemesothelial cells supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.tissue. • Myometrium = massive coat of smooth muscle aboutMyometrium = massive coat of smooth muscle about 12 to 15 mm thick. Muscles are arranged in a bundle12 to 15 mm thick. Muscles are arranged in a bundle separated by connective tissue.separated by connective tissue. • 3 layers of muscles:3 layers of muscles: a. stratum subvasculare = inner muscle layer witha. stratum subvasculare = inner muscle layer with longitudinal fibers.longitudinal fibers. b. stratum vasculare = thick mid layer with bloodb. stratum vasculare = thick mid layer with blood vessels.vessels. c. stratum supravasculare = outer longitudinal layerc. stratum supravasculare = outer longitudinal layer beneath the perimetrium.beneath the perimetrium.
  24. 24. TheThe uterusuterus has an extremely thick muscular wall, the myometrium, and a thickhas an extremely thick muscular wall, the myometrium, and a thick mucosa, the endometrium with tubular glands lined by simple columnarmucosa, the endometrium with tubular glands lined by simple columnar epithelium.  The endometrium undergoes extensive changes during the menstrualepithelium.  The endometrium undergoes extensive changes during the menstrual cycle.cycle.
  25. 25. TheThe myometriummyometrium consists of smooth muscle.  Theconsists of smooth muscle.  The endometriumendometrium consists ofconsists of a thick stroma containing numerous irregularly-shaped tubular glandsa thick stroma containing numerous irregularly-shaped tubular glands lined by columnar epithelium.  This image shows the endometrium inlined by columnar epithelium.  This image shows the endometrium in proliferative phase.proliferative phase.
  26. 26. Cyclic changes in the EndometriumCyclic changes in the Endometrium • The menstrual stage with external menstrual discharge.The menstrual stage with external menstrual discharge. • Proliferative ( follicular) stage = concurrent withProliferative ( follicular) stage = concurrent with follicular growth and estrogen secretion.follicular growth and estrogen secretion. • Progestational ( luteal ) stage = associated with activeProgestational ( luteal ) stage = associated with active corpus luteum.corpus luteum. • Ischemic ( premenstrual ) stage = when there isIschemic ( premenstrual ) stage = when there is interruption of blood flow in the coiled arteries.interruption of blood flow in the coiled arteries.
  27. 27. During theDuring the proliferative phaseproliferative phase, when the stratum functionalis is growing,, when the stratum functionalis is growing, the endometrial glands have a relatively smooth contour and mitoticthe endometrial glands have a relatively smooth contour and mitotic figures are common.figures are common.
  28. 28. Endometrium, Proliferative stage. A helical (corkscrew) shape permits theEndometrium, Proliferative stage. A helical (corkscrew) shape permits the spiralspiral arteryartery to extend into the thickening stroma of the proliferativeto extend into the thickening stroma of the proliferative endometriumendometrium andand also, later, to retract back into the stratum basalis when the stratum functionalis isalso, later, to retract back into the stratum basalis when the stratum functionalis is eventually sloughed off.  Because of its corkscrew shape, eacheventually sloughed off.  Because of its corkscrew shape, each spiral arteryspiral artery typicallytypically appears as an aligned cluster of profilesappears as an aligned cluster of profiles (asterisks)(asterisks) deep in the endometrium.deep in the endometrium.
  29. 29. The endometrial glands have matured in theThe endometrial glands have matured in the secretory phasesecretory phase, their contour is more tortuous, their contour is more tortuous and the epithelium consists of mature secretory cells. The endometrium is highly vascular,and the epithelium consists of mature secretory cells. The endometrium is highly vascular, and the blood vessels also participate in the menstrual cycle.  Distal vessels are sloughed off,and the blood vessels also participate in the menstrual cycle.  Distal vessels are sloughed off, while thewhile the spiral arteriesspiral arteries (named for their helical shape) retract into the stratum basalis and(named for their helical shape) retract into the stratum basalis and constrict to limit blood loss during menstruation.  The spiral arteries then extend again (likeconstrict to limit blood loss during menstruation.  The spiral arteries then extend again (like springs) as the stratum functionalis regeneratessprings) as the stratum functionalis regenerates
  30. 30. Functions of the PlacentaFunctions of the Placenta • Transfers blood and nutrition from the mother to the fetus.Transfers blood and nutrition from the mother to the fetus. • Transfer waste product from the fetal metabolism to theTransfer waste product from the fetal metabolism to the maternal circulation for disposal.maternal circulation for disposal. • Maternal circulation is separated from the materanal circulation:Maternal circulation is separated from the materanal circulation: a. Syncitial trophoblast.a. Syncitial trophoblast. b. Cytotrophoblast from the 1b. Cytotrophoblast from the 1stst trimester of pregnancy.trimester of pregnancy. c. Basal lamina of the trophoblast.c. Basal lamina of the trophoblast. d. Fetal connective tissue.d. Fetal connective tissue. e. Basal lamina of the fetal capillaries.e. Basal lamina of the fetal capillaries. f. Fetal endothelium.f. Fetal endothelium. * Hormones produce = estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, renin,* Hormones produce = estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, renin, chorionic gonadotropinschorionic gonadotropins
  31. 31. Many chorionic villi are seen in the vicinity of the uterine wall.  Both largeMany chorionic villi are seen in the vicinity of the uterine wall.  Both large and small chorionic villi have the same basic structure, a surface ofand small chorionic villi have the same basic structure, a surface of syncytiotrophoblast surrounding a core of mesenchyme containing fetalsyncytiotrophoblast surrounding a core of mesenchyme containing fetal blood vessels.  Fetal blood vessels are visible here only in the largest villi.blood vessels.  Fetal blood vessels are visible here only in the largest villi.  The small villi vastly increase the surface area available for material The small villi vastly increase the surface area available for material interchange with maternal blood.  Decidual cells are large cuboidal cellsinterchange with maternal blood.  Decidual cells are large cuboidal cells derived from endometrial stroma.derived from endometrial stroma.
  32. 32. The External FemaleThe External Female genitaliagenitalia
  33. 33. TheThe cervixcervix and vagina represent the distal portion of the reproductive tract,and vagina represent the distal portion of the reproductive tract, lined by stratified squamous epithelium.lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Surface samples of cervical epithelium (Surface samples of cervical epithelium (Pap smearsPap smears) are used to screen for) are used to screen for cervical cancer.cervical cancer.
  34. 34. Coats of the Vaginal wallCoats of the Vaginal wall • Mucosa = with transverse folds or rugae.Mucosa = with transverse folds or rugae. Lined with thick stratified squamous non- keratinizedLined with thick stratified squamous non- keratinized cells, lacks glands, is lubricated by mucus from thecells, lacks glands, is lubricated by mucus from the cervix.cervix. • Muscularis = smooth muscle fibers arranged inMuscularis = smooth muscle fibers arranged in interlacing bundles. Inner bundle is circular and thin.interlacing bundles. Inner bundle is circular and thin. The outer bundle is thicker, longitudinally arranged,The outer bundle is thicker, longitudinally arranged, continuous with the myometrium.continuous with the myometrium. • Adventitia = the thin layer of dense connective tissue,Adventitia = the thin layer of dense connective tissue, blends with other surrounding organs.blends with other surrounding organs.
  35. 35. • The Clitoris = incomplete counterpart of the Penis.The Clitoris = incomplete counterpart of the Penis. Consists of 2 cavernous erectile bodies which ends in a smallConsists of 2 cavernous erectile bodies which ends in a small glans clitoridi. Covered by a thin stratified squamous cells.glans clitoridi. Covered by a thin stratified squamous cells. • Labia Majora = folds of mucous membrane forming the lateralLabia Majora = folds of mucous membrane forming the lateral wall of the vestibule.wall of the vestibule. • Labia majora = folds of skin that covers the labia minoraLabia majora = folds of skin that covers the labia minora externally.. Outer layer is covered by a cornified epidermis w/cexternally.. Outer layer is covered by a cornified epidermis w/c contains hairs, sweat glands, sebaceous glands.contains hairs, sweat glands, sebaceous glands. • Vestibule = where the vagina and urethra opens. Lined byVestibule = where the vagina and urethra opens. Lined by stratified squamous epithelium. With numerous small vestibularstratified squamous epithelium. With numerous small vestibular glands around the opening and near clitoris.( glands of Littre)glands around the opening and near clitoris.( glands of Littre) • Bartholins glands( major vestibular gland). = analogous to theBartholins glands( major vestibular gland). = analogous to the bulbourethral glands of males. Produce lubricating mucous.bulbourethral glands of males. Produce lubricating mucous.
  36. 36. • The Mammary gland = specialized cutaneous glandsThe Mammary gland = specialized cutaneous glands locate within the subcutaneous tissue. Develops atlocate within the subcutaneous tissue. Develops at puberty. Has 15 to 20 lobes each.puberty. Has 15 to 20 lobes each. • Nipple and areola = traversed by lactiferous ducts,Nipple and areola = traversed by lactiferous ducts, opens by a pore on the skin surface.opens by a pore on the skin surface. • Glands of Montgomery = special dark areolar glands.Glands of Montgomery = special dark areolar glands. • Pregnancy = colostrum is produced at the end ofPregnancy = colostrum is produced at the end of pregnancy.pregnancy. • Lactation = Production of milk at the end of pregnancyLactation = Production of milk at the end of pregnancy by the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the golgiby the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi complex vacoules.complex vacoules.
  37. 37. • Hormonal control = Estrogen and progesteroneHormonal control = Estrogen and progesterone influenced the growth of the duct system at puberty.influenced the growth of the duct system at puberty. Lactation is induced by the presence of prolactin fromLactation is induced by the presence of prolactin from the pars distalis of Hypophysis.the pars distalis of Hypophysis. • Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary initiatesOxytocin from the posterior pituitary initiates contraction of the glands to ejection of milk from thecontraction of the glands to ejection of milk from the alveoli and the ducts.alveoli and the ducts. • Oxytocin is produced by the nerve impulses reachingOxytocin is produced by the nerve impulses reaching the hypothalamus after stimulation of tactile receptorsthe hypothalamus after stimulation of tactile receptors in the nipple area.in the nipple area.
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