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Connective tissues

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  • 1. Connective Tissues ESAT 3600 Connective Tissues Relatively few cells distributed within a large amount of noncellular matrix. Physical characteristics of matrix determines function of each type of connective tissue Function of Connective Tissues Mechanical Support Maintain or transmit forces to carry out wide range of mechanical functions Strength or elasticity 1) Binding cells together 2) Support of organs 3) Stability & shock absorption 4) Flexible links & smooth articulating surfaces 5) Transmitting muscle forces 1
  • 2. Function of Connective Tissues Continued Intercellular Exchange Exchange of nutrients, gases, and other substances Distribution and Classification of Connective Tissues Depending on function, composition of matrix changes from one part of organ or system to another Skeletal muscle Classified according to function Ordinary Special Ordinary Connective Tissues 2 main functions Bind cells together Mechanical link between bones at joints, & between muscles and bones Matrix Elastin fibers Collagen fibers Ground substance Difference in structure of ordinary connective tissue is the proportion of these components 2
  • 3. Elastin and Collagen Elastin – random arrangement of molecules, yellow Collagen – more regular arrangement, white Both stretch Tension stress Elastic in nature Elastin – stretch up to 200% resting length before breaking Collagen – stretch up to 10% resting length before breaking Ground Substance Nonfibrous part of matrix Viscous gel CHO molecules, CHO-Protein molecules, H20 Intercellular exchange, some mechanical support Glue-like quality Extracellular fluid Amorphous ground substance Ordinary Connective Tissue Cells Number and type depends on type of connective tissue and health of individual 6 main types Fibroblasts Macrophages Plasma cells WBC Mast cells Fat cells 3
  • 4. Irregular vs. Regular Tissues Depends on arrangement of the fibrous content of the matrix Irregular tissues – fibers tend to run in all directions Regular tissues – tend to be orientated in same direction Irregular Ordinary Connective Tissues Types: Loose connective tissue Adipose connective tissue Irregular collagenous connective tissue Irregular elastic connective tissue Loose connective tissue Most widely distributed Glue that binds cells w/in other main tissues Loose irregular network of collagen and elastin Provides moderate elasticity and strength 4
  • 5. Adipose connective tissue Loose network of elastin and collagen Closely packed fat cells, little ground substance Locations Bone marrow Various layers of loose connective tissue Padding around organs Continuous layer beneath the skin Irregular collagenous connective tissue Dense irregular collagen Few elastin Locations: Sheath around skeletal muscle and spinal nerves Capsule around certain organs Perichondrium around ligaments Periosteum of bones Irregular elastic connective tissue Dense irregular elastin Few collagen Not as strong, more elastic Locations Walls of arteries Trachea Bronchial tubes 5
  • 6. Regular Ordinary Connective Tissues Regular collagenous Regular elastic Regular Collagenous Connective Tissue Parallel collagen fibers Fibroblast Thick cords, bands, or sheaths Wavy when unloaded Straighten when stretched 3 Main Forms of Regular Collagenous Tendons and aponeuroses Ligaments and joint capsule Retinacula 6
  • 7. Tendons and Aponeuroses Ligaments and Joint Capsules Capsular Noncapsular Extracapsular intracapsular Retinacula Broad single-layered sheet of regular collagenous connective tissue Holds tendons of some muscles in place Guy rope Pulley 7
  • 8. Regular Elastic Connective Tissue Elastin fibers arranged parallel to each other Found where moderate amounts of strength and elasticity are required in a single direction Fibrous Tissue, Elastic Tissue, and Fascia Fibrous tissue – regular or irregular collagenous tissue Elastic tissue – regular or irregular elastic tissue Fascia – any type of ordinary connective tissue in the form of a sheet Cartilage Matrix is similar to fibrous and elastic ordinary connective tissues Ground substance is highly specialized Proteoglycan gel Composite material – material that is stronger than any of the separate substances from which it is made 8
  • 9. Hyaline Cartilage Articular cartilage Costal cartilage Trachea (supporting rings) Supporting framework of the larynx External flexible part of nose Fibrocartilage Complete or incomplete discs in some synovial joints Complete discs that join bones in some joints Rim of glenoid fossa Lining of bony grooves Elastic Cartilage Dense network of elastin fibers Yellow Support w/ moderate to high degree of elasticity 9
  • 10. Bone Strongest and most rigid of connective tissues Dense, layered, regular network of collagen fibers embedded in a solid ground substance 10