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Basic tools in nutrition

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A guide to understanding teh basic tools in nutrition

A guide to understanding teh basic tools in nutrition


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  • 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more.
  • 2. BASIC TOOLS INBASIC TOOLS IN NUTRITIONNUTRITION The main nutrition tools are:The main nutrition tools are: food groups, dietary standards (RDA)food groups, dietary standards (RDA) and food exchange listsand food exchange lists
  • 3. Food groups or food guidesFood groups or food guides  Food guides translate quantitative nutritionalFood guides translate quantitative nutritional requirements into simple, practical and non-requirements into simple, practical and non- technical language using available andtechnical language using available and common foods of the country.common foods of the country.  Food groups are developed by nutritionFood groups are developed by nutrition experts as a quantitative tool in planningexperts as a quantitative tool in planning nutritious diets for the masses.nutritious diets for the masses.
  • 4.  The three main food groups are:The three main food groups are: 1.Body-building foods:1.Body-building foods: foods that supply goodfoods that supply good quality proteins, some vitamins and minerals.quality proteins, some vitamins and minerals. 2. Energy foods:2. Energy foods: mostly of rice and other cereals,mostly of rice and other cereals, starches, sugars and fats contribute the bulk ofstarches, sugars and fats contribute the bulk of Calories.Calories. 3. Regulating foods:3. Regulating foods: composed of fruits andcomposed of fruits and vegetables that provide vitamins and minerals,vegetables that provide vitamins and minerals, particularly ascorbic acid and pro vitamin A.particularly ascorbic acid and pro vitamin A.
  • 5. DIETARY STADARDSDIETARY STADARDS  Dietary standardsDietary standards are compilations ofare compilations of nutrient requirements or allowances in specificnutrient requirements or allowances in specific quantities.quantities.  Dietary requirementDietary requirement is the minimum amountis the minimum amount needed for a nutrient to attain good healthneeded for a nutrient to attain good health under specific conditions (age, weight,under specific conditions (age, weight, physical activity, sex, physiological condition,physical activity, sex, physiological condition, state of health status, etc).state of health status, etc).
  • 6.  Dietary allowanceDietary allowance is the minimumis the minimum requirement plus a safety factor or “margin ofrequirement plus a safety factor or “margin of safety” to account for individual variations insafety” to account for individual variations in body storage of nutrients, state of health,body storage of nutrients, state of health, nutrient utilization, day to day variationsnutrient utilization, day to day variations within an individual, etc.within an individual, etc.
  • 7. Recommended Dietary Allowance:Recommended Dietary Allowance:  TheThe RDARDA, the estimated amount of a nutrient, the estimated amount of a nutrient (or calories) per day considered necessary for(or calories) per day considered necessary for the maintenance of good health by the Foodthe maintenance of good health by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Researchand Nutrition Board of the National Research Council/ National Academy of Sciences. TheCouncil/ National Academy of Sciences. The RDA is updated periodically to reflect newRDA is updated periodically to reflect new knowledge. It is popularly called theknowledge. It is popularly called the Recommended Daily AllowanceRecommended Daily Allowance
  • 8. Nutrient densityNutrient density  Nutrient densityNutrient density is a measure of the nutrientsis a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to thea food provides compared to the caloriescalories itit provides. Foods low in calories and high inprovides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients arenutrients are nutrient dense,nutrient dense, while foods highwhile foods high in calories and low in nutrients arein calories and low in nutrients are nutrientnutrient poor.poor.
  • 9.  Nutrient-dense foods should be eaten often,Nutrient-dense foods should be eaten often, whereas nutrient-poor foods should only bewhereas nutrient-poor foods should only be eaten occasionally. A healthful diet includeseaten occasionally. A healthful diet includes mostly nutrient-dense foods.mostly nutrient-dense foods.  People who restrict their calories should obtainPeople who restrict their calories should obtain as much nutrition as they can from the caloriesas much nutrition as they can from the calories they consume by choosing nutrient-densethey consume by choosing nutrient-dense foods. Those who consistently choose nutrient-foods. Those who consistently choose nutrient- poor foods will not get the nutrients they need.poor foods will not get the nutrients they need.
  • 10.  Liver has a moderate amount of calories but isLiver has a moderate amount of calories but is rich in vitamins and minerals and is consideredrich in vitamins and minerals and is considered a high nutrient density food.a high nutrient density food.  A cyclist has an increased energy demand butA cyclist has an increased energy demand but no significant increase in nutrientno significant increase in nutrient requirements. Because of this he/she can eatrequirements. Because of this he/she can eat foods with a lower nutrient density than thefoods with a lower nutrient density than the average person. This means that a cyclist canaverage person. This means that a cyclist can be less choosy about the foods that are eatenbe less choosy about the foods that are eaten provided he/she realizes his/her specificprovided he/she realizes his/her specific nutrient and energy requirements that must benutrient and energy requirements that must be met.met.
  • 11. Food exchange listFood exchange list  The wordThe word exchangeexchange refers to the fact that eachrefers to the fact that each item on a particular list in the portion listeditem on a particular list in the portion listed may be interchanged with any other food itemmay be interchanged with any other food item on the same list. An exchange can beon the same list. An exchange can be explained as a substitution, choice, or servingexplained as a substitution, choice, or serving  Within each food list, one exchange isWithin each food list, one exchange is approximately equal to another in calories,approximately equal to another in calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Each list is acarbohydrate, protein, and fat. Each list is a group of measured or weighed foods ofgroup of measured or weighed foods of approximately the same nutritional value.approximately the same nutritional value.
  • 12.  The exchange lists are intended for planningThe exchange lists are intended for planning diabetic diets, therefore the foods included arediabetic diets, therefore the foods included are simple and only those allowed in the diabeticsimple and only those allowed in the diabetic diet are listed. Besides, because of thediet are listed. Besides, because of the accuracy and convenience of the exchangeaccuracy and convenience of the exchange system, the exchange lists are used for weightsystem, the exchange lists are used for weight management as well .management as well .
  • 13. Examples :Examples :  Cereals, grains, pasta, breads, crackers, snacks,Cereals, grains, pasta, breads, crackers, snacks, starchy vegetables, and cooked beans, peas, andstarchy vegetables, and cooked beans, peas, and lentils are on the starch list. In general, onelentils are on the starch list. In general, one starch exchange is ½ cup cereal, grain, orstarch exchange is ½ cup cereal, grain, or starchy vegetable; one ounce of a breadstarchy vegetable; one ounce of a bread product, such as one slice of bread; one-thirdproduct, such as one slice of bread; one-third cup rice or pasta; or three-fourths to one ouncecup rice or pasta; or three-fourths to one ounce of most snack foods.of most snack foods.
  • 14.  Fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruitFresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices are on the fruit list. In general, one fruitjuices are on the fruit list. In general, one fruit exchange is: one small to medium fresh fruit,exchange is: one small to medium fresh fruit, one-half cup of canned or fresh fruit or fruitone-half cup of canned or fresh fruit or fruit juice, or one-fourth cup of dried fruit.juice, or one-fourth cup of dried fruit.
  • 15. Format in Nutritional labelingFormat in Nutritional labeling
  • 16. Nutritional labels on processed foods wereNutritional labels on processed foods were first used in 1970’s to furnish consumers withfirst used in 1970’s to furnish consumers with nutrient information.nutrient information. Nutritional labeling and education act ofNutritional labeling and education act of 1990(NLEA) requires that food labels follow a1990(NLEA) requires that food labels follow a standard format and provide this nutritionstandard format and provide this nutrition information.information.
  • 17. With today's food labels, consumers get:With today's food labels, consumers get:  Nutrition information about almost every foodNutrition information about almost every food in the grocery storein the grocery store  Distinctive, easy-to-read formats that enableDistinctive, easy-to-read formats that enable consumers to more quickly find theconsumers to more quickly find the information they need to make healthful foodinformation they need to make healthful food choiceschoices  Information on the amount per serving ofInformation on the amount per serving of saturated fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, andsaturated fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and other nutrients of major health concernother nutrients of major health concern
  • 18.  Nutrient reference values, expressed as %Nutrient reference values, expressed as % Daily Values that help consumers see how aDaily Values that help consumers see how a food fits into an overall daily diet . Dailyfood fits into an overall daily diet . Daily values are based on current nutritionvalues are based on current nutrition recommendations for a 2000-calorie diet.recommendations for a 2000-calorie diet.  Uniform definitions for terms that describe aUniform definitions for terms that describe a food's nutrient content--such as "light," "low-food's nutrient content--such as "light," "low- fat," and "high-fiber"--to ensure that suchfat," and "high-fiber"--to ensure that such terms mean the same for any product on whichterms mean the same for any product on which they appearthey appear
  • 19.  Claims about the relationship between a nutrient orClaims about the relationship between a nutrient or food and a disease or health-related condition, such asfood and a disease or health-related condition, such as calcium and osteoporosis, and fat and cancer. Thesecalcium and osteoporosis, and fat and cancer. These are helpful for people who are concerned about eatingare helpful for people who are concerned about eating foods that may help keep them healthier longer.foods that may help keep them healthier longer.  Standardized serving sizes that make nutritionalStandardized serving sizes that make nutritional comparisons of similar products easiercomparisons of similar products easier  Declaration of total percentage of juice in juiceDeclaration of total percentage of juice in juice drinks. This enables consumers to know exactly howdrinks. This enables consumers to know exactly how much juice is in a product.much juice is in a product.
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