1. Must know Right vs. Left
2. Spelling is very important
for example the coracoid process is on the scapula
but the coronoid process is on the mandible and ulna.
3. If there is more than one of a bone marking you must indicate the bone in the name of the
*From example above there are 2 coronoid processes one on the mandible and one on the
Therefore coronoid process of the mandible is a complete answer.
This is common with the markings head, condyle, epicondyle,
styloid process, coronoid process, neck, shaft, tubercle
4. Vertebral anatomy
ALL VERTEBRAE HAVE EACH OF THE FOLLOWING 7 BONE MARKINGS
Body (except atlas)
Vertebral foramen (SPINAL CORD PASSES THROUGH THIS)
Differences are in the table below.
Vertebra Number Body Size Spinous Process Other
Atlas C1 1 Absent Tiny – only a
No body / transverse foramen
Axis C2 1 Double (Dens) Bifid / Straight Double body / transverse foramen
Cervical 7 Small Bifid (1-5) / Straight Transverse foramen
Thoracic 12 T1 – small
T12 – large
Pointy / inferior Extra facets for ribs
Lumbar 5 Huge Fin-like / straight Transverse processes point lateral
5. Radius is lateral bone of antebrachium (forearm).
Fibula is the lateral bone in the crurum (leg). There is NO SUCH THING AS A FIBIA.
Remember that in the leg the small bone is fibulateral. This gives spelling and location.
6. There is NO middle phalanx on the 1st
digit in the hand or foot.