• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
ENBE PROJECT 2 REPORT
 

ENBE PROJECT 2 REPORT

on

  • 1,119 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,119
Views on SlideShare
397
Embed Views
722

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

4 Embeds 722

http://fnbe0413phuajingsern.blogspot.com 718
http://fnbe0413phuajingsern.blogspot.sg 2
http://fnbe0413phuajingsern.blogspot.com.au 1
http://fnbe0413phuajingsern.blogspot.in 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    ENBE PROJECT 2 REPORT ENBE PROJECT 2 REPORT Document Transcript

    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation An Underground/Underwater City Plan Proposal RHAPSODY| Live | Work | Learn | Play | • Name: Phua Jing Sern • ID Number: 0314572 • Course: Foundation in Natural and Built Environment • Intake: April 2013 Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 1
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Content • Introduction 3 • A City 4-6 • Investigation & Data Collection: The Ancient city 7-8 • Investigation & Data Collection: The present cities 9-14 • Investigation & Data Collection: The future cities 15-19 • Dunwall: The Doomed City 20 • Rhapsody: A Second Chance 21-27 • The Process and Progress The Conclusion 28-32 • References list 33-34 Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 2
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Introduction For our final Element of Natural and Built Environment (ENBE) assignment, we students were told that we are the mayor of a dying city and we are instructed to propose a new and improved city plan that enhances the way the people live and create a sustainable living environment for the future. Students can enhance the current city, or have a choice to choose a whole new setting such as Underground, Underwater, Floating on water, above the clouds, or a combination of any two environments. So for our task, we have to conduct vigorous research through online and books references regarding on urban city planning and design and create a proposal of a sustainable city environment. This assignment gives students the exposure of what being an urban planner feels like, connecting the dots for the people to live. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 3
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation A City Definition City (pronunciation: / s ti/ˈ ɪ ): A center of population, commerce, and culture; a town of significant size and importance. A city is a place of business, connectivity, living, learning, an All-in-One package of self-sustainability for the future generation to come that includes basic transportation services; food, water and electrical supply; education opportunities and so much more. Brief History Some of the earliest cities date back to 7500BC, through years of research and development; planners develop connectivity system, such as the grid planning system Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 4
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation found back at 2600BC( Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa). With population rising, London was the first to have exceeded a population of 1 million, a milestone in city development during the Middle Ages. But it was only during the Industrial Age that massive population and urbanization starting to rise, where transportation; proper sewage managements and basic electrical, water and food supplies are provided within reaches, just like how present city system works right now. What Makes a City A basic city consists of basic services provided to the people, such as: • Efficient electrical, water and food supplies. • Proper infrastructure such as highways, lighting and sewage managements. • Organized city zoning that distinguish the city and its environments • Basic public transportation such as busses and taxis. • Stunning monuments and vista that creates an identity of the city. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 5
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation What Makes a GOOD City But what makes a good city is a SUSTAINABLE city; a balance of social, economic and the environment that surrounds it, ensuring stability of development for younger generations to come, such as: • Using renewable energy solutions as power sources. • Homes and services are energy efficient. • Providing wide range of business and education opportunities. • Health, safety and security are accessible to all. • Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable. • Connectivity and communication planning that stronger the bonds of neighborhoods. • Great public places where people can congregate. • Promote walkability by providing large footpaths along its roads. • Low-carbon urban transportation to decrease pollution. • Public transportations are safe and efficient. • Waste are recycled and turned to resources. What is a Future City Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 6
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation It’s hard to make a statement of what is a future city and what makes it futuristic as everyone has their own minds and opinions. As for me, a future city consists of everything mentioned previously above (What Makes a Good City). I’ve learnt that future cities don’t really need to have flying cars swooping around the skyscrapers, or everything is designed all white, shiny and curvy. Everything goes back to square one, a future city IS a sustainable city, and the changes have already begun. Copenhagen, Denmark aims a goal to be the world’s first carbon neutral capital by 2025, with currently more than a third of the city’s 1.2 million people regularly cycle to work. Besides that, Vancouver, Canada, consistently achieves worldwide “livable city” status, aims of becoming the greenest city in the world by 2020 by running the city with renewable energies such as hydroelectric power (Currently runs 90% of its supply), wind, solar, and wave power. Last but not least, San Francisco, U.S., recently ranked as number one green city in North America, recycles 77% of its waste, reserves nearly 20% of its land to green spaces, and has more than 497 LEED-certified green building projects. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 7
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient Cities Derinkuyu Underground City Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 8
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 9
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Approximately built during the 8th -7th centuries B.C and located at Nevşehir Province, Turkey in the Derinkuyu district, the Derinkuyu Underground City is considered as one of the deepest underground city ever found today with an approximate depth of 85m. The underground city is built mainly to escape during the attacks above ground due to religious conflicts. With the accommodation capacity of an approximately 20,000 people, it also holds a school complete with study rooms, storage rooms, refectories, churches, wineries and so much more. One of its interesting features is its 15,000 ventilation ducts with depth reaching as deep as 55m; provide fresh air and ventilation deep within the underground city. After reading through articles regarding about the history of Derinkuyu Underground City, it proves that us humans will go beyond measure just for protection purposes, so far where they created their own underground city through simple tools of digging. One of the key elements I would like to extract from Derinkuyu Underground City is the uses of large ventilation shafts to provide air ventilation underground, because it is one of the biggest problems faced when proposing an underground city. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 10
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities Portland, Oregon Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 11
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation With the total city area of 375.78km2 of land and water, Portland, Oregon is a well-developed city that has a well-organized management of economy; transportation; law and government; culture and contemporary life; education and so much more. But what intrigued me to research more about Portland is mainly its iconic variation of grid pattern designs. Portland is well known for its well- planned urban design with its variety patterns of grid design. But everything started out with basic squares back at the 1800s. Portland has a brief history of renaming its streets over and over again due to confusion complained by its people. But as time goes by and the city develops outwards, different grid patterns emerges due to planning experimentation and topography conditioning reasons, the patterns varies from basic squares, to diagonals, to organic patterns, all developed within Portland’s land. (Samples at page 11-12) Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 12
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation It’s interesting to see a time-lapse of a city developing its road system to suits the convenience of its people, especially Portland’s grid system. And it is not limited to Portland itself, these patterns can be also seen in different cities such as Barcelona. From this research, It shows me the different kinds of grid patterns and its uses, it will defiantly aid me in designing the city plan proposal. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 13
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 14
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Map of Barcelona 1) Symmetrical Diagonals; Ornamental 4) Organic-like Modified Rectangular 2) Original Squares 5) Squares with Simple Diagonal Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 15
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 3) Curve Modified Large Rectangular Investigation & Data Collection: Present Cities Paris, France Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 16
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation A place of love; the birthplace of the iconic Eiffel tower; and of course, Croissant! Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, consisting land area of 105.4km2 and population of 12 million inhabitants at the metropolitan area. Paris has a long history in terms of Gothic architecture such as the Notre Dame, but the main focus is the Place Charles de Gaulle center and the major connected avenues. As part of Baron Haussmann’s grand urban planning redesign of Paris, The Place Charles de Gaulle (historically known as the Place de l'Étoile) is a large road junction where 12 straight avenues meet at a single point, with the Arc de Triomphe constructed at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle that plays part as an iconic public space. The Place Charles de Gaulle also plays a role of dividing the major road of Avenue des Champs-Élysées and Avenue de la Grande-Armée. From the short but informative research above, I believe the small center of Place Charles de Gaulle created helps the people in identifying their location, and this is what I would extract and place the similar design at my proposed city plan. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 17
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Investigation & Data Collection: Future Cities Copenhagen, Denmark Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 18
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation From my perspective, I consider Copenhagen, a capital of Denmark, a promising future city example because it has the criteria of being one. With urban population of 1.2 million and total land area of 77.20km2, the main focus of the potential future city is how the people travel, by cycling. Cycling became a norm in Copenhagen back in the 20th century where the city’s first bicycle path was established in 1892. Back then, there’s only 2500 bicycle running around the city, but the numbers quickly increased after 17 years later with 80,000 cyclists every day. The tradition sticks on till this day where approximately 450,000 people still uses cycling as their main transportation every day. Copenhagen is well-known as being the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. The city offers free public bicycles and also with an extensive and well-designed system of cycle tracks. Every day, approximately 36% of all citizens of Copenhagen cycle to work, school and university, covering 1.2 million kilometers daily. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 19
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation As mentioned previously, Copenhagen aims a goal to be the world’s first carbon neutral capital by 2025, an adventurous goal and criteria of a great future city. And as for my city plan proposal, promoting bicycle as a main means of transportation is a healthier, environmentally friendlier and cheaper alternative of transportation. Investigation & Data Collection: Future Cities Singapore Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 20
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Water supply and sanitation was a problem for the densely populated island of Singapore. With total land area of 710km2 and population of 5.3 million citizens, Singapore goes beyond to provide the very basic, but challenging element for the people, which is the efficiency supply of water. The reason why Singapore is listed under the Potential Future City examples section is due to its capability to supply enough water for its people even with limited land availability. After the failed water negotiation with Malaysia during 2002, Singapore turns towards water self-sufficiency and sustainability. Methods taken such as Local Catchment Water, where rainwater is collected through drains, canals, rivers etc. and later treated for drinking water supply; Desalinated of seawater where Singapore is one of Asia’s largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, which produces 30 million gallons of water a day; And last but not least, the iconic NEWater method of water sustainability, where used water and urine is purified using advanced membrane technologies and ultra-violet disinfection to ensure ultra-clean water which are safe to drink. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 21
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Though Singapore still uses imported water from Malaysia until 2061 agreement, Singapore is still classified as a potential to be a fine future city example in my book because of its initiative to overcome water supply obstacles and maintaining as a sustainable city. A creditable research and information which can be used in my proposed city’s water management system. Inspiring Underground City Illustrations. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 22
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 23
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Dunwall The Doomed City It was the year 2013; the city of Dunwall and its people were living well with rich natural resources surrounded the city reaches. Located just beside the South China Sea, Dunwall is one of a major cargo port in the country. Besides that, the city is also famous for its wide agriculture resources as well, providing its people with sufficient organic food supplies. With population of 200,000 consisting various races of Chinese, Malays and Indians, the people lived with together with harmony and prosperity. But everything changed when scientists confirmed and reported that Dunwall city prosperous days are numbered. Due to the rising tension of global warming, the effects have finally reached to a level where it will cause massive destruction to cities globally. As for Dunwall’s fate, the scorching heat wave causes the rising sea level that will eventually sink the city with 100m of seawater in the coming 20 years, which will result an avoidable massive destruction to land and property, or is it? After the Mayor received the devastating news, he proposed a massive salvation project for its people, a project which will transform the views of its people, and a project that not only continues the prosperity of Dunwall, but to bring in more opportunities as well. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 24
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation “If it sinks above, we go under!” said the Mayor before presenting his proposal to his people. The Mayor has proposed to transform Dunwall into and Underground/Underwater city, where then it won’t be called Dunwall anymore, but a new name called “Rhapsody”. Rhapsody A Second Chance The massive redesign of Rhapsody city plan was proposed to overcome and extract the benefits of the rising seawater caused by global warming, while simultaneously retaining the humane experience for the citizens. The reasons why the Mayor decided to go Underground/Underwater concept is simple: Firstly is to shelter his people from the gushing seawater, scorching heat wave and deadly ultraviolet rays caused by the thinning of ozone layer and global warming; next is to extract seawater which can provide sufficient water supply to the city. It’s a Win-Win situation. The Mayor also extracted some of the key elements of sustainability from reputable countries as well. Such as Singapore’s iconic desalination of seawater to supply the countries water needs; Portland’s example of connectivity and systematic grid planning and design; and last but not least, the bike-friendly transportation and minimum carbon footprint of Copenhagen. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 25
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Moreover, the city planning now adopts a new concept called “Live. Work. Learn. Play.” the all-in-one package city planning design, suitable for longevity and sustainability within the city walls itself. It promotes walkability and efficient public transportation that enables the people to reach their destination within minutes of traveling time. The Zoning of the city Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 26
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Above Ground Level The Communication center is specially placed above ground, so that satellites can receive stronger connection compared to underground. The Port enables trades to occur in and out of the city, maintaining the economy incomes and the people needs. Furthermore, Security zoning is placed at corners to keep watches of intruders, and even if they managed to breach in, tight security checkpoints surrounds the Tube highway to Rhapsody, controlling who goes in and out of city. Finally is the Research and Development building, where new research and technology is being tested to enhance the living experiences underground. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 27
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Main Ground Level The main city level of Rhapsody, one of its key features is the huge public spaces located at the Stadium up north, and the iconic ‘Grand Field’ just south of the Tube Highway. With the large open space, citizens can gather together to attend announcements or concerts, celebrating wild festivals or bazaars, or maybe just going solo and enjoy the scenery. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 28
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation With the concept of “Live. Work. Learn. Play.” It can be seen that that the residential area is always in walking distance to work, schools and parks, that’s due to the plan is designed to promote walkability instead of using traditional cars. Business areas are placed at the heart of Rhapsody, which is also a walking distance from residential areas. It maximizes connectivity and fast trading transitions can be made since it is located closest to the tube highway, where cargos are loaded and unloaded. Besides that, public services area are also existed around the residential areas such as Police and Firefighters stations and hospitals, to ensure quick respond and rescue when needed. Recreational parks dominate the city plan, consisting almost 50% of the plan. This is to ensure greenery sufficient for the public to enjoy, and to enhance the beauty of landscape of Rhapsody. For the safety of the children, Education areas are placed right in the middle of the Rhapsody, which is located between the residential areas and north of the Tube Highway. This is to ensure maximum minimization the walking distance of students to their schools. The stadium located right above the education areas serves as a secondary field for students to play as well. Lastly, Government buildings are placed at south of the city plan. They are also the tallest among all the other buildings constructed in Rhapsody. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 29
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 30
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Lower Ground 1 The lower Ground 1 level is considered as the Agriculture level. Without any sunlight, this level is lighted almost entirely with ‘Grow Light’ lighting technology, where it enables plant to perform photosynthesis without the use of sunlight. Agriculture and livestock section are divided into two for easier management, and both ends consists of factories that produces the end products for the public as food supplies. Citizens can travel down to the commercial area Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 31
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation around the Tube Highway to buy organic food from local farmers, fresh and healthy. With this, it ensures that Rhapsody is capable of providing sufficient food supply for the citizens. Lower ground 2 The Industrial section is located at the lowest level of Rhapsody; this section is what keeps the city running smoothly. With renewable geothermal solution acting as the primary source of energy for Rhapsody; Water desalination of seawater that plays the main role of providing Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 32
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation clean water supply to the public; and finally the waste management section, where all waste are carefully dispose in the most non-polluted way possible. Conclusion of Rhapsody I believe that the Underground X Underwater city proposal of Rhapsody provides good sustainability for the people in the coming years to come as sustainability is the key to a future city development. Rhapsody uses renewable energy solutions that can be used with finite years; Maximizing on minimizing carbon footprint as the city plan was designed to have huge walkability opportunities for the people to travel; and last but not least, the beautiful greenery landscape providing to the public to enjoy. A city that consists heavily on tall buildings with white, curvy designs; or everything is made out of aluminum or metal, doesn’t consider one as a future city in my book, if it can’t provide sustainability for itself. Although Rhapsody is not one of the most appealing cities, but I think that Rhapsody has a potential to be an iconic, eco-friendly cities in the future. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 33
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation The Process & Progress Perspective of the Main Ground City Level Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 34
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Cross-Section of the Entire City Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 35
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 36
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Cross Section view of the Tube Highway LRT Transportation routes Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 37
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Close Up of the Main Area Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 38
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 39
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Close up of the LRT service Close up of the Education Area Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 40
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Conclusion After weeks of vigorous research regarding urban planning and design, I can honestly say that it is extremely challenging to be an urban planner, but the wide exposure was definitely a commendable experience overall. Through all the researches about the cities above, I’ve learnt that a good urban planner always place the people and their priority first. It is crucial to acknowledge the people needs and what will the people need in the future. Secondly the surrounding green environment is also a factor to concern when planning a city. Our earth is at the peaking point where pollution is a major problem. Cities all around world have already taken initiative on reducing the carbon footprint, such as using alternative means of transportation and renewable energy solutions. As the same saying goes “A future city is a sustainable city.” If we can achieve sustainability, we are already living the future life. Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 41
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Reference Links 1) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company 2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City 3) George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003 4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_plan 5) http://www.usa.siemens.com/sustainable-cities/ 6) http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/sustainability/sustainable_livin g_rev1.shtml 7) http://www.ecomagination.com/top-five-most-sustainable-cities-in-the-world 8) http://www.goreme.com/derinkuyu-underground-city.php Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 42
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 9) http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/adventure/news-worlds-beneath-worlds- derinkuyu-underground-city 10) http://www.slideshare.net/jamesfurlo/underground-city-of-derinkuyu 11) http://landscapeandurbanism.blogspot.com/2009/11/portland-grid-revisited.html 12) http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/off-the-grid/Content?oid=8271672 13) http://djcoregon.com/dailyblog/2011/10/27/the-great-renumbering-how-portland-got- its-grid/ 14) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_Charles_de_Gaulle 15) http://www.virgin-vacations.com/11-most-bike-friendly-cities.aspx 16) http://www.treehugger.com/slideshows/cars/best-of-green-cars-transportation- 1/page/12/ 17) http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/Li vingInCopenhagen/CityAndTraffic/~/media/4ADB52810C484064B5085F2A900CB8 FB.ashx 18) Janssen, Jan E. (2012). "Cyklerne kom til København".Stræderne i København 19) http://www.singstat.gov.sg/statistics/latest_data.html#12 20) http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/Pages/singaporewaterstory.aspx 21) http://www.asiaisgreen.com/2008/11/03/photos-of-marina-barrage/ 22) http://www.water-treatment.com.cn/plants/list/Singapore.htm Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 43
    • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 23) http://www.askipedia.com/how-many-underground-cities-are-there-and-where-are- they-located/underground_city/ 24) http://www.wallpaperup.com/58912/future_underground_science_fiction_balloons_ci ties.html 25) http://blog.enqoo.com/blog/2012/10/11/30-fresh-adobe-photoshop-tutorials/ Phua Jing Sern | 0314572 | Group N | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University 44