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Gcse revision class
 

Gcse revision class

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    Gcse revision class Gcse revision class Presentation Transcript

    • GCSE Revision Class 15/5/2010
    • Historic Periods
      • Baroque
      • Classical
      • Romantic
      1600-1750 1750-1820 1820-1900
    • Baroque
      • Ornamental melody line
      • Strong Bass and Chords
      • Basso Continuo
      • Terraced Dynamics
      • Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
    • Classical
      • Simple, balanced melody
      • Diatonic harmony
      • Piano
      • Orchestra:
      • Woodwinds: 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons
      • Brass: 2 or 4 Horns, 2 Trumpets 
      • Timpani
      • Strings:  Violin I, Violins II, Violas, Cellos,Double basses
      • Mozart, Haydn
    • Romantic
      • Expressive, emotional, passionate music
      • Large orchestra allowed for large dynamics range
      • More expressive, unusual harmony
      • Tchaikovsky, Wagner
    • Guess the period
      • Extract 1
      • Extract 2
      • Extract 3
      • Extract 4
    • Guess the instrument
      • Extract 1
      • Extract 2
      • Extract 3
      • Extract 4
      • Extract 5
      • Extract 6
    • AOS1
    • Ground Bass and Variations
      • Baroque period
      • Ground Bass
      • Basso Ostinato
      • A series of variations over a repeating pattern of bass notes
      • Explores a variety of textures, becoming more complex as it progresses.
      • Canon in D, Pachelbel
    • Ground
      • Lowest part in musical texture
      • Repeats every 1,2, 4 or 8 bars
      • Often minor
      • Notes often long duration
      • Tempo: slow and stately
      • Tonic to dominant, cadence back to tonic
      • Mood: a solemn mood is common in many vocal arias
      • Serious mood can be created by using chromatic intervals
      • Light mood can be created usng diatonic intervals
    • Chaconne and Passacaglia
      • Only difference between these and the ground bass form: ground bass does not stay rigidly in bass line.
      • Passacaglia in C, Bach
    • Classical Variations
      • Theme and variations
      • Early variations are similar to theme, as music progresses, variations become more adventurous and complex
      • Often there is a final statement of the theme at the end.
      • Ah, dirai-je vous , maman ?, Mozart
    • Common Variation Techniques E.g. a legato section might be followed by a staccato section Dynamics/ Articulation Change the instruments playing Instrumentation Change of key Different harmonies Harmony Change of metre Change of tempo New rhythmic patterns Rhythm/tempo Imitation/Canon Diminution Augmentation Inversion Change position of melody Counter melody Decoration Melody
    • Romantic Variations
      • Use of motifs
      • Variations on a theme of Haydn, Brahms
    • Ground Bass and Variations
      • What is a ground bass?
      • In what period would you find a ground bass?
      • In which period were variations based on motifs?
      • In which period did the ‘theme and variations’ structure become popular?
      • Name 3 ways you could vary original material to make a new variation?
    • Ternary Form
      • ABA
      • Repetition and Contrast
      • Methods of contrast:
      • Instrumentation, key, metre, rhythm, mood, pitch, tempo…
    • Baroque ternary form
      • The ‘da capo aria’
      • On printed music: A section, B section, da capo al fine
      • Baroque singer would improve ornaments and extra notes during the repeat
      • Each performance unique
      • The trumpet shall sound, The Messiah, Handel (ORATORIO)
    • Classical Ternary
      • Minuet and Trio
      • Minuet, Trio, Minuet
      • Minuet: stately dance in triple time
      • Trio: features reduction in instrumental parts
      • Scherzo and trio
    • Listen to the Minuet and Trio from the 3 rd movement of Symphony 101 by Haydn (CD1:7) Dynamics Tempo Instrumentation Metre Key (major/minor) Similarity or Difference Section B Section A Musical Feature
    • Romantic ‘Character Pieces’
      • Ternary form
      • Character pieces: evoke a specific mood/ moment
      • Marche, The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky
      • Why is this appropriate for toy soldiers?
    • Rondo Form
      • Simple rondo: ABACA
      • Large scale rondo: ABACADAEA etc.
      • Episodes
    • Baroque Rondo
      • Ritornello
      • Used lots in 1 st movement of Baroque concertos
      • Ritornello: main theme does not always return in same key when it returns…apart from last statement at end of movement
    • Vocab….
      • Concerto
      • Violin Concerto in A minor, 1 st mov, Vivaldi
      • CD1: 9
      • Concerto Grosso
      • Concertino: solo group
    • Classical Rondo
      • Rondo form used loads: small-scale keyboard music, whole concerto/ symphony movements
      • Main theme often shortened in its repeats, apart from final statement
      • Episodes often in closely related keys
      • Subdominant
      • Dominant
      • Relative major/ minor
      • Both ritornello and Rondo ideas used
      • Rondo in F, K15, Mozart. CD1: 10
    • Romantic Rondo
      • Rondo and ritornello ideas used
      • Introduction often added
      • Coda often added
      • Sometimes short link passages added
      • Overture to Carmen, Bizet
      • CD1: 11
    • AOS2
    • Expressionism and Serialism
      • Expressionist artists attempted to capture intense internal emotions, often with old colours and distorted images
    • Social Conditions of 1920s
      • Years immediately after 1WW
      • Expressionist movement strongest in Germany
      • Disillusionment and discontent
      • Intense emotions in art, music, literature etc.
      • Schoenberg, String Quartet 2
    • Hallmarks of Expressionism
      • Chromaticism
      • Angular Melodies
      • Dissonance
      • Extreme Contrasts of dynamics
      • Avoid cadence
      • Avoid repetition
      • Avoid sequence
      • Avoid Balanced phrases
      • Constantly changing textures and ideas
    • Second Viennese School
      • More concerned with timbre than with melody and harmony as we understand it.
      • Music should be free from the restriction of being in a key
      • Atonality
      • Schoenberg
      • Webern, Berg
      • Hindemith
    • Serialism
      • Without key, how could one organise ideas?
      • 12 tone technique
      Prime Order
      • See Sibelius Score
    • Vocab
      • Enharmonic
      • Verticalisation
      • Klangfarbenmelodie
      • Prime row
      • Retrograde
      • Inversion
      • Retrograde Inversion
      • Rhythmic Motifs
      • Augmentation
      • Diminution
    • Tonal Serialism
      • Not only pitch controlled
      • Elements such as rhythm, dynamics also controlled by principles of serialism
      • Milton Babbitt
    • Minimalism
      • America
      • 1960s
      • Started out experimentally: a reaction to serialism
      • Glass Violin Concerto
    • La Monte Young
      • First Minimalist composer
      • Fascinated with drones and repetition
      • Indian and Japanese music
      • Intrigued by sound of wind and electrical hum!
    • Terry Riley
      • Friend and Colleague of Young
      • Experimented with tape loops
      • Used delay
      • He performed solo, using echo devices to give the impression of more than one performer
      • In C
    • Vocab
      • Drone
      • Phasing
      • Repetition
      • Rhythmic Transformation
      • Melodic Transformation
      • Cells
      • Broken Chords
      • Note addition/ subtraction
    • Steve Reich
      • ‘ Process of change’ was main concern
      • Phasing
      • Africa and Indonesia
      • Polyrhythms
      • Ragas
      • DIATONIC
      • Modes and Major scales
      • Motifs
      Electric Counterpoint
    • Philip Glass
      • Used Arpeggios
      • Used triads
      • Lyrical, accessible style
    • Experimental and Electronic Music
      • Aleatoric music/ Indeterminacy (Cage’s name)
      • Environmental Noise
      • Noc concern about melody/harmony/rhythm of piece
      • 4’33, Cage
    • John Cage 1912-1992
      • Taught by Schoenberg
      • Began composing serialist music
      • Prepared Piano
      • Gamelan
    • Graphic Notation
      • 3-line stave
      • Prose score: music and its directions are written as ordinary text, and the
      • interpretation is down to the performer.
    • Memories of You
      • CD1:18
      • Cornelius Cardew
      • 1964
      • Written for grand piano and 3 objects of the performers choice
      • A Paperback Copy of some music, a pencil and his hand
    • Structuring Experimental Music
    • Music for voice
      • Aria, John Cage
      • Solo for voice 22: performers instructed how to breathe: nose/ mouth/ how long for
      • Sounds fed through effects processors:
      • Reverb, flanger , delay, pan
    • Electronic Music
      • Early explorations in Electronic music let to Music Concrete: Music made from recording non-musical noises and sounds
      • Using synthesizers and samples
      • Could control eveything about the music
      • Attack, decay, timbre, dynamics, tempo etc.
      • Stockhausen
    • Vocab
      • Multi-track recording:  is a method of sound recording that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources to create a cohesive whole
      • Vari-speeding: changing the speed of the track. This can effect the pitch.
    • AOS3
    • Dance Music 1985-Present Day
      • Club dance music
      • DJs
      • Trance is most popular genre played
      • Strong 4-to-the-floor beat
      • 140bpm
    • Roots of club dance music
      • Funk
      • Disco
      • Jazz
      • R n B (rhythm and blues)
      • Reggae
      • Western Classical music
    • Dub
      • Remixed versions of reggae tracks: few vocals, lots of effects
      • 1970s
      • King Tubby
      • Lee Scratch Perry
    • Chicago House
      • 1980s
      • The Warehouse
      • DJs took existing tracks ands remixed them/ cut them up and mixed them together with other tracks
      • Frankie Knuckles
      • Pump up the volume M/A/R/R/S: CD2:2
    • Acid House
      • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =n9hYX4XCzQ4
      • Characterised by sound of Roland TB303: small synth to create bass sounds
      • Popular in UK and led to start of UK rave scene in late 80s.
    • New York Garage
      • As House died out…
      • Paradise Garage
      • More melodic than house
      • Influences form R and B and Soul
    • M25 Rave scene
      • Late 80s
      • Clubs had restricted hours
      • Dancers wanted to carry on clubbing
      • Illegal
      • Forced to be held further and further from centre of London
      • Criminal/ drugs element
    • Vocab
      • Breakdown
      • Build up
      • Breakbeat: drum pattern, often high tempo, which includes lots of syncopation and polyrhythms
      • Repetition
      • Remix
      • Scratching
      • Vocoder
      • Chorus
      • Distortion
      • Quantization
    • Songs from Musicals
    • Musical?
      • A piece of theatre
      • Music has a central role
      • Popular style
      • Orchestral or band accompaniment
      • West end
      • Broadway
    • Types of Song
      • Solo Song
      • Duets
      • Choruses
      • Separated by spoken dialogue
      • Action Song
      • Character Song
    • Vocab
      • Lyrics
      • Verse-chorus structure
      • Middle 8
      • Diatonic harmony
      • Elements of jazz (and rock)
      • Symmetrical 8 bar phrases
      • Hook
      • Intro
      • Outro
      • Word Painting
    • Musicals Composers
      • Rogers and Hammerstein
      • Cole Porter
      • Andrew Lloyd Webber
      • Stephen Sondheim
    • Britpop
    • Britpop and its Influences
      • Early 1980s polital idealism and music came together in the form of indie music e.g The Smiths
      • Britpop explosion in mid 90s
      • Nostalgic movement looking back to British pop music in 60s: The Kinks, The Who, The Beatles
    • Defining Characteristics
      • Guitar driven band
      • Little use of technology
      • Structure (verse, chorus, middle 8)
      • Traditional chord sequences
      • Strong melody lines
      • Musical references (including direct quotes) from 60s bands
      • Regional accents
    • Subject content
      • Lyrics
      • Everyday life in England
      • Social observation
      • Blur, Country House
    • Why did Britpop happen?
      • Reaction
      • 1980s/1990s American pop dominated chart
      • Further influence from ‘Madchester’ in 60s: Stone Roses and Happy Mondays
    • AOS4
    • Indian Raga
    • Raga
      • Musicians improvise according to the strict rules of raga
      • A cross between a scale and a melody
      • Each raga associated with a particular mood, time of day, season etc.
    • Harmony
      • Consists of rising and falling improvisations against drone in background
      • Tambura plays drone
      • Harmonium can
      • also play drone
      • sometimes
    • Rhythm
      • Tala
      • Rhythmic Cycle of Beats
      • Played on tabla
    • Structure
      • Alap: slow intro, no percussion, no regular metre
      • Jhor: basic pulse, though no strong beats
      • Gat: pre-composed fixed sequence which allow all instrumentalists to interact
      • Jhala: players improvise around the melody and rhythm
    • Instruments
      • Sitar
      • Sarod
      • Sarangi
      • Tabla
      • Tambura
      • Harmonium
    • Context
      • Master-student tradition of learning
      • Listening and memorising
      • Concerts that last for hours
      • Passed on through oral tradition
    • African Music
      • Singing
      • Drumming
      • Instrumental music
      • Music is central to every aspect of traditional life
      • Rituals to entertainment
      • Oral tradition
    • Major Elements of African Music
      • Repetition
      • Improvisation
      • Polyphony
      • Cross rhythms
      • Variations
      • Call and Response
    • Drumming
      • Master Drummer
      • Djembe
      • Donno (talking drum)
      • Dundun
    • Instrumental music
      • Mbira / Thumb Piano
      • Balaphone
      • Kora
      • Idiophone
      • Aerophone
      • Chordophone
      • Membranophone
    • African Song
      • Call and Response
      • Use of pentatonic sclae
      • Worksongs
      • African Church Music
    • Fusion
      • One style of music mixing with another style of music
      • Indian Fusion
      • African Fusion
      • Advances in recording technology and 20 th century globalization have led to more fusion music
    • Hybrid Styles
      • Bhangra
      • Bollywood