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  • 1. LAST WEEK 1
  • 2. Q: HOW DID THEY REPRESENT ‘THE NEW FRONTIER’? 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Q: WHAT IF YOU WERE LIVING IN THE ‘BLANK’ PART? WHAT DOES THAT DO DO YOU? 7
  • 5. THIS WEEK 8
  • 6. CON TODAY •A. FIRST IND. REV. AND THE DO WE HAVE MASTERY OVER OUR PANOPTICON TOOLS? •B. SECOND IND. REV TROL ARE OUR TOOLS BEYOND OUR CONTROL? OF CONTROL •CRISIS •CONTROL REVOLUTION 9
  • 7. .......,• '< . .. til P A TIC ON: OR, THE INS P E CT 10 N-HOUS E. CONTAINING THE IDEA of a NEW PRINCIPLE of CONSTRUCTION applicable to any Sort of ESTABLISHMENT, in which Perfous of any Defcription are to be kept under INSPECTION. AND IN PARTICULAR TO PENITENTIARY.H'oUSES, P 0 0 R - H 0 USE S. P R ISO N S, MA NUFACTORIES, HOUSES OF INDUSTRY, MAD - H 0 USE S, WORK -H OUSE S, HOSPITALS, AND S C H 0 0 L S. WITH A PLAN OF MANAGEMENT ADAPTED TO THR PltINCIPLl.. IN A S E R I E S 0 F LET T E R S. Written in the Year 1787, FROM CREcnEFF IN TYHITE RUSS14, TO A FRIEND IN ENGLAND. . . By J ERE M Y BEN T HAM, OF LINCOLN'S INN, E50... 11
  • 8. A. FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 12
  • 9. late 18th and early 19th centuries 13
  • 10. 14
  • 11. TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION OF... 15
  • 12. 20
  • 13. THE PANOPTICON 21
  • 14. Morals reformed - health preserved - industry invigorated - instruction diffused - public burthens lightened - Economy seated - all by a simple idea in Architecture!- ---Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) 22
  • 15. 24
  • 16. pan-opticon (all-seeing) 25
  • 17. A Prison-Factory A Penitentiary-house...designed at once as a place of safe custody, and a place of labour. ***Remember, the Panopticon was a reform of dirty, dark, inhuman practices of imprisonment)...reform ushered in these losses of freedoms!) 27
  • 18. Capitalist’s Dream: The confinement, which is his punishment, preventing his carrying the work to another market, subjects him to a monopoly; which the contractor, his master, like any other monopolist, makes, of course, as much of as he can. 33
  • 19. 38
  • 20. ‘...that the persons to be inspected should always feel themselves as if under inspection.’ 44
  • 21. Keepers and Employees Under Watch ...a small tin tube might reach from each cell to the inspector's lodge, passing across the area...the slightest whisper of the one might be heard by the other, especially if he had proper notice to apply his ear to the tube. 45
  • 22. ...the apparent omnipresence of the inspector ...combined with the extreme facility of his real presence. 46
  • 23. 49
  • 24. 50
  • 25. The Presidio Modelo was a quot;model prisonquot; of Panopticon design, built on the former Isla de Pinos (now the Isla de la Juventud) in Cuba 51
  • 26. 52
  • 27. 53
  • 28. Labor AND discipline •The ultimate goal is a productive body – productive in terms of capitalist goals (i.e. a good, docile worker). 54
  • 29. BUREAUCRACY AND DISCIPLINE •goal is not to punish but to discipline •docile workers, docile bodies rather than ones that will revolt •regulations, rules, records, 55
  • 30. Millbank Penitentiary House, London, 1821 The prisoners were to be kept silent and made to produce various commercial items. Bentham theorized that this would serve as punishment while at the same time develop an appreciation of labor. 59
  • 31. Q: SPATIALLY-SPEAKING...How is UWO like a city? Like a prison? Like a factory? Like a panopticon? 60
  • 32. THINK ABOUT PANOPTIC AND BUREAUCRATIC PRINCIPLES AS THEY ENTER THE MODERN AGE... 61
  • 33. THE GAZE IS INTERNALIZED 62
  • 34. B. SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 67
  • 35. BEGINNING ab. 1850... 68
  • 36. ....led to.... need for more rail... 70
  • 37. CHEMICAL PETROLEUM ELECTRICAL AUTOMOTIVE 72
  • 38. GROWTH OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS 73
  • 39. 1. CRISIS OF CONTROL 74
  • 40. GROWING: 1840S-1870S 75
  • 41. PRODUCTION •RAIL MILLS STRUGGLE TO PRODUCE ENOUGH •PRODUCERS OF MATERIAL STRUGGLE WITH DEMAND •CONTINUOUS MANUFACTURE 76
  • 42. DISTRIBUTION •TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CANNOT KEEP UP •NEW DEPT. STORES REQUIRE DIVERSE STOCK 77
  • 43. CONSUMPTION •NEED TO STIMULATE CONSUMPTION •DIFFERENTIATE PRODUCES •CREATE BRAND LOYALTY 78
  • 44. CONTAINED: 1880S 79
  • 45. INNOVATIONS IN... •INFORMATION PROCESSING •BUREAUCRATIC CONTROL •COMMUNICATION 80
  • 46. A. CONTROL AND SAFETY 81
  • 47. 82
  • 48. OLD ‘SYSTEM’ •[FOR SIX TRAINS, TWO TRACKS] •1. TIMETABLES •2. CONTINGENCY PLANS 83
  • 49. NEW ‘SYSTEM’ •CONDUCTORS •CENTRAL AND REGIONAL OFFICE •TELEGRAPH 84
  • 50. NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES 85
  • 51. 86
  • 52. 87
  • 53. NO LONGER A CRISIS OF SAFETY, BUT CRISIS OF EFFICIENCY 88
  • 54. B. CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY 89
  • 55. 2. CONTROL REVOLUTION 90
  • 56. A. BUREAUCRATI- ZATION, RATIONALI- ZATION 91
  • 57. 92
  • 58. BY THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY...CHANGES 94
  • 59. BANK OF THE US. •22 BRANCHES; •1830S: MANAGED BY THREE PEOPLE 95
  • 60. US GOVERNMENT •1831: MANAGED BY 661 CIVILIANS + THE PRESIDENT •1880S: THIRTEEN THOUSAND EMPLOYEES 96
  • 61. 1. BUREAU- CRACY 97
  • 62. A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 98
  • 63. CHARACTERISTICS •DIVISION OF LABOR •DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBILITIES •HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY •SPECIALIZED COMMUNICATION 99
  • 64. 100
  • 65. 101
  • 66. 102
  • 67. 103
  • 68. anomie 104
  • 69. segmentation 105
  • 70. 2. RATIONAL- IZATION 106
  • 71. CHARACTERISTICS •NOT ‘MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE’ •BUT: ADMINISTRATION OF ‘THINGS’ •PEOPLE AS THINGS 107
  • 72. DEFINITION: THE DESTRUCTION/ IGNORING OF INFORMATION TO FACILITATE ITS PROCESSING 108
  • 73. A. STANDARDIZED FORMS 109
  • 74. 110
  • 75. Bertillon card for Thomas Conway, arrested for larceny 112
  • 76. 113
  • 77. Q: WHAT DOES THE STANDARDIZED FORM ELIMINATE? 114
  • 78. PROBLEM SOLVED! IGNORING INFORMATION! 115
  • 79. EXAMPLE: THE TRANSCRIPT 116
  • 80. 117
  • 81. Q: HOW DOES IT REDUCE INFORMATION? Q: WHAT DOES IT LEAVE OUT? 118
  • 82. Q: HOW DOES THE TRANSCRIPT SEE YOUR LIFE? 119
  • 83. B. NEW CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 122
  • 84. 1. MEDIA 123
  • 85. 125
  • 86. 126
  • 87. 127
  • 88. 2. MASS FEEDBACK 128
  • 89. QUESTIONNAIRES CENSUS (improved around 1850) A.C. NEILSEN (1923) GALLUP (1958) 129
  • 90. 3. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 130
  • 91. the ‘old’ factory... 131
  • 92. 132
  • 93. MACHINES COULD SERVE AS MODEL FOR HUMAN LABOR 133
  • 94. FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 134
  • 95. a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. 135
  • 96. 136
  • 97. THE CLOCK 137
  • 98. example: 138
  • 99. McFACTORY, McTAYLORISM •assembly line approach to food •menial, repetitive and tedious •division of labor between management and worker: the selection of the right worker 139
  • 100. ‘one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type’ -FW Taylor 140
  • 101. separation between thinking and doing 141
  • 102. work is more efficient by eliminating waste (effort, material, etc.) 142
  • 103. FRANK GILBRETH TIME AND MOTION STUDIES (beginning 1920s) 143
  • 104. IMPROVING EFFICIENCY 144
  • 105. AIDING OTHERS... 145
  • 106. BREAKING THE BODY DOWN INTO AN ABSTRACTION 146
  • 107. Q: WHAT DISAPPEARS UNDER THESE TESTS? 147
  • 108. 148
  • 109. Q: LIKE THE TRANSCRIPT, WHAT DO THESE TESTS SHOW AND NOT SHOW? 149
  • 110. the worker is de-skilled in general, yet highly skilled in one narrow way. 150
  • 111. Q: if someone is highly skilled in a narrow, repetitive way, what does that do to human spirit? to a feeling of ownership in comparison to...an artisan? 151
  • 112. C. THE INFORMATION AGE 153
  • 113. DIGITAL PANOPTICISM 154
  • 114. 155
  • 115. 156
  • 116. 157
  • 117. 158
  • 118. 159
  • 119. Q: DOES YOUR KNOWING THAT I CAN VIEW STATISTICS ON YOUR HABITS CHANGE HOW YOU MIGHT BEHAVE? 160