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Sumerians 3500-2000 B.C.E.City states, first urban communitites Agricultural affluence Central Government First known writing system
Sumerian ArtStandard of Ur 2600-2400 B.C.E.Limestone Box, inlay of shellsand lapis lazuli. Found in agrave, one side celebrates
Narrative told in registers.Hierarchy of scale employed.
"Ziggurat at Ur: Viewed from the East."Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. G. Eric and Edith MatsonPhotograph Collection. Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File,Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE49&iPin=AMH168&SingleRecord=True (accessed September 11, 2012).
Votive figuresRepresent the devout
CylinderSealsThe seals were used to "sign"clay tablet documents--in thecase of the Spurlock seals,commercial receipts--withthe unique seal of anindividual such as the seller.They can be compared to anotarized signature today.The impression gave visualproof of the genuineness ofthe object. They could also beused on the clay "envelope"containing the receipt orletter to prove no one hadtried to open it since it hadleft the merchant’s hand
Compare stelesStela of Ur-Nammu, c. Victory stele of2112-2094 B.C.E Naram Sin3 x 1.5 m 2.007 m
Babylonian Empire"Babylonian Empire." Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File,Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
Babylonians 1792 - 1198• Empire comparable to Roman in size.• Hammurabi 1792-1759, Babylon’s Golden Age.• Code of Law most famous accomplishment and art.
Code of Hammurabi• His law code, which was part of an even earlier tradition, was a means of imposing order over the territories he conquered, much as the gods Anu (An) and Enlil oversaw the organization of heaven and earth. The codification of responses to certain—and probably recurring— problems would also have served the purpose of simplifying and standardizing the administration of justice in his empire.
Hammurabi justifies his position as ruler ofBabylon by describing it as a consequenceof the divine ordering of the world, andboasts of his achievements as a conquerorand restorer of temples.
Neo Babylonian aka Chaldean Empire• 626 BC and ended in 539 BC• Nebuchadnezzar II• Tower of Babel• Ishtar Gate
Gilgamesh• A series of tales knit into one epic poem.• Based on a historical Sumerian king• The Epic is from the original Babylonian era. It was written in Akkadian.
Hittites• Used huge boulders in construction• Large fortification• Guardian lions
Assyrian• Very masculine, idealizes king• Emotion shown in animals. Domination over wild beast expressed the authority of the king over his people and the powerful forces of nature.
Assyrian 9-7th c• Build palaces to express power. 14 ft tall.• Decorated palaces with large panels showing king’s military exploits.
Major Works• Palace of Sargon II• Lammassu• Lion Hunt Lamassu
Palace of Sargon II
Lamassu Protective spirit or deity. Winged bull Usually male face At city gates so everyone would see it on entering. From the front it is standing and from the side walking. Achieve this by placing 5 legs on the lamassu.
Persian• Persepolis c 500 B.C.E.• Built by Darius I and Xerses I and destroyed by Alexander the Great• Built for receptions and festivals
Persian• Palace of Shapur I• Influence of Roman architecture in the barrel vault• Blind arcades, a Roman feature