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Rethinking Assessment: A Tale of Hope & Ideals<br />John McCarthy, Ed.S.<br />Education Consultant<br />Wayne RESA<br />mc...
Learning Target (LT) <br />Know the location of the states, capitals, and geographical land marks.<br />What does an 80% s...
Norms<br />All voices need to be heard (we benefit from everyone’s experiences)<br />Humor is nurturing<br />Monitor own Z...
It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security ...
Creating Reflective Conversations<br /><ul><li>Grading</li></ul>--Purpose = Academic Achievement<br />--Eliminate Grade Fo...
Academic Progress<br />The primary purpose of an academic grade is to indicate if a student has sufficiently mastered curr...
“A goal that can’t be measured is just a slogan.”--N.H. Dept. Of Ed<br />
Formative Assessments<br />The primary purpose of formative assessments is to track what a student knows and does not know...
Starting Place for Excellent Instruction<br /><ul><li>“Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the righ...
How many exposures to a concept do learners need for 80% mastery?<br />24<br />Marzano, Classroom Strategies That Work, p....
Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on ...
Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Achievement (Performance)<br />Academic Growth (Progress)<br />Effort (Process)<b...
Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Achievement (Performance)<br />Standards-based assessment data<br />Performance-b...
Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Growth (Progress)<br />Measure gains from where a student started to where s/he i...
Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Effort (Process)<br />Organization skills<br />Class work<br />Homework<br />Participation...
Authentic Assessment<br />
Planning Questions<br />Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning<br />What should students know, understand, and be abl...
What will you do for students who already know the unit?</li></li></ul><li>Who should pack your parachute?<br />
Who do you want to pack your parachute?<br />Parachute-Packing Test Scores<br />Competency/<br />Mastery Level<br />
Test Scores & Average<br />
Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on ...
Educators, students, and parents, need a reporting system that accurately indicates what students achieved and where their...
Solve this Story Problem<br />Jamal loves 4th grade. He made an excellent funny video critique of the main characters from...
7 Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning<br />Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target—“What’s the ...
Data-Driven Dialogue???<br />Comprehensive<br />Group<br />Work<br />Final<br />Exam<br />Quiz<br />Quiz<br />What do we k...
Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on ...
Data-Driven Dialogue???<br />Comprehensive<br />Final<br />Exam<br />Main Ideas:<br /> Supporting Details<br /> & Ex.*<br ...
From…<br />Patricia Scriffiny. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading, Education Leadership. 10/2008. Vol.66.2<br />
Transform to…<br />Patricia Scriffiny. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading, Education Leadership. 10/2008. Vol.66.2<...
Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on ...
Solve this Story Problem<br />Christine did poorly on a graded assignment, but 3 days later she appears to understand the ...
The Zero Factor<br />“A zero has an underserved and devastating influence so much so that no matter what the student does,...
Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91Total = 455. Mean = 91.1. Current Grade = A<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91, 0...
Alternatives v1.5<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91, 55Total = 510. Mean = 85. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to an 89.5, an A...
A Fair Grading System?<br />Scale<br />A: 100-41<br />B: 40-31<br />C: 20-30<br />D: 20-11<br />F: 10-0<br />Pts Dif<br />...
Alternatives v2.5a<br />Pt. Diff<br />6<br />5<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />A: 40-35<br />B: 34-30<br />C: 29-20<br />D: 1...
Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37Total = 185. Mean = 37. Current Grade = A<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37, 0To...
Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37, 5Total = 190. Mean = 31.6. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to a...
Alternatives v2.5b<br />A = 4pts<br />B= 3pts or 3.2<br />C=2pts or 2.4<br />D=1pts or 1.4<br />E= .5 or .8<br />Pt. Diff<...
Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4Total = 20. Mean = 4. Current Grade = A<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 0Total = 20. Me...
Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4, .5<br />    Total = 20.5 Mean = 3.4. Current Grade = BTo raise Mean to a ...
Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on ...
Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Effort (3)<br />1<br />1<br />3<br />Student<br />Summer<br />Barry<br />Katie<br />Academ...
15 Fixes for Broken Grades<br />Ken O’Conner<br />
7 Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning<br />Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target—“What’s the ...
Reflection and Questions<br />
Annotated Bibliography<br /> Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessing & Grading In the Differentiated Classroom. ...
Rethinking Assessment: A Tale of Hope & Ideals<br />John McCarthy, Ed.S.<br />Education Consultant<br />Wayne RESA<br />mc...
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Reflecting On Assessment A Tale Of Hope And Ideals 2010

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Eliminating Grade Fog
How do we know what students know or don't know? If the primary purpose of grades is giving academic data on a student's learning progress. The challenge is to use a grading process that tells a clear picture of learning, unfogged by non-academic factors.
http://wb4all.blogspot.com

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  • Quote to keep everyone open minded and show understanding that this path of implementation like any can get uncomfortable.
  • This quote further illustrates the importants of the 4 questions, and answering the first 2 questions before any other considerations. Remind them of Zone of Proximal Growth as it applies to students of diverse skill levels, AND the participants themselves.
  • High Quality Lesson planning begins with the first 2 questions. DI starts with the last 2 questions. DI is not a layer, but a lens, essential in the steps of any instructional planning AFTER the objectives and assessments are identified.
  • Transcript of "Reflecting On Assessment A Tale Of Hope And Ideals 2010"

    1. 1. Rethinking Assessment: A Tale of Hope & Ideals<br />John McCarthy, Ed.S.<br />Education Consultant<br />Wayne RESA<br />mccartj@resa.net<br />734.334.1546<br />wb4all.blogspot.com<br />
    2. 2. Learning Target (LT) <br />Know the location of the states, capitals, and geographical land marks.<br />What does an 80% say about the student’s understanding of the LT?<br />Points were taken off for spelling and for not color coding labels. Result:80%: Follows directions100%: Knowing map locations of LTAs a recorded grade of 80%, how does the result fog accuracy for the assessment of the LT?<br />
    3. 3. Norms<br />All voices need to be heard (we benefit from everyone’s experiences)<br />Humor is nurturing<br />Monitor own Zone of Proximal Growth<br />Seek to understand before being understood –Stephen Covey (Questions are gifts)<br />Please set cell phones to vibrate or silent mode, or turn off. Thank you.<br />
    4. 4. It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power.<br />--Alan Cohen<br />
    5. 5. Creating Reflective Conversations<br /><ul><li>Grading</li></ul>--Purpose = Academic Achievement<br />--Eliminate Grade Fog<br /><ul><li>Assessment</li></ul>--Learning Target Focused<br />--Formative assessments track trends for learning needs towards graded milestones.<br /><ul><li>Differentiation</li></ul>--Begin where learner is at<br />--Assessment options = Learner’s Strengths<br />
    6. 6. Academic Progress<br />The primary purpose of an academic grade is to indicate if a student has sufficiently mastered curriculum to be placed in the next grade or more advanced subject.<br />
    7. 7. “A goal that can’t be measured is just a slogan.”--N.H. Dept. Of Ed<br />
    8. 8. Formative Assessments<br />The primary purpose of formative assessments is to track what a student knows and does not know. Based on sufficient data, determine next steps in the student’s learning achievement. <br />
    9. 9. Starting Place for Excellent Instruction<br /><ul><li>“Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” </li></ul>Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student LearningLorna M. Earl, Corwin Press, Inc. 2003 – pp. 86-87<br />
    10. 10. How many exposures to a concept do learners need for 80% mastery?<br />24<br />Marzano, Classroom Strategies That Work, p. 67<br />
    11. 11. Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals.<br />Grades should be criterion-based, not norm-based.<br />Data used for grading must be valid (measure what we intend to measure). That is, the data must be free of “Grade Fog.”<br />Grade later in the learning cycle rather than earlier.<br />When it’s time for report cards, practice 3-P grading<br />Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2008, New Orleans<br />
    12. 12. Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Achievement (Performance)<br />Academic Growth (Progress)<br />Effort (Process)<br />AGE or 3Ps<br />
    13. 13. Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Achievement (Performance)<br />Standards-based assessment data<br />Performance-based assessments<br />Milestone assessments<br />Later assessments carry more weight than earlier assessments.<br />Student<br />Summer<br />Barry<br />Katie<br />Academic (4)<br />4<br />4<br />1<br />
    14. 14. Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Academic Growth (Progress)<br />Measure gains from where a student started to where s/he is now.<br />Portfolio<br />Standards-based assessment<br />Student<br />Summer<br />Barry<br />Katie<br />Academic (4)<br />4<br />4<br />1<br />Growth (3)<br />2<br />1<br />3<br />
    15. 15. Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Effort (Process)<br />Organization skills<br />Class work<br />Homework<br />Participation<br />Effort (3)<br />1<br />1<br />3<br />Student<br />Summer<br />Barry<br />Katie<br />Academic (4)<br />4<br />4<br />1<br />Growth (3)<br />2<br />1<br />3<br />
    16. 16. Authentic Assessment<br />
    17. 17. Planning Questions<br />Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning<br />What should students know, understand, and be able to do?<br />How will students demonstrate what they know?<br />During Development of Unit and Lesson Planning<br /><ul><li>What will you do for students who do not succeed?
    18. 18. What will you do for students who already know the unit?</li></li></ul><li>Who should pack your parachute?<br />
    19. 19. Who do you want to pack your parachute?<br />Parachute-Packing Test Scores<br />Competency/<br />Mastery Level<br />
    20. 20. Test Scores & Average<br />
    21. 21. Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals.<br />Grades should be criterion-based, not norm-based.<br />Data used for grading must be valid (measure what we intend to measure). That is, the data must be free of “Grade Fog.”<br />Grade later in the learning cycle rather than earlier.<br />When it’s time for report cards, practice 3-P grading<br />Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2008, New Orleans<br />
    22. 22. Educators, students, and parents, need a reporting system that accurately indicates what students achieved and where their needs remain, eliminating grade fog. <br />What are Your Needs to Know?<br />Post it or <br />Text:734.330.1421<br />
    23. 23. Solve this Story Problem<br />Jamal loves 4th grade. He made an excellent funny video critique of the main characters from Harry Potter’s final book. He has an E for 4th grade Reading in Semester 1. It’s based on the final exam, 7 short answer essays—<br />his score was 20%.<br />What is the real problem? What is an appropriate assessment solution?<br />
    24. 24. 7 Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning<br />Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target—“What’s the learning?”<br />Use examples and models of strong and weak work—“What does quality look like?”<br />Offer regular descriptive feedback– “What are my strengths and where do I still need work?”<br />Teach students to self-assess and set goals—Metacognition.<br />Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time—Go to the heart of the learning.<br />Teach students focused revision—revising initial work allows students to demonstrate growth in learning.<br />Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning—summarization and portfolios<br />From Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis)<br />
    25. 25. Data-Driven Dialogue???<br />Comprehensive<br />Group<br />Work<br />Final<br />Exam<br />Quiz<br />Quiz<br />What do we know about these students’ learning needs?<br />
    26. 26. Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals.<br />Grades should be criterion-based, not norm-based.<br />Data used for grading must be valid (measure what we intend to measure). That is, the data must be free of “Grade Fog.”<br />Grade later in the learning cycle rather than earlier.<br />When it’s time for report cards, practice 3-P grading<br />Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2008, New Orleans<br />
    27. 27. Data-Driven Dialogue???<br />Comprehensive<br />Final<br />Exam<br />Main Ideas:<br /> Supporting Details<br /> & Ex.*<br />Writing: <br />Organization<br />Transitions*<br />* Formative data reported in Gradebook as not calculated for a grade.<br />What do we know about these students’ learning needs?<br />
    28. 28. From…<br />Patricia Scriffiny. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading, Education Leadership. 10/2008. Vol.66.2<br />
    29. 29. Transform to…<br />Patricia Scriffiny. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading, Education Leadership. 10/2008. Vol.66.2<br />
    30. 30. Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals.<br />Grades should be criterion-based, not norm-based.<br />Data used for grading must be valid (measure what we intend to measure). That is, the data must be free of “Grade Fog.”<br />Grade later in the learning cycle rather than earlier.<br />When it’s time for report cards, practice 3-P grading<br />Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2008, New Orleans<br />
    31. 31. Solve this Story Problem<br />Christine did poorly on a graded assignment, but 3 days later she appears to understand the concepts and skills. The teacher considers two options.<br />Allow Christine to redo the assignment for full credit.<br />For Christine, replace the grade with the results of the next graded assignment, which builds on the previous assignment. <br />How could these options reduce grade fog? <br />What obstacles to measuring student achievement might these options create?<br />
    32. 32. The Zero Factor<br />“A zero has an underserved and devastating influence so much so that no matter what the student does, the grade distorts the final grade as a true indicator of mastery. Mathematically and ethically this is unacceptable.” <br />(Wormeli, Fair Isn’t Equal. 2006, pp. 137-8)<br />
    33. 33. Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91Total = 455. Mean = 91.1. Current Grade = A<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91, 0Total = 455. Mean = 75.8. Current Grade = C<br />To raise Mean to an 89.5, an A, this student must score a 91 on the next ___assignments<br />55<br />(55 ninety-one’s)<br />
    34. 34. Alternatives v1.5<br />91, 91, 91, 91, 91, 55Total = 510. Mean = 85. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to an 89.5, an A, this student must score a 91 on the next __ assignments.<br />18<br />(18 ninety-one’s)<br />
    35. 35. A Fair Grading System?<br />Scale<br />A: 100-41<br />B: 40-31<br />C: 20-30<br />D: 20-11<br />F: 10-0<br />Pts Dif<br />60<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />11<br />Pts Dif<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />60<br />Scale<br />A: 100-90<br />B: 89-80<br />C: 79-70<br />D: 69-60<br />F: 59-0<br />
    36. 36. Alternatives v2.5a<br />Pt. Diff<br />6<br />5<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />A: 40-35<br />B: 34-30<br />C: 29-20<br />D: 19-10<br />E: 9-(5)-0<br />s<br />
    37. 37. Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37Total = 185. Mean = 37. Current Grade = A<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37, 0Total = 185. Mean = 30.8. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to a 35, an A, this student must score a 37 on the next __ assignment(s)<br />8<br />(8 thirty-sevens)<br />
    38. 38. Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />37, 37, 37, 37, 37, 5Total = 190. Mean = 31.6. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to a 35, an A, this student must score a 37 on the next __ assignment(s)<br />6<br />(6 thirty-sevens)<br />
    39. 39. Alternatives v2.5b<br />A = 4pts<br />B= 3pts or 3.2<br />C=2pts or 2.4<br />D=1pts or 1.4<br />E= .5 or .8<br />Pt. Diff<br />.5<br />.5<br />1<br />1<br />.5<br />A: 4.0-3.5<br />B: 3.4-3.0<br />C: 2.9-2.0<br />D: 1.9-1.0<br />E: 0.9-0.5<br />s<br />
    40. 40. Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4Total = 20. Mean = 4. Current Grade = A<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 0Total = 20. Mean = 3.3. Current Grade = B<br />To raise Mean to a 3.5, an A, this student must score a 4 on the next __ assignment(s)<br />2<br />(2 fours)<br />
    41. 41. Achievement vs. The #’s Game<br />4, 4, 4, 4, 4, .5<br /> Total = 20.5 Mean = 3.4. Current Grade = BTo raise Mean to a 3.5, an A, this student must score a 4 on the next __ assignment (s)<br />1<br />(1 four)<br />
    42. 42. Principles of Effective Grading and Reporting<br />It’s unwise to over-grade student work.<br />Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals.<br />Grades should be criterion-based, not norm-based.<br />Data used for grading must be valid (measure what we intend to measure). That is, the data must be free of “Grade Fog.”<br />Grade later in the learning cycle rather than earlier.<br />When it’s time for report cards, practice 3-P grading<br />Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD 2008, New Orleans<br />
    43. 43. Grade Reporting<br />3 > 1<br />Effort (3)<br />1<br />1<br />3<br />Student<br />Summer<br />Barry<br />Katie<br />Academic (4)<br />4<br />4<br />1<br />Growth (3)<br />2<br />1<br />3<br />
    44. 44. 15 Fixes for Broken Grades<br />Ken O’Conner<br />
    45. 45. 7 Strategies of Assessment FOR Learning<br />Provide a clear and understandable vision of the learning target—“What’s the learning?”<br />Use examples and models of strong and weak work—“What does quality look like?”<br />Offer regular descriptive feedback– “What are my strengths and where do I still need work?”<br />Teach students to self-assess and set goals—Metacognition.<br />Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time—Go to the heart of the learning.<br />Teach students focused revision—revising initial work allows students to demonstrate growth in learning.<br />Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning—summarization and portfolios<br />
    46. 46. Reflection and Questions<br />
    47. 47. Annotated Bibliography<br /> Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessing & Grading In the Differentiated Classroom. Stenhouse Publishers: 2006<br />Address quality elements of good assessment and grading practices based on getting an accurate understanding of student learning. Provides strategies and different views for thinking and methods for effective assessment and grading. Great for teachers and administrators. Makes for an excellent book study for schools and districts looking to build clarity in assessing student learning.<br /> O’Connor, Ken. A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades. ETS: 2007<br />Teachers and school/district leaders gain a deeper understanding of the issues involved in sound grading practices. Includes: practical strategies and alternatives to help change how students are graded.<br /> O’Connor, Ken. How To Grade For Learning. Corwin Press; 2nd Ed.: 2002<br />The author shows how to link grades and standards. His eight models assist teachers in designing and conducting grading practices that help students feel more in control of their academic success.<br /> Marzano, Robert. Classroom Assessment & Grading that Work. ASCD: 2006<br />Learn about a framework for developing a formative assessment program based on a standards-based focus. Looks at traditional systems with a critical eye for implications, and adjustments needed to be more effective to student learning needs.<br /> Marzano, Robert. Transforming Classroom Grading. ASCD: 2000<br />Take a close look at grading practices. Look at seven types of assessment that, worked together, give a complete view of student learning. Provides for needed discussion around the impact of ineffective and effective grading practices.<br />
    48. 48. Rethinking Assessment: A Tale of Hope & Ideals<br />John McCarthy, Ed.S.<br />Education Consultant<br />Wayne RESA<br />mccartj@resa.net<br />734.334.1546<br />wb4all.blogspot.com<br />

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