Differentiated Instruction:
     Starting the Journey



         Support by:
         John McCarthy, Ed.S.
         Educa...
Norms

• Every voice needs to be heard
• Humor is nurturing
• Monitor own Zone of Proximal Growth
• Seek to understand bef...
Objectives

– Understand the purpose and need for
  Differentiated Instruction (Reflective
  conversations).
– Evaluate ef...
If you want to feel safe and secure,
       continue to do what you have
               always done.
  If you want to grow...
Everyone has a
 unique style.
Learning Profile Surveys




– Label 3 dot stickers with your grade.
– Place a dot sticker on each of the 3 charts that be...
Starting Place for Differentiation
   “Differentiation is making sure that the right
    students get the right learning ...
Understand how to read place value
Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems


1. State the posted learning targets and a...
The Learning Matrix
Learning Components                  DI Components
• Content                            Readiness
 --...
Understand how to read place value
Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems


1. State the posted learning targets and a...
Think Dots
• Provides up to six tasks to complete for learning skills
  and/or concepts (e.g. fractions, plot analysis)
• ...
Defining Fractions
• Learning Objective: Understand the parts
  and function of fractions.
• Evidence/Assessment: Exit Car...
Think Dots (Tiered 1)
Think Dots (Tiered 2)
Exploring Writer‟s Voice
• Learning Objective: Understand how
  authors use voice to create interesting
  writing or commu...
Think Dots (Tiered 1)
Think Dots (Tiered 2)
Developed by Ryan Johnson, Dearborn Heights 7, 4th Grade
Planning Questions
  Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning
• What should students know, understand,
  and be able to...
Defining Fractions
• Learning Objective: Understand the parts
  and function of fractions.
• Evidence/Assessment: Exit Car...
The Learning Matrix
Learning Components                  DI Components
• Content                            Readiness
 --...
RAFTS
• Role: Who the student must become.
• Audience: Who the message is
  composed for.
• Format: Medium used to present...
Sample RAFT Strips
                      Role                  Audience                       Format                      ...
Once upon a time,
There‟s a girl who lives in Wayne County who
  always wears red hooded jackets. Everyone in
  the neighb...
Red dressed in her favorite color and kissed her
  mother goodbye.
  “Go straight to Grandma's house," her mother
  cautio...
But when Red biked along Michigan Ave she
  noticed some lovely outfits and cell phone
  accessories in store front window...
"What‟s up?" a wolf purred
   beside her.
"I'm seeing my Granny who
   lives on Hemlock, between
   Payne and Barrie, near...
Realizing the time, “Oh,
 I‟m late.” She excused
 herself, and biked fast to
 Grandma's house.
The wolf took a cab...
The wolf arrived at Grandma's and knocked lightly
  at the door.
"Oh thank goodness dear! Come in, come
  in! There‟s an e...
The wolf let out a satisfied burp. He poked through
   Granny's closet for a nightgown that he
   liked. He added a frilly...
"Granny! You sound so weird,”
  Red said.
"Oh, just a touch of cold," said
  the wolf adding a cough.
"But Granny! What big ears you have," said Red as she
  edged closer to the bed.
"The better to hear you, my dear."
"But G...
Almost too late, Red realized that this person was not
  her Grandmother, but a hungry wolf. She ran through
  the house, ...
"Oh Granny!" sobbed Red, "I'll never talk to
  strange wolves again."
"There, there, child. You've learned an
  important ...
RAFTS                               Interest: Understanding Themes

Complete one of the following giving 2-3 reasons/point...
RAFTS
Complete one of the following giving 3 reasons/points:
    Role      Audience        Format               Topic

 Gr...
All Use Bloom’s Taxonomy
Sternberg’s Multiple Intelligences
                                     • Analytical
            ...
Sample RAFTS Strips
      Role              Audience             Format                    Topic
                        O...
All Use Bloom’s Taxonomy
Sternberg’s Multiple Intelligences
                                     • Analytical
            ...
How was
Differentiation used
here?
How many exposures to a concept do learners
need for 80% mastery?




                                    24



Marzano, C...
Frayer Model
Define in your own words   Draw a picture




Metaphor/Poem/                      Describe real-
Song        ...
The Learning Matrix
Learning Components                  DI Components
• Content                            Readiness
 --...
Planning Questions
  Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning
• What should students know, understand,
  and be able to...
What Differentiated Instruction…

              IS
• Differentiated instruction is
                                       ...
Data used for
review practice
with future
curriculum and/or
students.




     Summative Assessments
Exit Cards
Learning Profile Cards
Learning Styles                      Sternberg/Gardner
  Preference                           MI Pr...
3D Experience
Classroom View
3D Instruction
1. Identify the learning target(s)
   -Start with a Bloom Verb
2. Decide on the (formative) assessment
   -...
Understand how to read place value
Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems


1. State the posted learning targets and a...
Develop/Reinvent a Crossroad Lesson




                                3D Instruction
Develop/Reinvent a Crossroad Lesson

1. Identify the learning target(s)




                                              ...
Lesson Gallery Walk
3 Kinds of Assessments
Objectives

– Understand the purpose and need for
  Differentiated Instruction (Reflective
  conversations).
– Evaluate ef...
What‟s Fair for All Learners…
Fair is not everyone doing the
same thing in the same way…
Fair is what YOU need to achieve....
Defining…




              Student
            Achievement
Planning Questions
  Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning
• What should students know, understand,
  and be able to...
Objectives

– Understand the purpose and need for
  Differentiated Instruction (Reflective
  conversations).
– Evaluate ef...
?




    Feedback
Differentiated Instruction:
     Starting the Journey



         Support by:
         John McCarthy, Ed.S.
         Educa...
Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered
Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered
Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered
Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered
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Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered

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Most teachers differentiate support for students on a daily basis, which is informal differentiation. Formal Differentiated Instruction happens during the planning process in anticipation of students needs. Here is a powerpoint I use as part of coaching teachers on deepening their practice.

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  • Quote to keep everyone open minded and show understanding that this path of implementation like any can get uncomfortable.
  • This quote further illustrates the importants of the 4 questions, and answering the first 2 questions before any other considerations. Remind them of Zone of Proximal Growth as it applies to students of diverse skill levels, AND the participants themselves.
  • High Quality Lesson planning begins with the first 2 questions. DI starts with the last 2 questions. DI is not a layer, but a lens, essential in the steps of any instructional planning AFTER the objectives and assessments are identified.
  • Emphasize with RAFTS the strong verb. When participants are knowledgeable of RAFTS tell them that the purpose is to understand how RAFTS can be used for Differentiation.
  • Have participants choose a RAFTS to complete. Assign groups to table locations. Give them markers and chart paper. The groups will have 6 minutes to work. The purpose is to experience the RAFTS for their students, NOT to complete the RAFTS. You will find that when time is up, groups will try to continue working.The groups will select a spokesperson who will post their poster and share the work with everyone.
  • Emphasize that the RAFTS was based on choice, plus a deeper layer of learning profile. Show this slide and ask participants if they chose based on their Sternberg MI preference. Some should raise their hand. The point here is that by having Sternberg as a layer, students have multi-options for why they chose a task.You might ask them why each is Analytical (asks for sequencing of events), Practical (neighborhood warning posters are common), and Creative (Wolf is antagonist made sympathetic).
  • Reminder of Sternberg MI
  • When talking about Sternberg MI, this is a nice descriptor. It emphasizes that ALL MI support all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
  • High Quality Lesson planning begins with the first 2 questions. DI starts with the last 2 questions. DI is not a layer, but a lens, essential in the steps of any instructional planning AFTER the objectives and assessments are identified.
  • Show a humorous video clip like the History teacher in Ferris Bueller’s Day Off. Have participants look and list 3 strengths of the History teacher in his instruction and 3 suggestions/ideas he might use to improve practice. Make clear to participants that we are not critiquing him, but coaching him to become better.
  • High Quality Lesson planning begins with the first 2 questions. DI starts with the last 2 questions. DI is not a layer, but a lens, essential in the steps of any instructional planning AFTER the objectives and assessments are identified.
  • Differentiated Instruction Overview 2010 Learner Centered

    1. 1. Differentiated Instruction: Starting the Journey Support by: John McCarthy, Ed.S. Education Consultant jmccarthyeds@gmail.net http://wb4all.blogspot.com
    2. 2. Norms • Every voice needs to be heard • Humor is nurturing • Monitor own Zone of Proximal Growth • Seek to understand before being understood –Stephen Covey (Questions are gifts) 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Please set cell phones to vibrate or silent mode, or turn off. Thank you.
    3. 3. Objectives – Understand the purpose and need for Differentiated Instruction (Reflective conversations). – Evaluate effective strategies that support all students (Reflective Feedback). 5U
    4. 4. If you want to feel safe and secure, continue to do what you have always done. If you want to grow, go to the cutting edge of your profession. Just know that when you do, there will be a temporary loss of sanity. So know when you don‟t quite know what you are doing… You are probably growing! --Madeline Hunter
    5. 5. Everyone has a unique style.
    6. 6. Learning Profile Surveys – Label 3 dot stickers with your grade. – Place a dot sticker on each of the 3 charts that best describes yourself.
    7. 7. Starting Place for Differentiation  “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as „given‟ or „known‟ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl, Corwin Press, Inc. 2003 – pp. 86-87 “Zone of Proximal Growth” - Vygotski
    8. 8. Understand how to read place value Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems 1. State the posted learning targets and assessment 2. Explain and demonstrate place value using: pennies & dimes and a T-chart 3. Process: explain to a partner 4. Think Dot: Place value through 6 examples 5. Process: jigsaw group members into dot teams for each of the 6 dots. Share solutions in dot groups. 6. Use students to represent 10s and 1s to do people addition and multiplication 7. Process: explain to a partner 8. Students work in pairs on a series of word problems 9. Assessment: Exit Card
    9. 9. The Learning Matrix Learning Components DI Components • Content Readiness --Access --Current Skill Level • Process Interests --Sense-making --Choices and • Product/ Backgrounds Learning Artifacts Learning Profile --Evidence --Brain Intelligences Relationship Building and Environment: Physical & Cultural
    10. 10. Understand how to read place value Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems 1. State the posted learning targets and assessment 2. Explain and demonstrate place value using: pennies & dimes and a T-chart 3. Process: explain to a partner 4. Think Dot: Place value through 6 examples 5. Process: jigsaw group members into dot teams for each of the 6 dots. Share solutions in dot groups. 6. Use students to represent 10s and 1s to do people addition and multiplication 7. Process: explain to a partner 8. Students work in pairs on a series of word problems 9. Assessment: Exit Card
    11. 11. Think Dots • Provides up to six tasks to complete for learning skills and/or concepts (e.g. fractions, plot analysis) • Each task is progressively more difficult and connected to the learning objective. • Students are grouped by readiness, interest, and/or learning profile. • Students randomly pick (use a die) or choose a specific number of tasks to complete out of those provided (e.g. 3 of 6, 4 of 6, 6 of 6). • Teacher might assigned some of the tasks as mandatory, and some as optional.
    12. 12. Defining Fractions • Learning Objective: Understand the parts and function of fractions. • Evidence/Assessment: Exit Card with 1-4 fraction problems to solve. • Set up activity: Students have done some work with fractions.
    13. 13. Think Dots (Tiered 1)
    14. 14. Think Dots (Tiered 2)
    15. 15. Exploring Writer‟s Voice • Learning Objective: Understand how authors use voice to create interesting writing or communication. • Evidence/Assessment: 5 minute fast-write describing their understanding of Author Voice. • Set up activity: Students wrote their meaning of voice and shared in a class discussion.
    16. 16. Think Dots (Tiered 1)
    17. 17. Think Dots (Tiered 2)
    18. 18. Developed by Ryan Johnson, Dearborn Heights 7, 4th Grade
    19. 19. Planning Questions Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning • What should students know, understand, and be able to do? • How will students demonstrate what they know? During Development of Unit and Lesson Planning • What will you do for students who do not succeed? • What will you do for students who already know the unit?
    20. 20. Defining Fractions • Learning Objective: Understand the parts and function of fractions. • Evidence/Assessment: Exit Card with 1-4 fraction problems to solve. • Set up activity: Students have done some work with fractions.
    21. 21. The Learning Matrix Learning Components DI Components • Content Readiness --Access --Current Skill Level • Process Interests --Sense-making --Choices and • Product/ Backgrounds Learning Artifacts Learning Profile --Evidence --Brain Intelligences Relationship Building and Environment: Physical & Cultural
    22. 22. RAFTS • Role: Who the student must become. • Audience: Who the message is composed for. • Format: Medium used to present the ideas.  • Topic: The message focus.  • Strong Verb: Begin topic with action verb.  = Addresses readiness based on complexity.  = Deals with learning profile, such as Gardner or Sternberg‟s multiple intelligences.
    23. 23. Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Semicolon Language Arts Understood Where I Belong N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Defines Who We Are Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a A Few Things You Should tree knot Know Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Owner Owner‟s Guide To Maximize Product Life Science Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up Before It‟s Too Late “Ransom” Note Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of Speech The Dream Revisited History 2010 Thomas Jefferson Current Residents Full page If I could Talk to You Now of Virginia newspaper ad Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of Math the Family A word problem Students in your class Set of directions How to Get to Know Me Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
    24. 24. Once upon a time, There‟s a girl who lives in Wayne County who always wears red hooded jackets. Everyone in the neighborhood calls her Red Riding Hood, or Red for short. One morning, Red asked her mother if she could visit her grandmother. Because of her arthritis, granny didn‟t do much text messaging. "That's a good idea," her mother said.
    25. 25. Red dressed in her favorite color and kissed her mother goodbye. “Go straight to Grandma's house," her mother cautioned. "Don't dawdle along the way and no talking to strange boys! Michigan Ave can be dangerous." “Mother," Red blushed.
    26. 26. But when Red biked along Michigan Ave she noticed some lovely outfits and cell phone accessories in store front windows. She forgot her promise. She bought red sandals and a rouge phone face plate, listened to music on her iPod and drank a Cola. Red was enjoying herself so much, that she didn't notice someone approaching behind her...
    27. 27. "What‟s up?" a wolf purred beside her. "I'm seeing my Granny who lives on Hemlock, between Payne and Barrie, near Ford Woods Park," Little Red Riding Hood replied, “The red house.”
    28. 28. Realizing the time, “Oh, I‟m late.” She excused herself, and biked fast to Grandma's house. The wolf took a cab...
    29. 29. The wolf arrived at Grandma's and knocked lightly at the door. "Oh thank goodness dear! Come in, come in! There‟s an e-Alert of a suspicious looking wolf. I was so worried," said Grandma thinking the knock came from her granddaughter. The wolf entered the house. Poor Granny didn‟t have time to say another word, before the wolf gobbled her up!
    30. 30. The wolf let out a satisfied burp. He poked through Granny's closet for a nightgown that he liked. He added a frilly sleeping mask, and dabbed some of Granny's perfume behind his pointy ears. A few minutes later, Red knocked on the door. The wolf jumped into bed and pulled the covers over his nose. "Who is it?" he called in a cackly voice. "It's me, Red.” “Yo, ahem, come in, my dear," croaked the wolf.
    31. 31. "Granny! You sound so weird,” Red said. "Oh, just a touch of cold," said the wolf adding a cough.
    32. 32. "But Granny! What big ears you have," said Red as she edged closer to the bed. "The better to hear you, my dear." "But Granny! What big eyes you have." "The better to see you with, my dear." "But Granny! What big dentures you have," said Red her voice quivering. "The better to eat you." The wolf leapt out of the bed and chased her.
    33. 33. Almost too late, Red realized that this person was not her Grandmother, but a hungry wolf. She ran through the house, shouting, "Help! Wolf!" as loudly as she could, while speed dialing 911 on her cell. A neighbor who was tending her garden heard Red‟s cry and raced to the house as fast as she could. A fan of the TV shows Cops and Greys Anatomy, the neighbor tackled the wolf and performed the Hiemlich Maneuver forcing him to spit out poor Granny who was now in desperate need of a towel and a shower.
    34. 34. "Oh Granny!" sobbed Red, "I'll never talk to strange wolves again." "There, there, child. You've learned an important lesson. The neighbor knocked out the wolf and drove him to the police precinct where he wouldn't bother people any longer. Red and Granny ate lunch and shopped at several malls. They had a long chat.
    35. 35. RAFTS Interest: Understanding Themes Complete one of the following giving 2-3 reasons/points: Role Audience Format Topic Grandma Red 1-2 minute Save lives. Don‟t conversation talk to strangers. Wolf Defense 1-2 minute Help me! I was Attorney conversation framed! Neighbor PTO Warning Strangers & Red – Posters Beware (A Cautionary Tale) Wolf Oprah Memoir Save me! I‟m Letter misunderstood. = Interest shown here as student choice for showing what they learned.
    36. 36. RAFTS Complete one of the following giving 3 reasons/points: Role Audience Format Topic Grandma Red 1-2 minute Save lives. Don‟t conversation talk to strangers. Analytical Wolf Defense 1-2 minute Help me! I was Attorney conversation framed! Creative Neighbor PTO Warning Posters Strangers & Red Practical – Beware (A Cautionary Tale) Wolf Oprah Memoir Letter Save me! I‟m Creative misunderstood.
    37. 37. All Use Bloom’s Taxonomy Sternberg’s Multiple Intelligences • Analytical – Abstract thinking & logical reasoning* – Traditional notion of intelligence (predominant instruction in Secondary and Collegiate levels) – Verbal & mathematical skills • Practical – Apply knowledge to the real world* – Street smarts – Shape one‟s environment; choose an environment – Contextual • Creative – Divergent thinking (generating new ideas)* – Creativity – Ability to deal with novel situations – Alternative solutions – Viewing from different perspectives
    38. 38. Sample RAFTS Strips Role Audience Format Topic Our Class Oral Response I never should have listened Gingerbread Man to the fox Squanto Other Native Pictographs I can help the inept settlers Americans Band Member Other Band Demo Tape Here‟s how it goes Members Positive Numbers Negative Numbers Dating Ad Opposites Attract Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Song Must you go on forever? Decimals Fractions Poem Don‟t you get my point? Perimeter Area Diary Entry How your shape affects me Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you‟d shed more light on the subject! Joan of Arc Self Soliloquy To recant, or not to recant; that is the question Tree Urban Sprawl Editorial My life is worth saving Thoreau Public of his day Letter to the Why I moved to the pond Editor Young Chromosome Experienced Children‟s Book What becomes of us in Chromosome mitosis? First Grader Kindergartner Ad What‟s best about 1st grade?
    39. 39. All Use Bloom’s Taxonomy Sternberg’s Multiple Intelligences • Analytical – Abstract thinking & logical reasoning* – Traditional notion of intelligence (predominant instruction in Secondary and Collegiate levels) – Verbal & mathematical skills • Practical – Apply knowledge to the real world* – Street smarts – Shape one‟s environment; choose an environment – Contextual • Creative – Divergent thinking (generating new ideas)* – Creativity – Ability to deal with novel situations – Alternative solutions – Viewing from different perspectives
    40. 40. How was Differentiation used here?
    41. 41. How many exposures to a concept do learners need for 80% mastery? 24 Marzano, Classroom Strategies That Work, p. 67
    42. 42. Frayer Model Define in your own words Draw a picture Metaphor/Poem/ Describe real- Song world benefits
    43. 43. The Learning Matrix Learning Components DI Components • Content Readiness --Access --Current Skill Level • Process Interests --Sense-making --Choices and • Product/ Backgrounds Learning Artifacts Learning Profile --Evidence --Brain Intelligences Relationship Building and Environment: Physical & Cultural
    44. 44. Planning Questions Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning • What should students know, understand, and be able to do? • How will students demonstrate what they know? During Development of Unit and Lesson Planning • What will you do for students who do not succeed? • What will you do for students who already know the unit?
    45. 45. What Differentiated Instruction… IS • Differentiated instruction is IS NOT rooted in assessment • Individual instruction • Differentiated instruction is • Chaotic more QUALITATIVE than • Just another way to provide quantitative. homogenous instruction (flexible • Differentiated instruction grouping) provides MULTIPLE approaches • Just modifying grading systems to content, process, and product. and reducing work loads • Differentiated instruction is • More work for the "good" students STUDENT CENTERED. and less and different for the • Differentiated instruction is a "poor" students BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction. • Differentiated instruction is "ORGANIC".
    46. 46. Data used for review practice with future curriculum and/or students. Summative Assessments
    47. 47. Exit Cards
    48. 48. Learning Profile Cards Learning Styles Sternberg/Gardner Preference MI Preference Interests, Hobbies, Other Internal/External Reading Score: Thinker www.protopage.com/assessmentsystem Student’s name on back of the card.
    49. 49. 3D Experience
    50. 50. Classroom View
    51. 51. 3D Instruction 1. Identify the learning target(s) -Start with a Bloom Verb 2. Decide on the (formative) assessment -address the learning target(s) 3. Brainstorm 9-15 ways to teach the concept(s) of the learning target(s) -think outside of the box, less abstract, more practical 4. Build the lesson steps -include 3+ ideas from Brainstorm -include 3+ processing experiences
    52. 52. Understand how to read place value Assessment: Exit Card with 3 math problems 1. State the posted learning targets and assessment 2. Explain and demonstrate place value using: pennies & dimes and a T-chart 3. Process: explain to a partner 4. Think Dot: Place value through 6 examples 5. Process: jigsaw group members into dot teams for each of the 6 dots. Share solutions in dot groups. 6. Use students to represent 10s and 1s to do people addition and multiplication 7. Process: explain to a partner 8. Students work in pairs on a series of word problems 9. Assessment: Exit Card
    53. 53. Develop/Reinvent a Crossroad Lesson 3D Instruction
    54. 54. Develop/Reinvent a Crossroad Lesson 1. Identify the learning target(s) 3D Instruction -Start with a Bloom Verb 2. Decide on the (formative) assessment -address the learning target(s) 3. Brainstorm 9-15 ways to teach the concept(s) of the learning target(s) -think outside of the box, less abstract, more practical 4. Build the lesson steps -include 3+ ideas from Brainstorm -include 3+ processing experiences
    55. 55. Lesson Gallery Walk
    56. 56. 3 Kinds of Assessments
    57. 57. Objectives – Understand the purpose and need for Differentiated Instruction (Reflective conversations). – Evaluate effective strategies that support all students (Reflective Feedback).
    58. 58. What‟s Fair for All Learners… Fair is not everyone doing the same thing in the same way… Fair is what YOU need to achieve. Fair instruction is like the cookie jar on the top shelf… Some need a taller stepping stool than others to grasp the prize. Fair is not everybody getting the same thing… Fair is everybody getting what they need to be successful!
    59. 59. Defining… Student Achievement
    60. 60. Planning Questions Starting Point for Unit and Lesson Planning • What should students know, understand, and be able to do? • How will students demonstrate what they know? During Development of Unit and Lesson Planning • What will you do for students who do not succeed? • What will you do for students who already know the unit?
    61. 61. Objectives – Understand the purpose and need for Differentiated Instruction (Reflective conversations). – Evaluate effective strategies that support all students (Reflective Feedback).
    62. 62. ? Feedback
    63. 63. Differentiated Instruction: Starting the Journey Support by: John McCarthy, Ed.S. Education Consultant jmccarthyeds@gmail.net http://wb4all.blogspot.com

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