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    Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org) Programas de Inglés de Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org) Presentation Transcript

    • 4 la posición humanista expresada en la Política Educativa LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE y en la Ley Fundamental de Educación. ESTUDIO A partir del Eje transversal de los valores y de lasLos cambios sociales, económicos, culturales, científicos, obligaciones asumidas por el estado desde la legislaciónambientales y tecnológicos del mundo contemporáneo, existente, en Costa Rica se han definido los siguienteshan exigido al currículo educativo no solo aportar Temas transversales: Cultura Ambiental para elconocimientos e información, sino también favorecer el Desarrollo Sostenible, Educación Integral de ladesarrollo de valores, actitudes, habilidades y destrezas Sexualidad, Educación para la Salud y Vivencia de losque apunten al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la Paz.personas y de las sociedades (Marco de Acción Regionalde “Educación para Todos en las Américas”, Santo Para cada uno de los temas transversales se han definidoDomingo, 2000). Sin embargo, existe en nuestro Sistema una serie de competencias por desarrollar en los y lasEducativo una dificultad real de incorporar nuevas estudiantes a lo largo de su período de formaciónasignaturas o contenidos relacionados con los temas educativa. Las Competencias se entienden como: “Unemergentes de relevancia para nuestra sociedad, pues se conjunto integrado de conocimientos, procedimientos,corre el riesgo de saturar y fragmentar los programas de actitudes y valores, que permite un desempeñoestudio. satisfactorio y autónomo ante situaciones concretas de la vida personal y social” (Comisión Nacional Ampliada deUna alternativa frente a estas limitaciones es la Transversalidad, 2002). Las mismas deben orientar lostransversalidad, la cual se entiende como un “Enfoque procesos educativos y el desarrollo mismo de laEducativo que aprovecha las oportunidades que ofrece el transversalidad.currículo, incorporando en los procesos de diseño,desarrollo, evaluación y administración curricular, Desde la condición pedagógica de las competencias sedeterminados aprendizajes para la vida, integradores y han definido competencias de la transversalidad como:significativos, dirigidos al mejoramiento de la calidad de “Aquellas que atraviesan e impregnan horizontal yvida individual y social. Es de carácter holístico, verticalmente, todas las asignaturas del currículo yaxiológico, interdisciplinario y contextualizado” (Comisión requieren para su desarrollo del aporte integrado yNacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). coordinado de las diferentes disciplinas de estudio, así como de una acción pedagógica conjunta” (BeatrizDe acuerdo con los lineamientos emanados del Consejo Castellanos, 2002). De esta manera, están presentesSuperior de Educación (SE 339-2003), el único eje tanto en las programaciones anuales como a lo largo detransversal del currículo costarricense es el de valores. todo el sistema educativo.De esta manera, el abordaje sistemático de los Valores enel currículo nacional, pretende potenciar el desarrollo A continuación se presenta un resumen del enfoque desocio-afectivo y ético de los y las estudiantes, a partir de cada tema transversal y las competencias respectivas: “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 5Cultura Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible actitudes y aptitudes responsables, reconociendo la necesidad de interdependencia con el ambiente.La educación ambiental se considera como el instrumentoidóneo para la construcción de una cultura ambiental delas personas y las sociedades, en función de alcanzar un Educación Integral de la Sexualidaddesarrollo humano sostenible, mediante un proceso queles permita comprender su interdependencia con el A partir de las “Políticas de Educación Integral de laentorno, a partir del conocimiento crítico y reflexivo de la Expresión de la Sexualidad Humana” (2001), una vivenciarealidad inmediata, tanto biofísica como social, madura de la sexualidad humana requiere de unaeconómica, política y cultural. educación integral, por lo que deben atenderse los aspectos físicos, biológicos, psicológicos, socioculturales,Tiene como objetivo que, a partir de ese conocimiento y éticos y espirituales. No puede reducirse a los aspectosmediante actividades de valoración y respeto, las y los biológicos reproductivos, ni realizarse en un contextoestudiantes se apropien de la realidad, de manera que, la desprovisto de valores y principios éticos y morales sobrecomunidad educativa participe activamente en la la vida, el amor, la familia y la convivencia.detección y solución de problemas, en el ámbito local,pero con visión planetaria. La educación de la sexualidad humana inicia desde la primera infancia y se prolonga a lo largo de la vida. Es unCompetencias por desarrollar derecho y un deber, en primera instancia, de las madres y los padres de familia. Le corresponde al Estado una • Aplica los conocimientos adquiridos mediante acción subsidaria y potenciar la acción de las familias en procesos críticos y reflexivos de la realidad, en la el campo de la educación y la información, como lo resolución de problemas (ambientales, expresa el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. económicos, sociales, políticos, éticos) de manera creativa y mediante actitudes, prácticas y valores El sistema educativo debe garantizar vivencias y que contribuyan al logro del desarrollo sostenible y estrategias pedagógicas que respondan a las una mejor calidad de vida. potencialidades de la población estudiantil, en • Participa comprometida, activa y responsablemente concordancia con su etapa de desarrollo y con los en proyectos tendientes a la conservación, contextos socioculturales en los cuales se desenvuelven. recuperación y protección del ambiente; identificando sus principales problemas y Competencias por desarrollar necesidades, generando y desarrollando alternativas de solución, para contribuir al • Se relaciona con hombres y mujeres de manera mejoramiento de su calidad de vida, la de los equitativa, solidaria y respetuosa de la diversidad. demás y al desarrollo sostenible. • Toma decisiones referentes a su sexualidad desde • Practica relaciones armoniosas consigo mismo, con un proyecto de vida basado en el conocimiento los demás, y los otros seres vivos por medio de “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 6 crítico de sí mismo, su realidad sociocultural y en información, sino que busca desarrollar conocimientos, sus valores éticos y morales. habilidades y destrezas que contribuyan a la producción • Enfrenta situaciones de acoso, abuso y violencia, social de la salud, mediante procesos de enseñanza – mediante la identificación de recursos internos y aprendizajes dinámicos, donde se privilegia la externos oportunos. comunicación de doble vía, así como la actitud crítica y • Expresa su identidad de forma auténtica, participativa del estudiantado. responsable e integral, favoreciendo el desarrollo personal en un contexto de interrelación y manifestación permanente de sentimientos, Competencias por desarrollar actitudes, pensamientos, opiniones y derechos. • Promueve procesos reflexivos y constructivos en su • Vivencia un estilo de vida que le permite, en forma familia, dignificando su condición de ser humano, crítica y reflexiva, mantener y mejorar la salud integral para identificar y proponer soluciones de acuerdo al y la calidad de vida propia y la de los demás. contexto sociocultural en el cual se desenvuelve. • Toma decisiones que favorecen su salud integral y la de quienes lo rodean, a partir del conocimiento de síEducación para la Salud mismo y de los demás, así como del entorno en que se desenvuelve.La educación para la salud es un derecho fundamental de • Elige mediante un proceso de valoración crítica, lostodos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El estado de salud, medios personales más adecuados para enfrentar lasestá relacionado con su rendimiento escolar y con su situaciones y factores protectores y de riesgo para lacalidad de vida. De manera que, al trabajar en educación salud integral propia y la de los demás.para la salud en los centros educativos, según las • Hace uso en forma responsable, crítica y participativanecesidades de la población estudiantil, en cada etapa de de los servicios disponibles en el sector salud,su desarrollo, se están forjando ciudadanos con estilos de educación y en su comunidad, adquiriendovida saludables, y por ende, personas que construyen y compromisos en beneficio de la calidad de los mismos.buscan tener calidad de vida, para sí mismas y paraquienes les rodean. Vivencia de los Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la PazLa educación para la salud debe ser un proceso social,organizado, dinámico y sistemático que motive y oriente a Costa Rica es una democracia consolidada pero enlas personas a desarrollar, reforzar, modificar o sustituir permanente estado de revisión y retroalimentación, por loprácticas por aquellas que son más saludables en lo cual la vigencia de los derechos humanos es inherente alindividual, lo familiar y lo colectivo y en su relación con el compromiso de fortalecer una cultura de paz y demedio ambiente. democracia.De manera que, la educación para la salud en el En los escenarios educativos es oportuno gestionarescenario escolar no se limita únicamente a transmitir mecanismos que promuevan una verdadera participación “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 7ciudadana en los ámbitos familiar, comunal, institucional y • Practica acciones, actitudes y conductas dirigidasnacional. Para ello, la sociedad civil debe estar informada a la no violencia en el ámbito escolar, en lay educada en relación con el marco legal brindado por el convivencia con el grupo de pares, familia ypaís, de manera que, desarrolle una participación efectiva comunidad ejercitando la resolución de conflictosy no se reduzca a una participación periódica con carácter de manera pacífica y la expresión del afecto, laelectoral. ternura y el amor. • Aplica estrategias para la solución pacífica deSe debe propiciar un modelo de sistema democrático que conflictos en diferentes contextospermita hacer del ejercicio de la ciudadanía una actividad • Respeta las diversidades individuales, culturalesatractiva, interesante y cívica que conlleva éticas, social y generacional.responsabilidades y derechos. Abordaje Metodológico de la Transversalidad desdeCompetencias por desarrollar los Programas de Estudio y en el Planeamiento Didáctico • Practica en la vivencia cotidiana los derechos y responsabilidades que merece como ser humano y La transversalidad es un proceso que debe evidenciarse ser humana, partiendo de una convivencia en las labores programáticas del Sistema Educativo democrática, ética, tolerante y pacífica. Nacional; desde los presentes Programas de estudio • Asume su realidad como persona, sujeto de hasta el Planeamiento didáctico que el ó la docente derechos y responsabilidades. realizan en el aula. • Elige las alternativas personales, familiares y de convivencia social que propician la tolerancia, la Con respecto a los Programas de Estudio, en algunos justicia y la equidad entre géneros de acuerdo a los Procedimientos y Valores se podrán visualizar procesos contextos donde se desenvuelve. que promueven, explícitamente, la incorporación de los • Participa en acciones inclusivas para la vivencia de temas transversales. Sin embargo, las opciones para la equidad en todos los contextos socioculturales. realizar convergencias no se limitan a las mencionadas en • Ejercita los derechos y responsabilidades para la los programas, ya que el ó la docente puede identificar convivencia democrática vinculada a la cultura de otras posibilidades para el desarrollo de los procesos de paz. transversalidad. • Es tolerante para aceptar y entender las diferencias culturales, religiosas y étnicas que, propician En este caso, se presenta como tarea para las y los posibilidades y potencialidades de y en la docentes identificar -a partir de una lectura exhaustiva de convivencia democrática y cultura de paz. los conocimientos previos del estudiantado, del contexto • Valora las diferencias culturales de los distintos sociocultural, de los acontecimientos relevantes y actuales modos de vida. de la sociedad-, cuáles de los objetivos de los programas representan oportunidades para abordar la transversalidad y para el desarrollo de las competencias. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 8 principios de la transversalidad. Esto plantea, enCon respecto al planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad definitiva, un reto importante para cada institucióndebe visualizarse en las columnas de Actividades de educativa hacia el desarrollo de postulados humanistas,mediación y de Valores y Actitudes, posterior a la críticos y ecológicos.identificación realizada desde los Programas de Estudio.El proceso de transversalidad en el aula debe considerarlas características de la población estudiantil y las COMISIÓN TEMAS TRANSVERSALESparticularidades del entorno mediato e inmediato para ellogro de aprendizajes más significativos. M.Sc. Priscilla Arce León. DANEA.Además del planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad M.Sc. Viviana Richmond. Departamento de Educacióndebe visualizarse y concretizarse en el plan Institucional, Integral de la Sexualidad Humanapotenciando la participación activa, crítica y reflexiva delas madres, los padres y encargados, líderes comunales, M.Sc. Mario Segura Castillo. Departamento deinstancias de acción comunal, docentes, personal Evaluación Educativaadministrativo y de toda la comunidad educativa. M.Sc. Carlos Rojas Montoya. Departamento deEn este sentido, el centro educativo debe tomar las Educación Ambiental.decisiones respectivas para que exista una coherenciaentre la práctica cotidiana institucional y los temas y “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA Presentation (Temas Transversales) ………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Index of units ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Unidades por nivel ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 I. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 II The Purpose of English Language Teaching in our Educational System ………………………………………. 14 III Implications of the Educational Policy in the Learning and Teaching of English ………………………………. 15 IV English as Means of Implementing the Educational Policy …………………………………………………… 16 V English as a Foreign Language in the Costa Rican Educational System ……………………………………… 17 - General Guidelines for the Mediation of Learning …………………………………………………………… 18 - Methodological Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 - Learning Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25 - Learning Styles …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 - Multiple Intelligences …………………………………………………………………………………………..... 31VI E.F.L. Classroom Assessment and Evaluation Suggestions ……………………………………………………. 32VII Objectives of the English Program in the “Educación Diversificada” in Costa Rica …………………. 34 - Tenth Grade …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 - Eleventh Grade ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58VIII Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82 IX Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88 X Annex 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96 Annex 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97 XI Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 10INDEX OF UNITS10º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… … 36 1. Achievements of our national athletes……………………………………………………………………………… .. 37 2. Costa Rican Art, music and crafts…………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 3. Words with same/different meaning…………………………………………………………………………………... 39 4. Costa Rican typical food………………………………………………………………………………………………... 42 5. Holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English Speaking countries……………. . 44 6. Causes and effects of natural resources misuse……………………………………………………………………. 45 7. Linking words in context………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48 8. Tourist attractions offered by Costa Rican Communities…………………………………………………………… 49 9. Common illnesses and new diseases and epidemics……………………………………………………………….. 51 10. Our Democratic Tradition……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 11. Careers, jobs and lifestyles…………………………………………………………………………………………… 55Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5711º LEVELIntroductory unit………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 58 1. Types of food, eating habits and behaviors at the table…………………………………………………………… . 59 2. Tourists aspects worldwide…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61 3. Linking words in contexts………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63 4. Job demand in Costa Rica…………………………………………………………………………………………… 64 5. Careers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66 6. Science and technology……………………………………………………………………………………………… . 68 7. Morals and values……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70 8. Prefixes, suffixes and root words………………………………………………………………………………………. 72 9. Gender :Men’s and Women’s roles…………………………………………………………………………………… 73 10. Senior citizens, minority groups and ………………………………………………………………………………… 75 11. Words with the same pronunciation but different meanings………………………………………………………… 77 12. Mass media and communications……………………………………………………………………………………… 78Summary of language outcomes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 11UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO POR NIVELEDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA-TÉCNICA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA TÉCNICA10º Level 11º Level 10 º Level 11 º Level 12º LevelUnits Units Units Units UnitsAchievements of our Types of food, eating Achievements of our Common illnesses Science andnational athletes habits and behaviors national athletes and new diseases and technologyCosta Rican Art, music at the table Costa Rican Art, music epidemics Morals and valuesand crafts Tourists aspects and crafts Our Democratic Prefixes, suffixesWords with worldwide Words with Tradition and root wordssame/different meaning Linking words in same/different meaning Careers, jobs and Gender :Men’s andCosta Rican typical food contexts Costa Rican typical food lifestyles Women’s rolesHolidays and Job demand in Costa Holidays and Types of food, eating Senior citizens,celebrations in Costa Rica celebrations in Costa habits and behaviors minority groups andRica with some Careers Rica with some at the table …celebrations in English Science and celebrations in English Tourists aspects Words with the sameSpeaking countries technology Speaking countries worldwide pronunciation butCauses and effects of Morals and values Causes and effects of Linking words in different meaningsnatural resources misuse Prefixes, suffixes and natural resources misuse contexts Mass media andLinking words in context root words Linking words in context Job demand in Costa communicationsTourist attractions Gender :Men’s and Tourist attractions Ricaoffered by Costa Rican Women’s roles offered by Costa Rican CareersCommunities Senior citizens, CommunitiesCommon illnesses and minority groups andnew diseases and …epidemicsOur Democratic Tradition “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 12 EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA TÉCNICA10º Level 11º Level 10 º Level 11 º Level 12º LevelUnits Units Units Units UnitsCareers, jobs and Words with the samelifestyles pronunciation but different meanings Mass media and communications “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 13 Comisión Programas 2003 M. Sc. Ana Isabel Campos Centeno M. Sc. Yamileth Cháves Lic. Doreen Walters Brown M. A. Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Coordinadora Agradecimiento a todos los Asesores Regionales de Inglés por su apoyo y recomendaciones.COMISIÓN REDACTORA : 1996Cira Delgado QuesadaLeonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeDoreen Walters BrownRosa Elena Simón RojasCoordinadores Revisión : 2001Leonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeMarco Tulio Villegas RubíASESORÍA TÉCNICA BRITÁNICAMichael A. VaughanI INTRODUCTION “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 14"The English Syllabus", was written within the principles - offer insights into the culture and civilization ofstated both in our Constitution, The Education Law and in English speaking countries.;the Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" in order - develop an awareness of the nature of languageto help the students face life and work situations which and language learning;require an average command of English, with the desire - incite enjoyment and intellectual stimulation;that this preparation will allow them to participate actively - encourage positive attitudes towards to foreigninto the challenges of the global economy for the benefit of languages and cultures;the country. - promote cognitive skills like application analysis, memorization, inferring;II. THE PURPOSES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE - develop students understanding of themselvesTEACHING IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM and their own culture.The large number of individuals who speak English either Along with the required study of the mother tongue, theas their first or as a second or foreign language justifies the study of second languages contributes to enrich the schoolfact that English is considered a universal language. curriculum because of the following reasons:Likewise, within the scientific, technological and humanisticspheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. - it provides a combination of linguistic skills bothConsequently, teaching English in our school system physical and intellectual with personal and socialresponds to basic needs: development; - it offers better opportunities to develop oral and written1. To offer students a second language which can unable communication skills; them to communicate within a broader social-economic - it inculcates valuable study skills such predicting, context in and outside Costa Rica. selecting, comparing, and interpreting information and2. To give students a tool to directly access scientific, memorizing, and focusing on general and detailed technological and humanistic information and , in this meaning in listening and speaking; way expand their knowledge of the world. - it helps develop the learners awareness of cross- curricular at the time that builds on the four From the perspective of those two basic needs the communication skills. educational aims of teaching English are listed as follows: In addition to the above reasons, the study of a foreign language, by definition, adds a distinctive dimension of its - develop the ability to communicate for practical own since: purposes; - frame a sound basis of the language skills, and - it exposes learners to new experiences and enables attitudes required for further study, work and them to make connections in a way which, leisure; otherwise, would not be possible. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 15 - The sounds and intonation patterns of the second 2. Education should promote the broadening of language present a challenge to learners capacity to understanding through challenging teaching discriminate and imitate. classroom situations and opportunities that can arise - It enhances the learner’s self confidence of their self-growth and learn how to learn. abilities provoking a sense of self-achievement and discovery which grow along with a gradual 3. Education should contribute to narrow down social – proficiency. economic gaps by providing the individuals with the - It improves the learners understanding of not only proper opportunities to integrate into everyday target cultures but also their own. problem-solving situations, all this aiming to promote a self-sufficient society.In sum, learning English as a foreign language will 4. Achieving sustainability in production and the economiccontribute to an integral formation of the learners which will in general represents a challenge for education. Theunable them to be able to insert into the coming century in country needs more qualified people in order to increasea lively and healthy way. productivity and improve the spirit of competitiveness. Furthermore, there is a need to integrate the countryIII. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN more effectively into the global economy THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN 5. The information or the content the learners handle OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. should be up-to-date and should be relevant to global development in the 21st century.The Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" gives 6. Education should aim to solidly reinforce values andthe learners the opportunity to express their care for their attitudes. This is a moral imperative.country, its democratic environment, cultural diversity anddeep respect for law, nature and peace. At the same time, The underlying principles for our educational approach,the policy encourages Costa Rican people to become humanism, rationalism and constructivism are clearly statedpositive leaders and critical thinkers through activities in the Policy.promoting a democratic environment, resulting in the Every person is considered capable of achieving his/her fullreinforcement of values such as self-identity and authentic potential. This entails interacting harmoniously with her/hisgrowth as independent and interdependent learners. surroundings, in three dimensions of human development: The cognitive, socio-affective and psycho motive.Some of the basic principles of the Policy can besummarized as follows: Every person constantly contributes both to the common good and the development of education, and is responsible 1. The citizens should be able to develop as persons for improving the quality of human, individual and collective through seeking for opportunities of self-fulfillment life. and happiness while contributing to the development Education ought to be a permanent formative process, of their country. which each person has not only a right, but also a duty to exercise. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 16Achieving quality in education is an integral process acquires responsibility for the quality of learning, togetherthrough which the results express the initial aims. Through with the family and the educational authorities.this process learners are offered equality of opportunities to In summary, learning English as a foreign language insucceed and appropriate educational provision according to Costa Rica will allow students to develop communicativetheir needs, problems and aspirations. competence, to gain knowledge of a new culture, beliefs and attitudes and to understand the messages given and,Educational research at national, provincial, regional and reflect on them. They also have the opportunity to analyzeinstitutional levels will ensure more systematic the real message and intentions of speakers in order toimplementation of the policy from everyday classroom distinguish the negative from the positive and to developpractice to administrative decision taking. greater and more desirable autonomy.The design of the syllabus encourages participativeinteraction, and its adaptation. IV. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING THEThe implementation of educational provision encourages EDUCATIONAL POLICYdemocratic participation, cooperative and self-reliantattitudes. English, in common with other subjects in the Costa Rican curriculum, must provide the learner with the opportunity toThe process of "mediation" for the construction of learning, develop awareness of the urgent need for the balancedand the transference of knowledge is framed, primarily, development of our environment, our human resources,within an epistemological-constructivist position. The ties and also the socio-political and the economy and means ofwith other disciplines allow for deductive as well as for production. This balance is essential to ensure the successinductive processes. of the new era of sustainable development.The evaluation of the learning processes must reflectcoherence between the three components. It must also The English language syllabus provides the necessaryconsider both the process and the product. situations to support each one of the areas mentionedEvaluation is conceived of as an instrument to monitor above. As far as environment is concerned, it emphasizeslearning, and so provides feedback on the educational the analysis of the cause and effect of the use and misuseprocess. In addition, it enhances the quality of education of natural resources and the possible solutions, as well asthrough its three functions: diagnostic, formative and the value of our existing resources and the ecologicalsummative. The methodology proposed centers on the diversity we possess. It also reinforces the harmoniousactivity of the learner as builder of his/her own learning. development of human beings and nature.The student, as the main focus of the curriculum, carriesout the learning process, is considered to represent an Our syllabus pays special attention to those topics relatedinherited culture, and has the liberty to select his / her own to the basic needs of highly qualified people consideringway. their successful realization in time, society and in theThe teacher, is conceived of as facilitator, collaborator and national and international surroundings. An example of thisadvisor in the students learning. Therefore, the teacher is provided by the topics which conduct research into an exchange information on health; the symptoms and “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 17prevention of common and more recent diseases. In the end, the learner will apply his/her knowledge ofLikewise, drug abuse is another topic for discussion in the English to accept and adapt him/her self to constantEnglish class. changes confidently.The syllabus takes into account other relevant areas of awell-rounded education, such as the job market and ENGLISH AS AN OBJECT OF STUDYcareers, in terms of active participation in the evolution ofsociety. The object of study of the English language in ourOther aspects like the socio-political development of curriculum is written and oral communication, emphasizingcitizens is dealt with explicitly, leading to personal, and the four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, readingcollective improvement through themes relating to values and writing. The practice of these skills permits thesuch as: gender equality, political liberties, and respect for students to communicate efficiently according to theethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvement knowledge acquired.in community activities.In the field of the economy and production, the syllabus Through the learning of the language, the learner canprovides for the promotion of a productive culture in compare and apply different registers (formal and informal)harmony with the environment, coupled with the efficient and recognize expressions in British, American and otheruse of energy and resources. varieties of English.In all cases, English can be the means for exposure to andacquisition of valuable and permanent behavior patterns. BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE SUBJECT MATTERThese patterns will fulfill his/her own needs, and those ofthe country. For the purpose of studying the English language, we haveThe present generations should respect sustainable divided the subject matter into three components:development to guarantee that future generations have the 1. Formal 2. Functional 3. Culturalopportunity to satisfy their own needs.V. ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE COSTA Formal Component RICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM This component has been traditionally called theEnglish is conceived of as a linguistic and cultural tool for grammatical component. In this sense, the structures of thecommunication, which allows the learner to complement language have been graded, selected and chosenhis/her whole education. His/her knowledge of according to the different functions of the language and the topics to be studied. Lexics, syntax and morphology areEnglish contributes to the social, economical and part of this component.technological development. It also allows the learner toapply techniques to understand and produce appropriateoral and written messages. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 18By itself, the formal component is an important part of the main objective of the whole process of language learninglanguage, but it has to be studied as a means to effective is to enable the students to use the language forcommunication. communication.Furthermore, the teaching of grammar should be focused GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MEDIATION OFon the practical use of oral and written language for LEARNINGcommunication. The Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century"Functional Component presents the learner as a human being full of potential with the possibility to develop him/herself in harmony with theThe functional component refers to the communicative three dimensions of human development: cognitive, socio-purpose for which we use the language. Language is not affective and psycho-motive. Education has to provide thisonly forms; we have to start looking at what people do with global development in a given context.those forms. For example, expressing ones opinionsasking for someone’s opinion, expressing doubts, etc. The objective of learning is to provide a contribution to social and personal development. Therefore, education is seen as a formative and permanent process. Education isCultural Component considered as a social process in which human beings meet human experiences. These experiences, contributeThis component considers understanding of the culture of to shape the capacities and values that will serve humansthe country or countries where the language is spoken. to give a contribution to the social welfare.Knowing the features of the target culture makes it easier tounderstand the language itself. Some of the cultural The Policy establishes an educational process whichfeatures that should be taken into account are: values, provides similar opportunities for everybody: theattitudes, behavior, patterns, points of view, ways of achievement of high standards of education as well asthinking, appreciation, etc. opportunities that take into consideration the participants needs, problems and expectations. Another feature of theThe cultural component should always be present in the Policy is the way it emphasizes the need to provide positiveother components. Language and culture go together in learning conditions.order to communicate social meanings. This means that thelanguage must be presented in meaningful situations The Policy also states that learners acquire education to beaccording to the appropriate cultural contexts. able to participate as individuals in their own development and the development of society; for that reason, they haveThe pertinent use of the three components guarantees the to be acquainted with the knowledge that humanity hasrequired communicative competence. This competence been accumulating and systematizing through history.does not occur by itself. The speaker must acquire linguistic They must learn about its common uses, thoughts andcompetence simultaneously, starting in early stages. The actions in a particular social context. Within this approach “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 19"learning" is exploring, experimenting, discovering and Listeningreconstructing the learners own knowledge. Learning isdescribed as a comprehensible, dynamic and meaningful Listening is one of the most important skills that has to beprocess for those who learn. It is guided by the interest developed in early stages of language learning. Throughshown by the learner towards its acquisition and it is listening the students should be prepared to cope with:orientated to the acquisition of learning. From thisperspective the teacher is the person who organizes andguides the learning situations, taking into account not onlythe students characteristics (background, learning styles, a. understanding speech in different settings (backgroundetc.), but also the curriculum, and the cultural and natural noise, distance or unclear sound reproductions)context). b. becoming acquainted with speech containing false starts hesitations, etc. (everyday speech)In the teaching of English, as mentioned earlier the written c. understanding speakers who vary in tempo, speech,and oral aspects of the language are the objects of study. clarity of articulation and accent, non-native speakersEmphasis is given to the four basic linguistic abilities: of the language as well.listening and reading comprehension, oral and writtenproduction. An equal amount of classroom time should be Listening, understanding and responding in an appropriatedevoted to the development of each of the four linguistic way is an essential part of communication and, therefore,skills. In this sense, any learning activity in the regular practice of aural comprehension is a vital part of thedevelopment of a topic (should take into consideration the teaching program although listening is fully practiced in ourintegration of these skills). In addition the teacher should classes, there are specific listening activities that should bedesign different teaching procedures to approach a topic. included in the syllabus, such as:This can be done by emphasizing, for example, listening,then reading, speaking and writing, or by altering the stepsany time the educator deals with a classroom procedure. 1. Distinguishing between sounds, stress and intonationThe basic idea is to create a highly motivating atmosphere patterns.to encourage learning. 2. Answering quick questions. 3. Understanding comprehension passages.Whenever the teacher is developing an objective, he/she 4. Listening to broadcasts.should know about the topic itself and the different ways 5. Listening to lectures.he/she will be introducing the development of the skills 6. Taking dictation.listed above. Teachers should expose the learner to a considerableTo help teachers with a general view of the sub skills to be amount of meaningful language input through listening to:developed, we are including a summary of the most conversations, descriptions, directions, discussions, drama,relevant aspects of each main skill: films, songs, sports, reports, advertisements and any other form of authentic spoken language. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 20 SpeakingThe teacher should encourage in the learners thedevelopment of the following strategies: The development of the skills of speaking is the ultimate goal for students learning English. It is also a "wish" of every Costa Rican; parent, politician and in our society.1. Thinking about the purpose of listening.2. Thinking ahead about what learners already know and However, the development of the skill has to be carried out keep predicting what the speaker will say next. in conjunction with the development of the other skills. In3. Focus on what they do, understand and use to help particular, speaking and listening are complementary to them work out what they dont understand. each other in the act of communication. For that reason, both should be practiced in close relation to each other.When developing listening comprehension, the activities The teacher should provide a variety of opportunities for theshould: students, in order to bring about the necessary models or language input.1. Meet the students interests and needs.2. Be designed according to the students performance Through speech, learners acquire the fundamentals of level. language pertinent to carry out specific interaction where3. Provide practice in distinguishing between sounds, they have to exercise the use of some functions, through stress, intonation patterns, to understand sentences, the appropriate language structures, cultural short texts, etc. appropriateness and acceptable language input.4. Provide the students with practice in listening techniques. To promote the development of this skill, it is necessary that5. State the purpose of the task clearly. students be aware of the following principles:6. Make use of background knowledge.7. Follow an organized procedure. 1. Oral speech is acquired through listening and through8. Provide the learners with the necessary steps in the constant practice. development of the activity. 2. Speech delivery, rhythm, intonation and pronunciation9. Engage the learners in a variety of situations which are learned by listening to appropriate language provide practice, going from memorization to models (tapes, native speakers, teachers and other evaluation. English speakers).10. Follow the objectives. 3. Learning to speak English means knowing what to talk11. Be graded. about. Introducing knowledge of the world and up-to-12. Integrate other language skills. date topics are essential. 4. Learning to speak English means saying the appropriate words for a situation at the right time for a specific purpose. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 215. For the students to speak English it is essential that Reading activities should focus on normal reasons for English is spoken in class and in any other situation reading. People normally read because: when it is required.6. Since learning to speak means speaking to others, 1. They want information for some purpose or because interactive practice must be set up in pairs, groups and they are curious about the topic; with teachers and visitors. 2. They need instructions in order to perform some tasks7. The language tasks designed must be authentic and for their work or for their daily life. For instance, they the same ones that native speakers of the language want to know how an appliance works; they are use to communicate with others. interested in a new recipe; they have forms to fill in,8. The integration of skills is vital when speaking. e.g. etc. giving an oral explanation of information presented in a 3. They want to play a new game, do a puzzle or carry chart or diagram. out some activity which is pleasant and amusing. 4. They want to keep in touch with friends byReading correspondence. 5. They want to know when or where something will takeReading, although often regarded as a passive receptive place (timetables, program menus, etc.).skill is, in fact, an active skill which involves guessing, 6. They want to know what is happening or haspredicting, and asking questions. These should therefore be happened (they read newspapers, magazines, etc.).considered when designing reading comprehensionexercises. It is, for instance, possible to develop the Activities for developing reading skills should make use ofstudents powers of inference through systematic practice, these natural needs and interests preferably by supplyingor introduce questions which encourage students to something which is interesting, amusing, exciting, useful oranticipate the content of a text from its title and illustrations leads to a pleasant or beneficial activity.or the end of a story from the preceding paragraphs. In Any reading activity should be :brief, students should be encouraged to transfer theadvanced skills they have when reading Spanish to the 1. interesting to the students.reading of English. 2. chosen according to the students interests, age and needs.Students learning English expect to be able to read the 3. authentic . Its purpose must be the same as for nativelanguage sooner or later. Their personal expectations may speakers.vary from wanting to read the lyrics of popular songs to 4. leading to a purpose ( information, details, globalnewspaper ads to magazines or even classical literature. meaning).Teachers should , therefore offer a variety of texts and also 5. graded according to the students level of proficiency.remember that students in the same class may read at very 6. able to help the students build on information alreadydifferent levels of difficulty in English, just as they do in their acquired in their own language by complementing itnative language. with information learned in English. 7. not too culturally bound. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 228. integrated with the other language skills. For example: Any written practice should: -Reading and writing e.g. summarizing, mentioning 1. be related to the topic being studied. what you have read in a letter, note-taking, etc. 2. follow the objectives. - Reading and listening e.g. reading the lyrics while 3. be creative. listening to a song recorded information to solve a 4. take account of the students cognitive knowledge and written problem, matching opinions and texts, etc. skills. Reading and speaking e.g. discussions, debates, 5. be graded from simple sentence descriptions to more etc complex products.9. flexible and varied. 6. include the use of appropriate language, style,10. meaningful and related directly to the text. punctuation and other characteristics. 7. involve the teacher and students in the development Teachers should be aware of the students reading and production of writing.interests in order to design the appropriate reading 8. use a collaborative approach in which teachers createcomprehension exercises. It is important to emphasize here together and give each other feedback through thethat students must become effective readers. These process.reading exercises must be designed to develop the 9. use real-life tasks for students, write authentic textsfollowing reading skills. notes and letters. 10. integrate the other skills before, while or after the- Skimming: a quick running of the eyes over a text to get writing task is performed. the gist or global meaning of it. 11. motivate the students to express their feelings,- Scanning: quick overview of a text to find specific emotions and points of view in a written form. information.- Extensive reading: reading longer texts for own To promote the development of written skills teachers can pleasure. (involves global understanding). design a series of activities enabling students: to write- Intensive reading: reading shorter texts to extract notes and shopping lists, keep records, send messages, specific information (reading for detail). write letters to friends, keep diaries, complete reports and write poetry or fiction. All of these authentic tasks shouldWriting be guided by following principles in which the writer :Writing is a skill which emphasizes the formal expression of 1. attempts to communicate something.thoughts through written language or graphic symbols. 2. has a goal or purpose in mind.The teacher should facilitate the writing process by 3. has to establish and maintain contact with the reader.providing the necessary guidance for the learner to be able 4. has to organize the material by using certain logicalto express her/his knowledge of the topic. and grammatical devices.It is also necessary to define the type of written productionthe students will perform. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 23Besides these general principles, teachers should pay METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHattention to the rhetorical devices, logical, grammatical andlexical: appropriate to different types of texts, spelling, The Communicative approach provides the basis for thepunctuation and other organizational features. methodology used in the English classroom. Its main features are:Writing just like listening, has to be taught by practicingdifferent techniques and types of writing . It should be 1. It creates an stress-free atmosphere conducive topreceded by exposure to a wide range of models of written learning a language with plenty of opportunities tolanguage. It is also important to show the students how the communicate.written language functions as a system of communication. 2. It provides ample opportunities for interactionThe learner also needs to know how to organize sentences promoting a pleasant, warm and enjoyableinto a coherent text; write different kinds of texts; or select environment which features positive feedback for thethe appropriate style, formal or informal, according to the learner from both the teacher and peers.task, subject matter and target audience. However, most of 3. The learners needs and interests are taken intoall, tasks must be as realistic as possible. account making them as the center of the learningWhenever a teacher is ready to introduce an activity process.focusing on one of the four basic skills described 4. The methodology used is participative, dynamic andabove, he/she should take into account five steps : offers the opportunity for real use of the language. 5. The teacher guides the learning process but sharesa. Preparationb. Demonstrationc. Time to introduce the the responsibility with the learners. They use criticalskill thinking to solve problems, work in groups, take risks,d. Correction e. Follow-up discuss different topics, and appreciate and reinforce their own as well as English speaking cultures. AllIn order to follow these steps, the teacher should these aspects take place in real-life situations .provide : "Pre-activities" to help the students think 6. The teacher and students make decisions together. Byabout what they already know and find a reason for doing this, the learner gets completely involved in thelistening, speaking, reading or writing; "While- language-learning process and becomes responsibleactivities" to exploit oral or written speech. These for it.exercise different skills to carry out the task assigned 7. The objectives of the syllabus develop theand "Post-activities" to link the new information and communicative functions of the language elements.skills with the students own experience and otherskills. The following chart provides a better idea of some of the characteristics of the different components of the communicative approach. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH LEARNER TEACHER- Central, active, creative and participative. - Facilitator, guide.- Responsible for his/her own and others learning, - Participates in process - with learners. planning, resources and assessment. - Not the center of the process.- Confident, motivated. - Takes more time for individual needs.- Develops full potential and builds on interests. - Gains skills and takes responsibility from planners,- Individual/collective roles. writers, linguists. - Shows expert role. AIMS MATERIALS- Communication - Authentic, real-world significance.- Gain transferable skills. - Related to learners needs, interests and culture.- Cooperation - Flexible.- Concentrate on meaning and process. - Motivating and interesting.- Focus on fluency. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT- Successful (even conventional terms). - Real-world context.- Permanent learning. - Beyond classroom, into community. - Relevant, stimulating, interesting. LEARNING STYLE ASSESSMENT- Integrated skills - Communicative competence.- Real-life skills in communicative contexts. - Process-oriented.- Active. - Continuous.- Active-based. - Profiling skills.- Variety of style, pace, etc. - Learning process.- Flexible. - Self and peer assessment. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 25LEARNING STRATEGIES Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective, and social strategies.Learning strategies should be considered when planning atnational, institutional and classroom levels. Metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their ownLearning strategies are operations employed by the learner cognitive processes and to focus, plan and evaluate theirto aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of progress as they move toward communicative competence.information. But they can also be described as specificactions of the learner to make learning easier, faster, more Affective strategies develop the self-confidence andenjoyable, self-directed, effective and transferable. In other perseverance needed for learners to be actively involved inwords, learning strategies are tools students use when they language learning.have to solve a problem, accomplish a task, meet an Social strategies provide increased interaction and moreobjective or attain a goal. emphatic understanding with others.Teachers should be aware of learning strategies in order to Below is Rebecca Oxfords chart on learning strategies.provide opportunities for all of their students to developcommunicative competence.Learning strategies have been divided into two groups :Direct and Indirect.Direct strategies include memory, cognitive andcompensation strategies.Memory strategies help foster particular aspects ofcompetence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, etc.)by using imagery and structured review.Cognitive strategies strengthen grammatical accuracy byreasoning deductively and using contrastive analysis.Compensation strategies help develop strategiccompetence by using inference and guessing when themeaning is not known, using synonyms or gestures toexpress meaning of an unknown word or expression. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 26 DIRECT STRATEGIES INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies I. Metacognitive strategies A. Creating mental linkages A. Centering your learning B. Applying images and sounds B. Arranging and planning your learning C. Reviewing well C. Evaluating your learning D. EmployingII. Cognitive strategies II. Affective strategies A. Practicing A. Lowering your anxiety B. Receiving and sending messages B. Encouraging yourself C. Analyzing and reasoning C. Taking your emotional temperature D. Creating structure for input and outputIII. Compensation strategies III. Social strategies A. Guessing intelligently A. Asking questions B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing B. Cooperating with others Oxford, R.1990 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 27LEARNING STYLES their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation will increase and they will learn more efficiently. For thisThe learning styles are as important as the development of reason, here is a summary of each style and some ideasskills or learning strategies when deciding on how relevant for its implementation in the classroom.the curriculum is. Concrete Sequential (CS)Here learning styles are presented as possibilities to be The learner whose style is the Concrete Sequential derivesincluded when planning learning to guarantee success. information primarily through direct sensory experience. The real world, for this domain, is the concrete world ofGregorc defines learning style as the outward expression to senses. The way of thinking is methodical and deliberate-athe human minds ability to mediate knowledge. i.e. the train of thought. The individuals that belong to this domainmeans and capacities we employ to receive and express tend to be task-oriented and consistently striving forinformation. perfection.Two principal factors in determining learning styles are the Some recommended learning activities are: keepingways in which information is perceived and how it is records of experiences and experiments, conductingordered in our brains. surveys, writing computer programs, observing and classifying phenomena, undertaking practical work and1. Perceptual abilities are the means whereby we grasp preparing displays. information: The perception may be: a. abstract through reason, emotion, or intuition, or b. Abstract Sequential (AS) concrete through the physical senses of hearing , The mainly Abstract Sequential learner lives mostly in the sight, smell, taste and touch. abstract, non-physical world of thoughts, theories and2. Ordering abilities are the ways in which information is mental constructions. Reality consists of words and systematized, arranged and distributed. Ordering may concepts, such as justice and peace. The thinking is logical, be a. sequential (linear, step by step and methodical) analytical and evaluative. They have outstanding ability to or b. random- (non -linear) with multiple patterns of outline, correlate, compare and categorize. data being processed simultaneously and holistically. Some learning activities include: listening to lectures,3. Four different learning styles have been identified: comparing and contrasting different accounts and interpretations of events, project research and the synthesis Concrete Sequential (CS) of ideas and information in essay or project form, library Abstract Sequential (AS) study and group plenary discussion. Abstract Random (AR) and Concrete Random (CR) Abstract Random (AR) The real world of the dominant Abstract Random is theTeacher should prepare different materials and activities to non-physical world of feelings, emotions and imagination.develop their students learning process. If the students feel “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfantasy and imagery, imaginative writing and thepreparation and production of multimedia presentations.Concrete Random (CR)For this domain the concrete physical world is the startingpoint. The learners way of thinking is impulsive and she/hecan make intuitive leaps towards identifying and unifyingprinciples behind experiences. Learning activities to suitthis domain are: experimental units, simulation games, roleplays, problem-solving exercises, independent study,practical experiments and exercises which challenge thestudent to find alternative paths to a particular goal. Thefollowing chart from Bernice Mc Carthy is reproduced tohelp teachers visualize the four quadrants and becomeaware of their own characteristics for classroom purposes. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 29 STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experience and application - integrates experience with self- seeks hidden possibilities and excitement - seeks meaning, clarity and integrity- needs to know what can be done with things - needs to be personally involved- learns by trial and error - absorbs reality- perceives information concretely and processes it actively - perceives information concretely and processes it- adaptable to and relishes change reflectively- excels in situations calling for flexibility - interested in people and culture- tends to take risks - divergent thinkers who believe in their own experience- often reaches accurate conclusions in the absence of and excel in viewing concrete situations from manylogical evidence perspectives- functions by acting and testing experience - model themselves on those they respect- Strengths: acting and carrying out plans - learn by listening and sharing ideas- Goals: making things happen, bringing action to concepts - function through social interaction- Favorite Questions: If? What can this become? - Strengths : innovation and imagination (ideas, people) - Goals : self-involvement in important issues, bringing unity to diversity - Favorite Questions: Why ? Why Not ? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 30 STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER? STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usability, utility, results - seeks facts- needs to know how things work - needs to know what the experts think- learns by testing theories that seem sensible - learns by thinking through ideas- skill-oriented - values sequential thinking, needs details- perceives information abstractly and processes it actively - perceives information abstractly and processes it- needs hands-on experiences reflectively- enjoys problem solving -restricts judgment to concrete - less interested in people than ideasthings - critiques information and collects data-resets being given answers and limited tolerance of fuzzy - thorough and industrious, re-examining facts if situationsideas. are perplexing- needs to know how things she is asked to do will help in - enjoys traditional classroomreal life. - functions by thinking things through and adapting to- functions through inferences drawn from sensory expertsexperience - Strengths: creating concepts and models- Strengths. practical application of ideas - Goals : self-satisfaction, intellectual recognition- Goal: bringing their view of the present into line with future - Favorite Question: What?security- Favorite Question: How does it work? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES 3. Interpersonal: the ability to understand other people andThe theory of multiple intelligences was developed by work effectively with them and to notice who plays withHoward Gardner who introduces the concept of developing them at school, and why. How you can nurture: Givemore than one type of intelligence. Traditionally, only the children lots of opportunities to talk about one anotherlinguistic and logical mathematical intelligences were and their social interactions, and to problem-solveconsidered by teachers and educators. For more than conflicts together, play games in which one has to figureeighty years an intelligent person was the one who had a out the knowledge or intentions of other players.high I.Q.Thomas Asmstrong in the last plenary session of TESOL’97 4. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand things aboutin Orlando Florida encouraged teachers to be careful in oneself, how one is similar to, different from others;their classroom settings when developing the different remind oneself to remember to do something; know howtypes of intelligences and to develop the other types, to soothe oneself when sad. How you can nurture: Letbesides the two mentioned previously. children express their own unique emotions,The following is a summary presented by Mary Ann preferences, and strategies; help them understand theirChristison at the National Conference for Teachers of own wishes and fears and how best to deal with them.English, in San Jose, January 1997. In this summary theyhave incorporated the naturalistic intelligence. 5. Bodily/kinesthetic: The ability to use the body or parts of the body (hands, feet, etc.) to solve problems, as inWe present Dr. Mary Ann Christison’s summary of Multiple playing a ballgame, dancing, or making things with theIntelligences. hands. How you can nurture: Provide opportunities for physical challenges throughout the day, not just1. Musical: the ability to produce and recognize simple outdoors. songs; play with these melodies, varying speed and rhythm. How you can nurture: Incorporate music daily. 6. Linguistic. The ability to use language to express Use a tape recorder for listening, singing along, and meaning, understand others, tell a simple story; react recording songs and rhythmic and melodic instruments. appropriately to stories with different moods; learn new vocabulary or a second language that is used naturally.2. Logical / mathematical: the ability to understand the How you can nurture: Make sure your program is rich basic properties of numbers, adding or taking away; with language opportunities and that children’s linguistic appreciate principles of cause and effect, one-to-one expression is listened to and appreciated. correspondence; ability to predict, as in which objects will float, sink, etc. How you can nurture: Provide 7. Spatial: the ability to be able to form a mental image of manipulatives to help children experiment with numbers; large ( a home) and local (a block building) spatial use simple machines to help children think about cause layouts; find one’s way around a new building. How you and effect. can nurture: Provide many opportunities for mapping of “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 32 the classroom encourage children to vary the VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND arrangements of materials in the space. EVALUATION SUGGESTIONS8. Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or As it has been stated previously, The National Educational animals in one’s environment, for example, to learn the Policy, "Towards the 21 st Century", encourages teachers characteristics of different birds. How you can nurture: to create an active and stimulating atmosphere for their Play games in which children recognize fine distinctions students in the E.F.L. class and also when assessing. among members of a plant or animal group; explore the outdoors regularly and bring the outdoors in; provide One of the main characteristics of the policy is the belief sample books, visual, and props related to the natural that students should exercise their cognitive skills as well as world. their linguistic ones. The policy emphasizes learning processes and sets out the cognitive operations students Lately, they have named as you have noticed two should master before they can achieve certain learningother types of intelligence: the naturalistic, and the goals. Students are also encouraged to work with eachemotional intelligence. These two inclusions give a wide other and to learn from each other.range of possibilities to classroom teachers to incorporateas many experiences as possible to help students develop To cope with the E.F.L. approach used in teaching, thewholly. At the same time, teachers must be aware of assessing techniques used should reflect the dynamicreceiving new information applicable in their class to classroom procedures and should promote critical thinkingimprove the teaching and learning process. among the students in any learning activity they perform such as: information-gap, opinion-gap, problem solving, games and critical cultural incidents which help the learners appreciate their own culture and the culture of the target language. The first levels 7, 8 and 9 belong to the III Cycle of the General Basic Education and are the basic levels where students are learning the main features of the English language as well as some relevant sociocultural features learned through the development of the four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Higher levels, 10 and 11, have the opportunity to learn more about the language and culture they are learning and their level of performance is also high. As a consequence the assessment tasks should correspond to their “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 33knowledge of the language and their development of the PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENINGlanguage skills. a. The language used should be delivered at normalGENERAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES speed. b. The input should be delivered twice.When teachers are planning a test, classroom assessment c. The language used should be as authentic a possible.or students self-assessment, the tasks assigned should d. If using tapes, recordings should be of excellentfollow the following features : quality. e. Recording equipment has to be in excellent conditions.a. Tasks should provide a purpose for using the f. The setting should be free of noise. language.b. Tasks should provide a context for language use rather PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING SPEAKING than just isolated items.c. Tasks should lead towards real language use, to give a. Give the students more than one task to judge the students the opportunities to do the sorts of things students speaking ability. native speakers do with the language. b. Set only tasks and topics that the students should bed. Tasks should promote individual and group activities, able to cope with in their own language. to allow the students to learn by themselves as c. Create a pleasant atmosphere so that students will not individuals as well as from their peers. feel threatened.e. Tasks should allow students to experience what they d. Teachers should avoid talking too much when have practiced in the classroom: using activities such interviewing students. as information gap, problem solving, etc. e. Encourage the students to speak.f. Tasks should simulate learning situations to allow f. Teachers should design different instruments such as students to re-organize and re-plan their learning rating scales and check-lists to recall students strategies. performance.g. Tasks should provide opportunities for critical thinking, PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING READING they should motivate the students creative thinking skills , so they can solve communication problems by a. The tasks should be stated briefly and concisely. using the language. b. In the case of multiple-choice questions, alternativesh. Tasks should be suitable for the students age, level in should have a parallel structure. school and language proficiency. c. A variety of assessment techniques must be used. d. Skills students master in their native language must be tested first. e. Texts length should be appropriate for the students’ level. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 34f. The chosen texts should be appropriate for the 3. To propitiate the learners interests in reading candidate’s interests. short books, simplified versions, magazines or anyg. Texts should not be too culturally bound. other authentic material conducive to a permanenth. Students should be tested on topics they have already learning and a critical attitude. read. 4. To motivate the students’ use of the English Language permanently as means of promoting theirPRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING WRITING own cultural and social as well as their communities welfare. 5. To encourage learners to exchange informationa. Writing tasks should be similar to the types of writing (real, emotional and attitudinal) about themselves, students will do in real-life: their families, their country and the world. 6. To stimulate the learners capacity to recognize and - they should specify an audience. produce sociolinguistic and cultural features of the - they should specify a purpose for writing. English language when using basic communication - they should specify a context. expressions about daily and general topics. 7. To promote the learners use of basic grammaticalb. Tasks should test a wide range of functions features that will enable them to communicate with (describing, comparing, contrasting, expressing others even though the grammatical functions are opinions, giving reasons, asking for opinions, asking not correctly or consequently used. for information, etc). 8. To provide learners with a linguistic model which willc. Tasks should test different registers ( formal / informal) help them achieve a command of pronunciation andd. Instructions must indicate: prosodic features. 9. To propitiate in the learner the development of a - the amount of time allowed for writing. fluent communication capacity so that the message can be understood by a responsive native speaker. - the number of words expected. 10. To promote the application of the information - the way the writing will be marked. gathered through the understanding of messages presented in diverse situations.e. Instructions must be clear and concise. 11. To stimulate the reading comprehension ability in different authentic texts on daily topics to let theOBJECTIVES OF ENGLISH IN “LA EDUCACION learners find the central idea, details, contextual andDIVERSIFICADA” textual reference, and help them develop a series of reading abilities and styles.1. To promote the use of the English language in an 12. To propitiate the learners production of written texts environment where the learners feel self-confident to about daily and general topics. communicate effectively. 13. To promote the learners capacity to investigate2. To promote learners interest and abilities to apply about diverse and specific topics. the English language independently. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 35 Dear Teachers:The syllabus is a very flexible guide to plan yourclassroom activities. We have provided you with anew curricular structure in columns to help youchoose and organize your teaching practice.However, this is not a recipe to be followed. Youare able to choose from other topics, otherobjectives and procedures according to the topicyou are teaching.The topics are broad and you should be able tostudy the sub-topics that you want. Example:Natural Resources, Wetlands, National Parks,Human Sexual Education, Democracy, HumanRights and some other emergent cross curriculartopics.The same happens with the language, functions,values, procedures and evaluation. . They arethere as the basics to start teaching. It means thatyou can add as many language patterns, functions,values, procedures and evaluation activities as youwant and according to each group progress. NOTE: Topics to be developed in technical schools. 10° technical schools 11° technical schools ♦ 12° technical schools • “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 36 THINTRODUCTORY UNIT FOR 10 GRADES As in previous levels, a diagnostic test is necessary to be applied to determine the knowledge of the language theThis is the beginning year of a new cycle within the students have in order to provide them with the appropriateEducational System. The students are here because they feedback.have chosen English as one of the subject matters theywant to learn better. It is recommended to reinforce the importance of English in our every day life and especially, the job projection thatIt is then, time to devote the lessons to develop the four require proficiency in English. Ask them to bring newspaperbasic skills more than ever. The students are conscious ads to the class. List the different professions that demandabout the importance of English in their present and future this requisite. Ask the students to make phone calls totime. The syllabus has provided you with the alternatives to those places to find out the conditions and salaries offered.suit the students’ demands on their language learning. Feel Then, discuss about the importance of knowing English assatisfied with your work as you see the students language to communicate efficiently.progressing in the language. Keep in mind the linguistic competencies or outcomes theStart this introductory unit by asking them about their students must master by then. Show them where they areneeds, expectancies and other related situations. Discuss and what is expected from them at the end of the level.with them their interest about learning English and the Motivate them to keep their interest in the language.possibilities to use different sources that can be brought byeveryone in the class. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 37 thENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 1 : ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR NATIONAL ATHLETES * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUD EVALUATION OF LEARNING EXAMPLES ES AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING • Elicitation / • Effort to• Drawing Description of complete the • Selection of words, phrases to inferences. situations on familiar tasks base an inference.• Identifying the topics. • Description of events and purpose of short • Transmission of • Self-realization achievements. messages information about when competing.SPEAKING familiar topics. • Getting the gist from spoken or• Responding to • Listen to / read texts • Respect for written messages. messages and about familiar topics others activities, dialogues in short to get the gist, skim, interests abilities • Skimming, scanning, making sentences in a scan or make and equal inferences, etc. range of contexts. inferences opportunities for• Speaking with • Adoption of different both genders. • Summary of spoken /written intelligible styles of writing in texts. pronunciation and documents, notes, • Discipline to intonation. ads, etc. perform the • Presentation of written essaysREADING • Production of pieces actions. coherent and accurate.• Understanding of writing on familiar • Efficiency when short and factual topics. working texts. • Discussion in class individually or in• Understanding of achievements of groups. ideas and National Athletes. CULTURE information in the • Ways of text through practicing sports making inferences. in our country• Understanding and in English conceptual speaking meaning. countries. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 38 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE EXAMPLES PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUD EVALUATION OF ES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING National athletes: lives and• Making use of new achievements. vocabulary and • Information questions: • Identification of structures encountered who, when, where, how values and in their reading to fast/long, which, etc. critical thinking respond orally and in • What sports does ____ of different writing. play? Are you aspects related• Writing coherently and good at ____? to music, art and accurately on a range of • What’s his/her best ____? crafts. factual and imaginative • Sports: swimming, diving, topics. archery, canoeing, etc. • National athletes: achievements, biography, etc. Functions: • Reporting and describing events. • Narrating information. • Asking for and giving information about national athletes, their lives and achievements. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 39ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA – 10th GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 2: COSTA RICAN ART, MUSIC AND CRAFTS * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Art crafts and • Description of • Respect for others • Oral production from• Noting key items music in Costa situations on activities, interests information heard. or interpreting Rica: familiar topics and abilities. • Production of interviews the gist in heard. among learners on topics messages, Wh_ questions: • Elicitation / • Appreciation of such as: sports, music, jobs dialogues and which, when, transmission of artistic and others. basic what, how many, information about manifestations and information. how, why, etc. familiar topics. good working habits. • Production / interpretation of• Coping with Who is a famous • Listen to / read adds, notes, passages. language spoken painter/writer? texts about • Commitment in at normal speed Where does the familiar topics to every action taken. • Summaries of expressions of with some get the gist, skim, CULTURE ideas, opinions or reasons. interference. ___ play? scan or make • Value painters and Role-play situations.SPEAKING Yes/no questions inferences. musicians known in • Making Do you • Summary of our country and • Production of , redrafts and themselves like/prefer ____? messages about worldwide adaptation of different styles understood Is he/she a familiar topics. of writing. with little or ____? • Development of no difficulty. criticism on • Formulating Types of music: different topics propositions classical, studied. and popular. • Discussion of answering Places: Gallery, possibilities, propositions. theater, etc. consequences,READING attitudes,• Selecting written personal points material that is of view, etc. appropriate to about familiar their competence topics. to read independently. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 40 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMES• Understanding Functions: • Production the Requesting and and communicative giving information. redrafting of value (function) pieces of of sentences and Expressing ideas. writing on utterances. Comparing events. familiarWRITING Discussing with• Linking someone about sentences and something. paragraphs, structuring ideas.• Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 41 th ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 3: WORDS WITH SAME/DIFFERENT MEANING (SYNONYMS/ANTONYMS) * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES LEARNING ATTITUDES AND OUTCOMES CULTUREListening/ reading Synonyms and • Identification • Effort to • Identification• Understanding conceptual meaning. antonyms: of antonyms complete a /application of• Understanding relations between • list = roll and task synonyms and the parts of a text through lexical synonyms in antonyms in cohesion devices. • well = bad conversation • Efficiency oral and• Understanding relations within the • fight = battle and writings when written sentence. • excellent = poor / about performing messages.• Understanding texts through the use inadequate celebrations, tasks of synonyms/antonyms. • sad = unhappy jobs, etc.• Speaking • Brainstorm of • Sharing with• Formulating propositions and doubts • hot = cold words that others and answering them. Functions: could finish a• Achieving higher communicative • Deducing meaning set of skills through the use of from words in context. sentences. synonyms/antonyms. • Looking up words in a • Use ofWriting dictionary synonyms in• Making use of new vocabulary and conversations structures encountered in their and in writing. reading to respond orally or in writing.• Expressing opinions by using synonyms and antonyms. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 42 th ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 4: COSTA RICAN TYPICAL FOOD * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING • Description of • Respect for • Presentation of• Understanding relations Typical food: situations on others activities, interviews among within the sentence • What are the familiar topics. interests and learners on topics (structure, syntax, morphological, modification of most popular • Elicitation abilities. such as food. structure and negation) dishes in your /transmission of characteristic of spoken community? information about • Tolerance • Completion of language. • What do you eat familiar topics. towards others charts/texts; by• Identifying text types. for breakfast, • Listen to / read ticking and• Identifying the purpose of short messages. lunch, etc. ____? texts about • Compare food choosingSPEAKING • Which, when, familiar topics to eaten in Costa alternatives from a• Speaking with intelligible how, what kind get the gist, skim, Rica and in passage. pronunciation and intonation. of____? scan or make English speaking• Discussing alternative • Do/does ____ inferences. countries. • Identification and possibilities and their like ____? • Summary of comparison of our consequences. • • Whats typical messages about Preserving our cultural featuresREADING. from____? etc. familiar topics. traditions. with those of other• Identifying details in familiar Functions: • Development of CUTURE English speaking material. • Convincing people criticism on • Establish countries.• Understanding relations to do something. different topics differences and between the parts of a text • Offering, studied. similarities of food through lexical cohesion in Costa Rica. devices. accepting or denying politely “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 43 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES / EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMES • Role-playingWRITING • Discussion of • Differences situations. • Producing pieces of possibilities, within • Production of writing of various lengths consequences, international written pieces of on real and imaginary attitudes, cuisine. writing. subjects. personal points • Expressing a range of of view, etc. • Analyzing, responses and attitudes about familiar expressing ideas, to events, issues or topics. opinions or opinions, giving reasons. • Production and reasons about food redrafting of pieces of writing on familiar topics. • Identification of values and critical thinking about different aspects related to music, art and crafts. • Use of linking words in coherent and accurate conversation / writing when expressing about food “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 44 th ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 5: HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS IN COSTA RICA WITH SOME CELEBRATIONS IN ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Current events and • Elicitation / • Authenticity • Summary of the• Understanding ideas and holiday celebrations: transmission of towards own information heard. information in the text Whats your favorite information about culture • Completion of through making celebration? familiar topics. • Sharing with charts. inferences, When is it celebrated? • Description of others • Comprehension• Identifying the purpose of How is it celebrated? situations on • Importance of and appreciation short messages. My family is used to familiar topics. holiday of values.SPEAKING going /eating, • Listen/read texts celebrations • Role-play of• Criticizing. celebrating, etc. about familiar topics • Participation in situations.• Summarizing the gist of on____? to get the gist, skim, every activity • Ticking, new items, messages and I prefer ____, etc. scan or make • Good manners completing narratives. Functions: inferences. when interacting charts/texts;READING Reporting on current • Summary of CULTURE choosing• Identifying details in events and holidays messages about • Value the alternatives from a familiar material. celebrations. familiar topics. importance of passage.• Understanding relations Requesting and giving • Development of our cultural between the parts of a text information on current criticism on background. through lexical cohesion events and different topics devices celebrations. studied.• Suggesting someone. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 45 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESWRITING to do something • Discussion of • Identification and • Adapting clearly, possibilities, comparison of • Summary of formal and informal consequences, celebrations, information of writing styles at a attitudes, festivals and other spoken or written simple level. personal points activities in Costa messages. • Expressing a range of of view, etc. Rica and in English responses and about familiar speaking countries • Written attitudes to events, topics descriptions. ( The issues or opinions, • Production and composition must giving reasons redrafting of contain: pieces of writing • Introduction, on familiar Development and topics. Conclusion “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 46 thENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 6: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MISUSE . * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING • Extraction of • Appreciation of • Getting the gist• Identifying text types. Natural resources: information from natural resources. from spoken• Eliciting language spoken We should ____. oral texts. messages. at normal speed with A solution could be • Elicitation • Commitment to some interference. ____. /transmission of sustainability • Skimming,SPEAKING I think/believe that ____. information about scanning, making• Discussing alternative I agree/dont agree familiar topics. • National and inferences, etc. possibilities and their ____. • Listen to / read international consequences. Its better to ____. texts about campaigns to • Summary of• Criticizing. What about ____, etc. familiar topics to preserve natural spoken /writtenREADING ____ may be correct get the gist, resources. texts.• Understanding a range of ____. skim, scan or imaginative and factual I would ____. etc. make inferences. • Importance of • Analysis of ideas material that includes • Summary of preserving our flora expressed , some complex sentences Functions: messages about and fauna. opinions or and unfamiliar language. Instructing others to do familiar topics. CULTURE reasons about• Understanding the something. • Development of • Ways used in Costa different topics. communicative value Stating cause and criticism on Rica and in other (function) of sentences effect. different topics countries to preserve • Production of and utterances. Expressing opinions. studied. the environment. pieces of writingWRITING • Discussion of with appropriate• Redrafting writing tasks possibilities, use of the already given, with language. support guidance.• Expressing and justifying ideas, opinions or personal points of view “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 47OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESand seeking consequences, Role-plays,the views of others. attitudes, personal simulations, strategic points of view, interactions dealing etc. about familiar with the topic discuss. topics. • Production and redrafting of pieces of writing on familiar topics. • Oral discussion of ideas, opinions or reasons about the use and misuse of natural resources. • Identification of values and critical thinking about different aspects related to natural resources “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 48ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10th GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 7: LINKING WORDS IN CONTEXT. * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESListening/ reading Linking words: • Use of linking • Effort to complete • Identification /• Understanding conceptual Conjunctions: and, words in coherent a task application of meaning. but, or, nor, yet, and accurate linking words• Understanding relations unless, both, whether, conversation / • Efficiency when • Production of oral between the parts of a text as so, while, writing when performing the and written texts through lexical cohesion either...or, expressing about actions using linking devices. neither...nor, etc. music, food, words.• Understanding relations within When do we use democratic • Sharing with sentences. ____? traditions, etc. othersSpeaking Is it better to say/use • Simulation game• Formulating propositions and ____ than ____? activities using • Mediation answering questions. What did _______ manipulative cardsWriting mean? in order to solve• Making use of new vocabulary Functions: misunderstanding and structures encountered in Defining a language problems. their reading to respond orally item. • Listen to/ read or in writing Asking for texts to complete explanations of how different tasks. something works. • “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 49 th ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADE TARGET CONTENTN° 8: TOURIST ATTRACTIONS OFFERED BY COSTA RICAN COMMUNITIES. **OBJECTIVES AND LANGUGE LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF CONTENT EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Tourist attractions: • Listen/read • Appreciation of • Completion of• Identifying the purpose of • Do you like ____? texts about tourist attractions charts/texts; by messages. • Have you ever familiar topics • Sharing with ticking and choosing• Noting key items or ____? to get the gist, others alternatives from a interpreting the gist in • Have you skim, scan or • Good manners passage. messages, dialogues and gone/liked/enjoyed make • Tolerance • Comprehension and basic personal information. ____? inferences. • Gestures appreciation ofSPEAKING • Why dont you • Role play of CULTURE values.• Responding to messages ____? situations • Mention similarities • Role-play of and dialogues in short simple • Would related to and differences situations. sentences in a range of you_______ ? tourists` about • Identification and context. • You should ____. attractions. local/international comparison of our• Speaking with intelligible • There is/are ____. • Description of tourism in Costa cultural features with pronunciation and intonation. • Let me show you situations on Rica. those of otherREADING ____. familiar topics. • Cultural English speaking• Understanding conceptual • The place offers • Elicitation awareness countries. meaning. you ____. etc. /transmission of towards topics • Production of pieces• Selecting written material that information related to tourism. of writing related is appropriate to their about familiar • Advantages and with the topic. competence to read topics. disadvantages of independently. • Summary of tourism in Costa messages Rica. about familiar topics. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 50 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE VALUES/ EVALUATION EXAMPLES PROCEDURES ATTITUDES AND OF LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Functions: • Development of • Identification of• Writing coherently and Searching for basic criticism on different specific cultural accurately on a range of information on Development of aspects factual and imaginative topics. attractions, places to criticism on different relevant in visit, facilities, etc. topics studied. each region of Suggesting a course • Search of basic the country to of action. information on attract tourism. Persuading, attractions, places to • The instructing or directing visit, facilities, etc. relationship of others to do • Discussion of tourism and something. possibilities, sex. consequences, attitudes, personal points of view, etc. about familiar topics. • Production and redrafting of pieces of writing on familiar topics • Producing pieces of writing of various lengths on real and imaginary subjects. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 51ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10th GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 9: COMMON ILLNESSES AND NEW DISEASES AND EPIDEMICS. ♦ ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES PROCEDURES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Common illnesses, • Listen to / read • Tolerance • Production /• Drawing inferences. diseases, epidemics texts about towards the interpretation of• Identifying the purpose of short and prevention: familiar topics to others ads, notes, messages. Whats the matter? get the gist, skim, • Respect for own passages.SPEAKING How do you feel? scan or make body• Making themselves understood Have you seen a inferences • Getting the gist with little or no difficulty. doctor? • Description of • Sharing with from spoken or• Formulating propositions and Do you know about situations on others written doubts and answering questions. ___? familiar topics. • Solidarity with messages.READING You need to others• Selecting written material that is take/drink/stay in bed • Elicitation / • Appreciation for • Summary of appropriate to their competence etc. transmission of public health spoken /written to read independently. What are the symptoms information about CULTURE texts.• Understanding a range of of ____? familiar topics. • Compare imaginative and factual material What are some sexual diseases found • Expressions of that includes some complex diseases? Etc. • Adaptation of in Costa Rica ideas expressed, sentences and unfamiliar different styles of and those found opinions or language. Functions: writing in in English reasons aboutWRITING Requesting and offering documents, speaking different topics.• Structuring ideas. information on notes, ads, etc. countries symptoms of different• Linking sentences and about familiar common diseases, topics. • Talk about paragraphs. epidemics and illnesses. •• Adapting clearly, formal and Summary of Expressing concerns messages about informal writing styles at a about others heal familiar topics. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 52OBJECTIVES AND LANGUGE LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION CONTENT EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OF LEARNING OUTCOMES • Development of risky situations that • Interviews onsimple level. criticism. transmit sexual familiar • Personal points diseases topics. of view etc. about • Production familiar topics and rewriting studied. of pieces of • Discussion of writing on possibilities, familiar consequences, topics. attitudes, “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 53 th ENGLISH – EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 10 : OUR DEMOCRATIC TRADITION. ♦ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION ESAMPLES AND CULTURE OF LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Costa Rican • Analysis of ideas, • Tolerance with • Skimming,• Understanding Democracy : opinions or reasons other people’s scanning, relations within the What do you understand about the democratic ideas making sentence (structure, by ____ (democracy, traditions. • Authenticity when inferences, syntax, morphological, freedom, sovereignty, • Description of situations dealing with etc. modification of etc.)? on familiar topics. different issues structure and What do you think about • Elicitation / • Loyalty to our • Oral negation) ____ (democracy, politics, transmission of country expression characteristic of the right to vote/ speak, information about familia • Sovereignty of ideas spoken language. etc.? topics. • Influence of our expressed,• Identifying text types. Its the government for the • Listen to / read texts democratic opinions orSPEAKING people, by the people and about familiar topics to tradition on other reasons• Discussing alternative of the people. get the gist, skim, and countries of about possibilities and their Parties, voters, ballot, scan or make Central America different consequences. ballot process, inferences. CULTURE topics.• Criticizing. citizenship, ruler, laws, • Summary of messages • ComparisonREADING etc. about familiar topics. between • Role-play of•Identifying details in Qualities of • Development of democracy and situations. familiar material. democracy/equality, criticism on different political theories in•Understanding relations Functions: topics studied. C.R. and in other • Production, between the parts of a Expressing opinions on • Discussion of countries. redrafting text through lexical democracy and other possibilities, • Importance of our and adapting cohesion devices. ideologies. consequences, democratic different Asking for and giving attitudes, tradition. styles ofWRITING information.• Using reference • Organization of writing. Approving or disapproving sources to achieve power within the about practices, greater accuracy democratic governments, policies, precision and system. etc. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 54 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND OF LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESvariety of expressions (the personal points of view, Comprehensionmeaning is clear and etc., about familiar and appreciationthere may be some topics. of values.mistakes).Redrafting writing tasks • Production andalready given, with redrafting of pieces ofsupport guidance. writing on familiar topics. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 55 thENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 10 GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 11 : CAREERS, JOBS AND LIFESTYLES ♦ ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Careers, jobs, • Effort to do the• Eliciting language spoken at lifestyles: • Completion of texts best • Production of normal speed with some Which professions are by making • Self-realization interviews on interference. ____? associations to fill • Respect for topics such as:• Understanding ideas and What professions do in charts while others activities, sports, music, jobs information in the text you ____? listening and interests and and others. through making inferences. What do you reading. abilities. • Production /SPEAKING know/think of ____? • Role plays of • Appreciation for interpretations of• Speaking with intelligible Are there as many situations related equal job ads, notes, pronunciation and intonation. ____ as ____? to careers, jobs. opportunities for passages.• Making themselves Which are the benefits • Identification of men and • Getting the gist understood with little or no of ____? values and critical women. from spoken or difficulty. Id like (to) ____ thinking about • Mention the written messages.READING because ____. different aspects cultural aspects • Analysis of ideas• Understanding a range of How much does a related to jobs. bound to each expressed, imaginative and factual ____ earn/cost at • Description of profession. opinions or material that includes some ____? situations on • Responsibility to reasons about complex sentences and What does he/she do? familiar topics. complete a task different topics. unfamiliar language. Where can you major • Elicitation • Honesty • Role-play of• Understanding the in ___? /transmission of situations. communicative value ____ is better than information about (function) of sentences and ____. familiar topics. utterances. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 56 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ V EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING • Completion of• Expressing and justifying ____ is longer. • Listen/read texts CULTURE charts/texts; by ideas, opinions or personal It takes ____ to about familiar topics Compare ticking or choosing points of view and seeking graduate, etc. to get the gist, skim, professions in alternatives from a the views of others. scan or make Costa Rica and passage.• Expressing a range of inferences. professions in responses and attitudes to Functions: • Summary of English speaking • Production of a events, issues or opinions, messages about countries complete written giving reasons. Describing familiar topics. text giving opinions procedures. • Development of and reasons.. Comparing facts and criticism on different events related to topics studied. possibilities, • Discussion of advantages, possibilities, disadvantages, and consequences, facilities on careers, attitudes, personal jobs, and lifestyles. points of view, etc. Requesting and about familiar providing information topics. • Production and redrafting of pieces of writing on familiar topics. • Identification of values and critical thinking about different aspects related to music, art and crafts.10th The students can … “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 57 • listen to tapes, native speakers or movies. • discuss about achievements of our national athletes. • produce written descriptive texts. • narrate about different topics. • talk about Costa Rican art, music and crafts. • produce pieces of writing such as: brochures, flyers with information, posters and texts. • identify synonyms and antonyms. • use synonyms and antonyms in appropriate contexts. • exchange information about Costa Rican typical food. • produce written information promoting our typical food. • follow procedures to make a product. • write procedures. • compare holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English speaking countries. • write comparative texts about holidays, celebrations and culture. • discuss about causes and effects of natural resources misuse. • write texts using cause and effect. • identify and use linking words in context. • use linking words correctly. • talk about tourist attractions in Costa Rica. • write promotional material. • discuss about common illnesses and diseases. • produce pieces of writing to alert and prevent people from getting contaminated. • discuss about our democratic tradition. • write flyers and promotional material about the topic. • comment about careers, jobs and lifestyles. • write a resume, a letter inquiring information about a job, letters of complaint, presentation, etc. • use complex language for different communication purposes.INTRODUCTORY UNIT FOR 11th GRADES “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 58 Apply the diagnostic test for this level in order to identify the student’s learning strengths and weaknesses.This is the beginning of an important school year in the Remember it is their last year in secondary education, andstudents´ life. It is the time where they make up their minds that they have to fulfill final commitments. Although theyabout their own careers and other important decisions. have to take a test, do not orient your efforts just to one skill. If you plan consciously, you do not have to stressStart the session by promoting thought provoking by yourself for providing extra attention to a final exambringing to class all sources of materials (books, brochures, preparation.careers information, higher education catalogues, job adsand others). Ask them to fill in a questionnaire after they As in previous levels, keep in mind the linguistichave checked the material. Present the list of topics they competencies or outcomes the student must master inwill learn about during the year and how these will help order to be successful with the language he is learning.them to identify their interest of study. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 59 thENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11 GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 1: TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE. ♦ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES LISTENING Meals and Table • Evaluation and • Appreciation and • Identification of items • Appreciating / Manners discussion of respect for healthy and non-factual evaluating the • Whats your content related eating habits materials. content in terms of favorite food? to food. • Evaluation of content. previously received • What food do you • Order and discipline information. like? • Identification of • Assessment of • Assessing the • What do you like to different aspects • Courtesy when different types of texts. implications of eat? We eat a light related to food dealing with others • Production of oral content. breakfast, a heavy discussions, • Listening between lunch and a • Interpretation of • Good manners descriptions and the lines. medium size complex explanations of dinner. Ice cream sentences and situations. texts about food SPEAKING with peanuts. Fish • Identification CULTURE • Interviewing and chips. and use of a • Eating time and table • Revision and edition of people to collect • We prefer.. variety of manners in Costa pieces of writing. the necessary Lunch is more registers in Rica and in English information. formal. written or speaking countries • Identification and • Justifying and Our main meal is ... comparison of our defending a point What food do/does cultural features with of view. .......... like the best. those of other English speaking countries. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 60 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES READING In my family, we set spoken • Presentation of • Identifying the the table this way. Materials on written pieces main point or food. conveying important Functions: information about information in a • Asking for and • Discussion on the topic. piece of discourse. giving information the importance • Distinguishing the about food. of being main idea from • Suggesting healthy. supporting details. someone to do something. • Identification WRITING • Describing of relations• Developing context of procedures. between ideas what they have read, • Evaluating the within texts seen or heard. results of an action related to food• Producing longer or event to draw sequences in which conclusions. spelling and grammar • Elicitation of are generally accurate information (the style is appropriate about eating to the content) habits. • Production of long pieces of writing. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 61 thENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11 GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 2: TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE. ♦ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Attractions/travel • Identification of • Appreciation and• Interpreting material that conditions. news, brief items, respect for tourist • Identification of contains complex sentences. May I help and non factual spots and registers.• Understanding a variety of you? materials about traveling. • Evaluation of registers. You should take this tourism. • Self esteem and content. trip because.. tolerance.SPEAKING Its your chance to see • Use of advises • Demonstration of • Identification of• Interviewing people to collect it all in a month/... and reports about friendliness to main points, the information. go through tourism including others. ideas or• Offering advise. customs/violate current issues of • Courtesy. important• Making suggestions. regulations. sex tourism. CULTURE information.READING This is a one-month • Evaluation of • Differences and• Recognizing indicators of package and includes content related to similarities • Summary of discourse. air fares, tourism, sexual among tourist texts, ideas etc.• Drawing conclusions from transportation, exploitation, etc. attractions extended texts. hotels... • Identification and • conditions in • Identification andWRITING Whats the capital city validation of Costa Rica use of cognates of................ ?• Producing longer sequences different aspects and in English and derivatives. I wonder what that related to tourism. speaking • Identification of in which spelling and place may be? • Interpretation of countries. news/brief items grammar are generally Can you tell me what complex and nonfactual accurate (the style is is like there? sentences and • Understanding materials. appropriate to the content) . texts about foreign situations tourism. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 62 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES Functions:• Performing tasks involving Discussing • Identification • Participation a number 5 or 6 simple possibilities, of the use of in role plays, discrete statements probabilities of a variety of simulations describing how something doing something. registers in and other is done or giving written classroom instructions. forms. oral• Sequencing events. Requesting and • Production productions. giving information of oral about tourist interviews. attractions. Advising. Expressing and inquiring about • Identification preferences. of relations Persuading between someone to do ideas within something. texts related Making to tourism. suggestions. Describing places • Elicitation of information about tourism. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 63 ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADE TARGET CONTENT N°3: LINKING WORDS IN CONTEXT ♦ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESReading Linking words: • Interpretation of • Order and • Interpretation of• Interpreting material that Words which have the complex sentences discipline. complex contains complex sentences. purpose of clarifying, and texts that use sentences.• Understanding a variety of adding information, linking words. • Strength of different types of texts. giving examples, • Use of formal and will. • Filling out blanks• Recognizing indicators of contrasting, informal style of with the right discourse. establishing the cause. writing. • Creativity linking words.Writing when• Making effective use of Functions: consulting the • Use of a variety of resources to vary the style Expressing coherence. dictionary registers in written and scope of their own or spoken writing. materials.• Production of long pieces of writingSpeaking• Reacting orally to messages and written materials. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 64 ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 4: JOB DEMAND IN COSTA RICA. ♦ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Jobs, salaries, • Identification and • Appreciation and • Assessment of• Drawing conclusions from opportunities for comparison of job respect for work. implications of and identifying the employment: demand in Costa • Commitment content. relationship between • Im interested Rica and in English with self and ideas within the text. in... speaking countries. common welfare • Use of information• Identifying brief news • Let me tell you • Evaluation of development. in diagrams. items and non-factual about content related to • Appreciation for material from radio or TV. • Id like to apply jobs.( Jobs and healthy • Summary of texts, for.... human rights, interpersonal ideas, etc.SPEAKING • Let us review sexual harassment, relations in the• Reacting to extreme • Be cooperative. safety rules, etc) working place. • Production of points of view. • You need to fill • Identification and • Respect for interviews and• Reporting information out ... etc. validation of employees reports. gathered from a text or a different aspects protecting laws discussion. Functions: related to jobs. and for human• Expressing opinions. Comparing options. • Production of rights. • Production of Discussing possibilities interviews and adds, summariesREADING of doing something. reports about job CULTURE and resumes.• Understanding a variety Summarizing demand. • Jobs and job of types of written information about jobs. • Interpretation of opportunities material for personal complex sentences within our interest and for and texts about country and in information. jobs. English “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 65 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTIT EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES UDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMES • Identification of the speaking• Identifying the main point or use of a variety of countries. important information in a registers in written or Job requisites in piece of discourse. spoken materials on our country. jobs. The newWRITING demand for full• Using cognates, derivatives • Draw conclusions and proficiency in and simple structures in short identify relations English in Costa pieces of writing. between ideas within Rica.• Developing contexts of what texts related to jobs. they have read, seen or heard.• Writing a resume and • Elicitation and application forms. transmission of information about job demand. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 66 ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 5: CAREERS. ♦ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Careers / • Summary of texts, • Appreciation and • Presentation of• Tracing the development of opportunity for ideas, etc. related respect for study summaries from arguments. advanced to careers. habits information heard.• Identifying the relationships study/requirements: • Performance of between ideas within the • Identification and • Order and interviews/reports text. • What do you want use of formal and discipline of information.• Drawing conclusions from to be...? Why? informal style of the relationship within a • Would you like writing related to • Identification/extra text. to...? careers. CULTURE ction of main • Do you want to • Identification and • Opportunities for points, ideas orSPEAKING enter...? / pay the comparison of advanced study / important• Reporting information admissions fee... / careers in Costa requirements, in information. gathered from a text or a fill out the... Rica and in our country and discussion. English speaking in UK/USA. • Identification and• Eliciting and transmitting Functions: countries. • Competence use of formal and information attitudes and Persuading someone • Identification and among genders informal style of opinions in a wide range of to do something. validation of when choosing a writing. situations. Expressing and different aspects profession.• Expressing opinions. inquiring about related to careers. preferences.READING Identifying different• Coping readily with career unfamiliar topics involving opportunities. more Reporting about possibilities. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 67 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES complex language and • Interpretation of • Identification/use recognizing attitudes and complex of cognates and emotions. sentences and derivatives.• Extracting salient points to texts about summarize the text, ideas, careers. • Completion of cognates, derivatives, etc. tasks that • Identification and demand the use of a variety application of of registers in cultural aspects,WRITING written or spoken functions and• Making effective use of materials on language. resources to vary the style careers. and scope of their own • Oral participation writing. • Identification of to demonstrate• Editing and redrafting their relations proficiency in the work. between ideas language• Researching marketing within texts learned. opportunities. related to careers to draw • Written texts conclusions. expressing opinions. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 68 ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 6: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. • * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Science and • Identification / • Order and discipline • Interpretation of• Assessing the implications technology: use of complex of content. • How does cognates, • Creativity when dealing sentences.• Tracing the development science and derivatives with scientific issues of an argument. technology affect etc. in topics • Identification/useSPEAKING the discovery such as • Commitment with self of a variety of• Eliciting and conveying of.... science and and common welfare registers in information attitudes and • Whats the future technology. and development. written or spoken opinions in a wide range of...? CULTURE materials. of situations. • Which are some • Evaluation of • Science and technology• Justifying and defending a applications of.... content in Costa Rica and in • Evaluation of point of view. • What are some related to English speaking content.• Expressing personal fields of interest? science and countries. opinions. • Travelling to the technology. • Dealing with up dated • Assessment ofREADING outer space... scientific practices implications of• Understanding a wide • Identification (cloning, artificial content. range of factual and Functions: of value and insemination, art • Completion of imaginative texts. Stating facts. critical thinking babies), etc. written and oral• Coping readily with Reporting about about different tasks that unfamiliar topics involving science and aspects demand the more complex language technology. related to application of and science and cultural aspects technology. functions and language. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 69 OBJECTIVES PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUD EVALUATION OF ES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMES• recognizing attitudes and Explaining /asking • Interpretation of emotions. for explanation complex • Production of pieces about sentences and of writing using advantages/disadva texts about cognates andWRITING ntages. science and derivates. Asking for and technology • Using informal and formal giving • Identification of a styles of writing, (a diary information about variety of and scripting dialogues, facts. registers in descriptive texts, etc). written or spoken • Using a growing materials on knowledge of language science and such as cognates and technology. derivatives in their written • Draw production. conclusions and identify relations between ideas related to science and technology texts • Elicitation and transmission of information about science and technology and sustainable development. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 70 TH ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 7: MORALS AND VALUES. • * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Morals and values: • Identification of • Appreciation and• Appreciating / evaluating news, brief items, respect for • Presentation of the content in terms of • Whats a value? / and non factual spiritual values. conclusions and previously received moral? materials about • Respect for identification of information. • I agree with you morals and values. human sexuality relations between• Assessing the about... • Evaluation of content ideas within texts. implications of content. • I think that we related to morals • Identification of could... and values CULTURE news brief itemsSPEAKING • You better. • Identification/extracti • Values / and non-factual• Reacting to extreme • Why dont you... on of salient points, transference of materials. points of view. • Maybe if you ideas or important values in Costa • Redrafting and• Reporting information • You shouldnt... information about Rica and those of editing pieces of gathered from a text or a morals and values. other English writing. discussion. Functions: • Evaluation of content speaking • Manifestation of • Agreeing / related to morals countries. attitudes ofREADING disagreeing. and values. appreciation and• Drawing conclusions from • Persuading • Identification of the respect for our extended texts. someone to do values and critical cultural, social and• Understanding a wide something. thinking on different religious, values. range of factual and • Asking for and aspects related to imaginative texts. giving information morals and values. about values. • Expressing opinions. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 71 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Interpretation of • Identification/ • Making effective use complex sentences comparison of and of resources to vary and texts about expressing critically the style and scope of morals and values. about our cultural their own writing. features with those Identification of the of other English use of a variety of speaking countries. • Editing and redrafting registers in written or their work. spoken materials on • Summary of texts, morals and values. ideas, etc. Derivation of • Production of conclusions and written pieces. identification of relations between ideas within texts related to morals and values. Elicitation and transmission of information about morals and values. Production of pieces of writing “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 72 TH ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 8: PREFIXES, SUFFIXES AND ROOT WORDS. • ** OBJECTIVES AND LANGUAGE LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF CONTNET EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Word modifiers: • Interpretation of • Order and • Interpretation of• Interpreting material that contains • What does it complex discipline complex complex sentences. mean? sentences and • Strength of will sentences.• Understanding a variety of • I dont mean texts. when using the • Production of oral registers to change the • Production of dictionary and written texts.• Recognizing indicators of meaning of... oral and written discourse. • If you texts enhancedWRITING add.............. through the use• Making effective use of resources at the of affixes. to vary the style and scope of their beginning... own writing. • immediate-ly• Using a growing knowledge of / il-logical. language such as cognates, etc. derivatives and simple structures Functions: in short pieces of writing. • Looking upSPEAKING words in a • Responding to written or oral dictionary. stimuli to complete tasks. • Deducing meaning from words in a context. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 73ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 9: GENDER: MENS AND WOMENS ROLES. • ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Gender. Mens and Derivation of conclusions • Appreciation• Assessing the implications womens roles in and identify relations and respect for • Interpretation of of content. society: between ideas within interpersonal complex• Tracing the development of Whats your opinion texts related to gender. relationship and sentences an argument. about...? behavioral • Identifying /using• Linking concepts. Are men/women... ? Assessment of guidelines. a variety of I dont think... implications of content registers in writtenSPEAKING I wouldnt ... related to gender. • Sense of or spoken• Eliciting and conveying Im sorry about.../ etc. sexuality materials. information attitudes and Identification/extraction of • Assessment of opinions in a wide range of Functions: salient points, ideas or • Respect for implications of situations. Asking and giving important information diversity content.• Justifying and defending a information about about gender. • Oral and written point of view. gender. • Respect for discussion on the Requesting/inviting Evaluation of content human rights topic.READING others to do related to gender. • Completion of• Understanding a wide something. • tasks that demand range of factual and Expressing concern. Identification, evaluation CULTURE the application of imaginative texts. Making, accepting and production of critical • Womens and cultural aspects,• Coping readily with and refusing thinking about different mens roles in functions and unfamiliar topics involving suggestions. aspects related to gender. our society and language. more complex language Interpretation of complex in English and recognizing attitudes sentences and texts speaking and emotions. about gender. countries. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 74 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESWRITING Identification of • Using informal and formal the use of a • Production of styles of writing, such as variety of written pieces. when keeping diary, registers in scripting dialogues, written or spoken describing… materials on • Using a growing knowledge gender. of language such as cognates, derivatives and Derivation of simple structures in short conclusions and pieces of writing. identification of relations between ideas within texts related to gender. Elicitation and transmission of information about gender. Criticism on texts for their open and hidden messages on gender roles. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 75ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADETARGET CONTENTN° 10: SENIOR CITIZENS, MINORITY GROUPS AND... • ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Senior citizens / • Transference of • Appreciation and • Identification /use of• Tracing the information related respect for a variety of registers opportunities / family development of an to senior citizens to elderly people in written or spoken argument. life: diagrammatic materials.• Identifying the display. • Tolerance • Derivation of • Who are senior relationships between • Evaluation of towards others conclusions and citizens? ideas within the text. content related to identifying relations • How can you• Drawing conclusions. minority groups and • Respect for between ideas help /takeSPEAKING the lack of the human rights within texts. care...?• Interviewing people to exercise of human • Identification / • Could we... ? collect the necessary rights for them. • Quality of life extraction of main • Lets... information. • Identification, points, ideas or • Why dont we...?• Offering advice. evaluation and • Awareness of important • Id like to..• Suggesting solutions. production of critical aging information. • I dont think... thinking of different CULTURE • Transference ofREADING • I wouldnt... • Senior citizens• Distinguishing the main aspects related to information to idea from supporting • Im sorry minority groups, activities / diagrammatic details. about.../ etc. their sexual treatment in display. Functions: behavior, etc.• Transcoding Costa Rica and information to • Asking for and • Interpretation of other English • Summary of texts, diagrammatic display. giving information complex sentences speaking ideas etc. about senior and texts about •• countries. Production of citizens. minority groups. speeches and oral • Requesting/inviting • Identification of situations. . others to do ideas or important something. information in texts. • Expressing concern. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 76 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING • Making, • Production of• Developing context of accepting • Editing and redrafting essays what they have read, and refusing written pieces. seen or heard. suggestions. • The use of a variety of • Completion registers in written or of tasks that• Producing longer spoken materials on demand the sequences in which the topic. application of spelling and grammar cultural are generally accurate • Derivation of aspects, (the style is appropriate conclusions and functions to the content) identification of and relations between language. ideas within texts. • Elicitation and transmission of information. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 77 TH ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11 GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 11: WORDS WITH THE SAME PRONUNCIATION BUT DIFFERENT MEANINGS. • ** @ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING • Interpretation of • Order and • Interpretation of• Interpreting complex Homonyms: complex discipline complex sentences. Key-key / slip-slip. sentences and sentences.• Understanding a variety of Whats the meaning texts. • Strength of will registers. of...? • Assessment of • Assessment of• Recognizing indicators of Here it means... content. content. discourse.WRITING Functions: • Assessment of• Making effective use of • Discriminating implications of resources to vary the style meaning from content related to and scope of their own context media. writing.• Using a growing knowledge of language such as cognates, derivatives and simple structures in short pieces of writing.SPEAKING• Reacting orally towards different commands.. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 78ENGLISH - EDUCACION DIVERSIFICADA - 11TH GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 12: MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS. • ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Media- Production of • Critical attitude • Assessment of• Assessing the implications Communications: interviews / towards media implications of of content. • TV is offering of and content.• Tracing the development of important advice/reports of communication. an argument. because... information about • Respect for • Production ofSPEAKING • The media. freedom of interviews/reports• Offering advice. communicatio Transference of expression information.• Reacting to extreme points n facilities... information • Respect for of view. • Why related to media. human rights. • Identification/extract• Reporting information is.............. Evaluation of ion of main points, gathered from a text or a important? content related to • Creativity ideas or important discussion. • I think that.... media and the information.• Stating an opinion. • I dont negative impactREADING consider.... of advertisement CULTURE • Transference of• Identifying the main point • In my in children and • Communications information to or important information in opinion... etc. teen ages. and media / diagrammatic a piece of discourse. Identification of implications in display. values and •• Distinguishing the main Functions: Costa Rica and Summarizing texts, • Asking for and critical thought in other English ideas etc. idea from supporting giving about different speaking • Production of details. aspects related• Reading between the lines. information about countries. written pieces. to media. •• media and Interpretation of Production of oral communications. situations stating complex • Describing opinions. sentences and situations/facts. texts about media “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 79 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION EXAMPLES ATTITUDES AND OF LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Identifying • Identification of • Making effective use of Facts/situations. various written or resources to vary the Agreeing/disagreeing. spoken registers style and scope of their used by media. own writing. • Derivation of • Producing a piece of conclusions and coherent writing. identify relations between ideas within texts related to media. • Elicitation and transmission of information about media. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 8011th • discuss about morals and values. • agree and disagree.The students can … • persuade someone to do • listen to different varieties of something. spoken language. • use prefixes, suffixes and root • talk about types of food, eating words in context. habits and behaviors at the table. • deduce meaning from context. • produce pieces of writing • justify men’s and women’s roles in describing the situation at the our society. table, etc. • discuss about senior citizens and • describe procedures for setting a minority groups. table. • invite someone to do something. • identify formal and informal • use words with the same situations at the table. pronunciation (homonyms). • discuss about tourist aspects • discuss about mass media and worldwide. communications. • describe travel plans • write a set of texts, describing, • place reservations. criticizing, justifying points of view, • fill out forms demanding for explanations • write descriptive texts. among others. • use linking words in context. • use language comprehensibly and • justify job demands in Costa Rica. appropriately to communicate • produce a written text effectively. • compare careers. • write a letter inquiring information • write comparative texts. about diverse topics of interest. • summarize information. • ask for and give information. • argue about their position towards • discuss about different topics science and technology. studied. • produce pieces of writing • analyze information. describing a situation. • produce well prepared and spontaneous speeches. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 81• infer meaning from context.• express and defend opinions and personal points of view.• evaluate content.• write a resume, cover letter, letter of presentation, letter asking for a job. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 82 GLOSSARY AUTHENTIC MATERIALS Texts which are taken from newspapers, magazines, etc, andThis includes brief, simple definitions of terms which have tapes of natural speech taken frombeen used in this syllabus and which may be unfamiliar radio or television programs. AWARENESS Acquaintance, appreciation,ACTIVITY Situation in which a lot of things consciousness with knowledge. are being done, usually in order to BELIEF An acceptance of a thing, fact, achieve a particular purpose. statement, etc.PRE-ACTIVITY Those actions performed to COMMUNICATION Activity or process of giving introduce the topic to, prepare their information to other people or cognitive knowledge the learners other living things, using signals with the topic and motivate them such as speech, body movement for the fore coming activity. or radio signals.WHILE-ACTIVITY The actions performed during the COMMUNICATIVE development of an activity in order COMPETENCE The ability not only to apply the to achieve the learning goal. grammatical rules of a language inPOST-ACTIVITY The actions related with the order to form grammatically correct activity and performed after the sentences but also to know when "while activity" stage in order to let and where to use these sentences the students reinforce and apply and to whom. It includes the knowledge acquired. knowledge of the grammar andASSESSMENT The measurement of the ability of vocabulary of the language. a person or the quality or success Knowledge of rules of speaking. of the teaching course, etc. (knowing how to begin and endATTITUDES Expressions of positive or negative conversations, what topics may feelings towards the learning of a be talked about in different types new language. of speech events, knowing whichAUTHENTICITY The degree to which language address forms should be used teaching materials have the with different persons. Knowing qualities of natural speech or how to use and respond to writing. different types of speech acts. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 83 Knowing how to use language DIAGRAMMATIC (adj.) The representation of an object appropriately. and its parts by a drawing whichCURRICULUM The knowledge, skills, materials, shows its general scheme or learning activities, and terminal outline. behavior required in the teaching DECODE Convert into intelligible language. of any subject. /see syllabus. DEDUCTIVE Use to describe a method ofCONVEY Communicate (an idea, meaning, reasoning where conclusions are etc). deduced logically from other thingsCULTURAL that are already known.COMPONENT The part of the language which ELICIT To get learners to actively produce includes the total set of beliefs, speech or writing. To obtain attitudes, customs, behavior, information about how someone social habits, etc, of the members uses a particular language item. of a particular society. EPISTEMOLOGY The theory of knowledge, esp. theCULTURE Ideas, customs, arts, etc, that are critical study of its validity, produced or shared by a particular methods, and scope. society. ENVIRONMENT Conditions, circumstances, etc.CROSS-CURRICULAR Curricular activities that are affecting peoples lives. correlated. EVALUATION The whole process of determiningCURRICULUM the effectiveness of teaching-/ SYLLABUS An educational program which which may be by means of formal states: tests and examinations, or by informal or subjective feedback a- The educational purpose of the from students and teachers./ see program (the ends). assessment. c- Some means for assessing EXTENSIVE READING Extensive reading means reading whether or not the educational in quantity and in order to gain a ends have been achieved. general understanding of what isDIAGNOSTIC A test which enables the tester to read. It is intended to develop diagnose the strengths and good reading habits, to build up weaknesses of a candidate. knowledge of vocabulary and “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 84 structure, and to encourage a GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT The insertion of liking for reading. individual and national workingFEEDBACK Monitoring and adapting ones forces into the world development. actions on the basis of the GROUP WORK Work in which the class is broken perceived effect on the into small groups of from three to environment. In language work, eight people. They may work response to the reactions of simultaneously on the same task, listeners and readers. or be given different tasks ofFORMAL COMPONENT The part of the language which varied types or levels. includes the patterns or "forms" of GUIDELINES Principles or criterion guiding or the language. directing action.FORMATIVE IMPLEMENTATION The process of carrying out a plan,EVALUATION A learning activity through which a system, a law, etc, you carry the students learn from their own them out in order to change or mistakes. control the situation.FLUENCY Language work in which the INDUCTIVE A way of reasoning in which you learner is acting naturally, I In the use individual ideas or facts to give same way as when using the you a general rule or conclusion. mother tongue. INFERENCE The process of arriving at aFUNCTION The communicative purpose of a hypothesis, idea or judgment on piece of language. the basis of other knowledge, ideas or judgments.FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION GAP A situation where information isCOMPONENT The part of the language which known by only of those present. In refers to it as an instrument of communicative language teaching social interaction rather than a it is said that in order to promote system that is viewed in isolation. real communication between Language is often described as students, there must be having three main functions: information gap between them or descriptive, expressive and social. between them and the teacher. Without that gap the classroom “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 85 activities and exercises will be language, for example by the use mechanical and artificial. of generalization and inference.INPUT Oral, written or visual stimuli from LEARNING STYLE The particular way in which a the formal or informal learning learner tries to learn something. In setting. second or foreign languageINSTRUMENT A person, system or organization learning, different learners may that is a "tool or device" for prefer different solutions to achieving a particular aim used by learning problems. For example, people as a way of achieving that some may feel writing down words aim. or sentences that may help themINTEGRATION OF SKILLS The teaching of the to remember them. Others may language skills of reading, writing, find they remember things better if listening, and speaking, in they associate them with pictures. conjunction with each other, as MATERIALS (authentic) Used in the classroom, but not when a lesson involves activities specifically designed for teaching, that relate listening and speaking e.g. newspaper articles. to reading and writing. MEDIATION The action of changing events,INTENSIVE READING Is generally done at a slower experiences or sets of speed, and requires a higher circumstances. degree of understanding than METHODOLOGY The study of the whole process of extensive reading. language teaching with the aim ofINTERACTION Communication between two improving its efficiency. people. MONITORING Both language learners and nativeLEARNER A person who is learning a subject speakers typically try to correct or skill. any errors in what they have justLEARNING The process by which a person said. acquires a language. This is referred to as "monitoring".LEARNING STRATEGY A way in which a learner The learner can monitor attempts to work out the meanings vocabulary, grammar, phonology, and uses of words, grammatical or discourse. (The learner uses rules, and other aspects of "learned" knowledge to improve “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 86 utterances generated by means of PROCEDURE Action or series of actions to be "acquired" knowledge. completed in order to carry out aMOTIVATION To stimulate the interest of a process. person in an activity in learning, to PROCESS A series of actions which are stimulate students to comprehend carried out in order to achieve a and learn. particular result.OUT PUT Amount of language learned by PROSODIC FEATURES Sound characteristics which the students. affect whole sequences ofPAIR-WORK Work in which students operate syllables. simultaneously in pairs on a task, REGISTER The varied styles of language or on different tasks. which are used for differentPEER TEACHING Classroom teaching in which one purposes, varying according to student teaches another; such dimensions as setting, role of particularly within an individualized speakers, topic, mode (speaking approach to teaching. For or writing), and so on. example, when students have RHETORICAL Concerned with effect or style learned something, they may rather than content or meaning. teach it to other students, or test ROLE-PLAY Drama-like classroom activities in other students on it. which students take the roles ofPOLICITY A general set of ideas or plans that different participants in a situation has been officially agreed on by an act out what might typically people in authority and which is happen in that situation. used as a basis for making decisions.PRINCIPLE A general rule that you try to obey in the way that you behave or in SIMULATION A learning experience that the way that you try to achieve "simulates" a real language something. application situation.PROBLEM-SOLVING A learning strategy which involves Skills Knowledge and ability that enables selecting from several alternatives you to do something well. in order to reach a desired goal. STUDENT/LEARNER In a communicative approach, a learner is the person on whom the “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 87 learning process is centered. command may be referred to as Sources, materials, methodology tasks. are chosen to suit his/her learning TRANSCODE Convert from one form of coded needs. representation to another.SUBSKILLS A division of the skills, such as TEACHER A guide, facilitator of learning, on discriminating sounds in whom the responsibility of quality connected speech, understanding of education lays. relations within a sentence or TEXT A piece of spoken or written identifying the purpose and scope language. of the lecture.SUMMATIVEEVALUATION An action carried out to measure students knowledge. It normally takes place at the end of a learning process.SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT A growth scheme which promotes the rational use of resources in order to make the growing permanent.SYLLABUS-CURRICULUM A description of the contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught.TASKS An activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language (i.e. as a response). For example drawing a map while listening to a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 88 SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO DEVELOP THE Priorizados para la Asignatura Inglés de XII, VIII y SYLLABUS IX año. San José: PROMESA, Inédito, 1995. Ministerio de Educación Pública. Programas de Brown ,G. Editor. Performance and Competence in Estudios de Inglés - III Ciclo Educación General Second Básica. San José: Departamento de Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Publicaciones, 2001. University Press, 1996. Ministerio de Educación Pública. Programas de Celce-Murcia, M. and E. Olshtian. DiscourseContext in Estudios de Language Teaching. A Guide for Language Programas de Estudio de Inglés. EducaciónTeachers. Diversificada. San José: Departamento de Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Publicaciones, 2001. Flowerdew, J.and M. Peacock. Editors. Research Minns, H Language Literacy and Gender. Great Britain: Perspectives on English for Hodder and Stoughton Lta, 2001. Academic Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge Munby,J. Communicative Syllabus Design. Univerisity Press, 2001. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1978. House, Elizabeth. Modern Foreign Language for Ages Oxford, R. Language Learning Strategies - What 11 to every teacher should know. The United States of 16. London: Department of Education and America: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1990.Science, Pike, G. and Selby, D. Global Teacher, Global 1991. Learner. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, 1988. Krashen, S.D. and Terrell, T.D. The Natural Approach Teeler,D and P. Gray. Use the Internet in ELT. Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Great England: Britain: Prentice Hall, 1988. Longman, 2000. Ministerio de Educación Pública. Política Educativa Hacia el Siglo XXI. San José: Despacho del METHODOLOGY Ministro, 1994. Carter,R. and D. Nunan. Editors. The Cambridge Ministerio de Educación Pública. Perfil de Contenidos Guide to Teaching of English to Speakers of Programáticos Aceptados y Priorizados para la Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge Asignatura Inglés de X y XI año. San José: University Press. 2001. PROMESA, Inédito, 1995. Brumfit, C. Communicative Methodology in Language Ministerio de Educación Pública. Perfil de Teaching-The Roles of Fluency and Acccuracy. ContenidosProgramáticos Aceptados y Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 89 Cross, D. A Practical Handbook of Language Ur, P. Editor.The Standby Book. Cambridge: Teaching. Great Britain: Prentice-Hall Cambridge International, 1992. Handbooks for Language Teachers,1997. Edge, J. Essentials of English Language. The United Rivers, W.M. and Temperley, M.S. Practical Guide to Kingdom: Longman, 1993. the Teaching of English - As a Second or Foreign Finochiaro, M. & Brumfit, C. The Functional National Language. The United States: Oxford University Approach From Theory to Practice. Oxford: Press, 1978. Oxford University Press, 1983. Terroux G. & Woods, H. Teaching English in a World Haycraft, J. An Introduction to English Language at Peace - Professional Handbook. Canada: Teaching. The United Kingdom: Longman, 1978. Canadian International Development Agency, Littlewood,W. Communicative Language Teaching. 1991. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1981. Yalden, J. The Communicative Syllabus - Evolution, Nunan, D. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Design, and Implementation. Great Britain: Classsroom. Great Britain, 1989. Prentice Hall International, 1987. Richards, J.C. and T. Rogers. Approaches and __________. Principles of Course Design forMethods Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge in Language Teaching. Second Edition. University Press. 1987. Cambridge: Willis, D. The Lexical Syllabus - A New Approach to Cambridge University Press, 2001. Language Teaching. Great Britain: Collins ELT, Richards, J. Curriculum Development in Language 1990. Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge Language Education, 2001. ACTIVITIES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING Robison, P. ESP TODAY: A Practicioner´s Guide . Great Britain: Prentice Hall International English Davis, D & Rinvolucri, M. The Confidence Book. Language Teaching,1991. England: Longman, 1990. Uhl Chamot, A and J. M. O´Malley. The CALLA Hadfield, J. Classroom Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford Handbook. Implementing the Cognitive Academic University Press, 1992. Language Learning Approach. The United States Hardisty, D. & Woods, S. CALL. Oxford: Oxford of America: Addison- Wesley Publishing University Press, 1989. Company, Hess, N. Headstarts - One Hundred Original Pre- 1994. activities. 1991. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 90 Hynes, M & Brichman, M. Breaking the Ice - Basic Sion, C. More Recipes for Tired Teachers. The Communication Strategies. England. Longman, United States of America: Addison - Wesley 1990. Publishing, Company, 1991. Jones, L. Ideas - Speaking and Listening Activities for Ur, P. Discussion that Works - Task - Centered Upper - Intermediate Students. Cambridge: Fluency Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Cambridge University Press, 1984. Press, 1981. Klippel, F. Keep Talking. Cambridge: Cambridge Ur, P & Wright, A. Five-Minute Activities - A Resource University Press, 1983. Book of Short Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge Lindstrombery, S. The Recipe Book - Practical Ideas University Press, 1992. for the Language Classroom. England: Longman Wright, A.; Betteridge D. & Buckby. Games for Group UK limited, 1990. Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge Lee, W.R. Language Teaching Games and Contests. University Press, 1983. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979. Morgan, J & Rinvolucri, M. Vocabulary. Oxford: GRAMMAR Oxford University Press, 1986. Moskowits, G. Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Celce-Murcia, M. and D. Larsen-Freeman The Language Class. The United States of America: Grammar Heinle & Heinle, 1978. Book. The Unites States of America. Puchta, H & Scrwtz, M. Teaching Teenagers. Heinle and England: Longman, 1984. Heinle, 1999. Pattison, P. Developing Communication Skills. Leech, G, & Startvik, J. A Communicative Grammar ofCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. English. England: Longman. 1975. Taylor, L. Vocabulary in Action. Great Britain: Parrott, M. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Prentice Hall, 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Read, C. Tandem Plus - Pair Work Activities for Ur, P. Grammar Practice Activities - A Practical Guide Begginers, Elementary and Low, Intermediate for Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Students. Edinburg: Thomas Nelson & Son Press, 1988. Ltd. Werner, P.K. Compact I - A Communicative Based Rixon, S. How to Use Games in Language Teaching. Grammar. The United States of America: McGraw Great Britain: Modern of English Publications, Hill, 1990. 1991. LITERATURE “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 91 Burgess, S & ONeill, R. English Works - Workbook 1. Duff, A. & Manby, A. Literature. Oxford: Oxford The United Kingdom: Longman, 1993. University Press, 1990. Davis, D. & Rinvolucri, M. Dictation - New Methods, Maccarone, S. Building Dreams. The United States: New Possibilities. Cambridge: Cambridge D.C. Heath and Company, 1983. University Press, 1988. McDowell, J. & Hart, C. Listening Plus. AuthenticREADING Recordings with Tasks to Develop Listening Skills and Learner Training. Great Britain: Thomas Cairney, T.V. Teaching Reading Comprehension. Nelson & Sons Ltd. 1987. Great Britain: Bidddles limited, 1990. Rost, M. Listening in Action. Great Britain: Prentice Davis, E.; Whitney, N.; Pike Baky, M.; & Blass, L. Hall International, 1991. Task Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Schimpff, J. W. Intermediate Workbook - The New Press, 1990. Oxford Picture Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford Green, J. Class Readers. Oxford: Oxford University University Press, 1988. Press, 1988. Grellet, F. Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge: SPEAKING Cambridge University Press, 1981. Holme, R. Talking Texts - Innactive Recipes for Bobson, J.M. Effective Techniques for English Intensive Reading. England: Longman, 1991. Conversation Groups. The United States of Walter, C. Authentic Reading. Cambridge: America: USIA, 1974. Cambridge University Press, 1982. Kirby, S. & Key, P. Speaking Skills - Students Book. Wiliams, E. Reading in the Language Classroom. Great Britain: Pinguin Books, 1989. London: Kirby, S. & Key, P. Speaking Skills - Teachers Book. ELTS, 1984. Great Britain: Pinguin Books, 1989.LISTENING Morgan, J & Rinvolucri, M. Once Upon a Time - Using Stories in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Adelson - Goldstain; Goldman, J.R., Shapiro R. Weiss. Cambridge University Press, 1983. Listening and Speaking Activity Book - The New Nolasco, R. & Arthur, L. Conversation. Oxford: Oxford Picture Dictionary - Activity Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Oxford University Press, 1993. Blundell, L. & Stokes J. Task Listening. Oxford: WRITING Oxford University Press, 1981. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 92 Byrne, D. Teaching Writing Skills. England: United States of America: Addison-Wesley Longman, 1988. Publishing Company, 1996. Leki, I. Academic Writing. Second Edition- Exploring Richards, J. and J.A. Upshur. Classroom-Based Processes and Strategies. Cambridge:Cambridge Evaluation in Second Language Education. University Press, 1998. Cambridge: Cambridge Language Tom, A. & McKay, H. Writing Warm Ups - 20 Activities Education,1996. for Prewriting. The United States of America: Rogers, B. Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test. The Alemany Press, 1989. United States of America: Heinle and Heinle, Turkenik, C. Choices-Writing Projects for Students of 2001. ESL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. DICTIONARIESASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Bilingual dictionaries S/E - Esp. Diccionarios Bilingües Español-Inglés / Inglés- Alderson, J. C. , C. Clapham and D. Wall. Language Español por escoger: Test Construction and Evaluation. Cambridge: - Applenton-Cuyas. Applenton-Cuyas - Nuevo Cambridge Diccionario Revisado. Editorial Prentice Hall Univesity Press, 1995. Hispanoamérica, S.A. Alderson, J. C. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: - Cortina M.Graw Hill. Spanish-English / Inglés- Cambridge Language Assessment Series, 2000. Español. Edición Especial. Editorial McGraw Hill. Buck, G. Assessing Listening. Cambridge: - Larousse - Diccionario Práctico Inglés-Español / Cambridge Language Assessment Series, 2001. Español-Inglés. Ediciones Larousse. Cohen, A.D. Assessing Language Ability in the - Universidad de Chicago. Diccionario Inglés-Español / Classroom. Second Edition. The United States of Español- Inglés. University of Chicago. America: Heile and Heile, 1994. Cushing Weigle, S. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Diccionarios en Inglés para años superiores por Cambridge Language Assessment Series,2002. escoger: Read, J. Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge Language Assessment Series,2000. - Collins Cobuild-Essential English Dictionary - Collins - O´Malley, J.M. and L. Valdez Pierce. Authentic Collins Pocket - English Usage-New. Collins. Assessment for English Language Learner. The “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 93 Longman Handy Learners Dictionary of American WEB RELATED RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHER English. Longman. Longman Picture Workbbook. 7th level. Longman. http://www.ntlf.com/ Oxford - Learners Dictionary of English Idioms. Site includes an overview of the National Teaching and McCaig and Manser. Learning Forum, likns to information on the web, current Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary with Illustrations - publications on the web, and a library of published Oxford Websters II - New Riverside Dictionary. material, both print and web published. Houghton Miffin. http://www.nea.org/BASIC RECOMMENDED LEARNING MATERIALS This site has a searchable database for educational material, which is broken down by grade and subject. It Bonilla, R.M.; Sibaja, A. & Villegas, M.T. Have Fun 1, also has information regardingon how to effectively run a -Learning English in Costa Rica. San José: classroom. This huge site has numerous web-based Farben Norma, 2003. Second edition. articles pertaining to education and technology. Bonilla, R.M.; Quirós, O.; Ureña, E. & Villegas, M.T. Have Fun 3, -Learning English in Costa Rica. San http:www.wam.umd.edu/∼mlhall/ José: Farben Norma, 2001. Second edition “ The World Wide Web sites collected on this page reflect Villegas, M.T. & Bonilla, R. Have Fun 2, Learning the considerable variety of uses for comouting and English in Costa Rica. San José: Farben Norma, related forms of electronic technology in teaching.” This 2001. Second edition site serves to help implement net based resources into the classroom, with links to online courses and online teaching demonstrations. http://www.nara.gov/NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES The National Archives and Records Administration has information that helps teachers of students are all levels The Tico Times. The Central American English in using archival documents in the classroom. The Digital Newspapers - Editorial semanal. Classroom provides materials from NARA, methods for Magazines, newspapers and books on specific topics teaching with primary sources, and sample lesson plans. published in English etc. http://www.splusnet.com/∼evilcow/tutorial “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 94This site offers simple instruction how to produce a web Internet TESL Journalsite for educational purposes. The site has templates,clip-art graphocs and a tutorial to allow anyone to The Internet TESL Journals extensive and regularlyproduce quick and instructional web-site. maintained site organizes and links many aspects of ESL such as: •Professional Life: Associations, Conferences,http://ericir.sunsite.syr.edu/ Journals, Newsgroups, Teacher Training, Web-BasedThis huge site offers the educator access to a variety of Discussions & Bulletin Boards •Teaching English:services and products on a broad range of equation- Bilingual Education, CALL, English for Science &relates issues. Technology, Literacy •Articles, Lessons, Linguistics, Phonetics & Pronunciation, Reference Materials •Rawhttp://www.nwre.org/sky/ Materials for Lessons: Culture, Reading Materials, PoetryThis site contains more than 6,000 links to educational & Song Lyrics, Travel, Vocabulary •Teachersmaterials for students, teachers, counselors and Homepages •Projects by ESL Students •Schoolslibrarians. (ESL/EFL) •Education in General: Journals, Links to Teaching Resources, Using the Internet •Jobs - Where toThe A-Z of useful resources for the TEFL/TESL sector Find Themis on the TEFL Europe web site athttp://www.tefleurope.com/links.html; also the Academy Under For Students As Well As Teachers, there are:of Windsor Institute in Barcelonas homepage: •Games - Quizzes - Puzzles •Grammar & English Usagehttp://www.windsorinstitute.com/links.html; and •Listening •Penpals & Communicating With Othershttp://www.windsorschools.co.uk/links.html, •Reading •Tests: TOEFL •Vocabulary - Idioms - Wordshttp://www.eviews.net/references.shtml, •Writing •Commercially Available ESL Materials &http://www.windsorenglish.com/links.html, and finally Services:http://www.windsorlanguages.com/links.html. There is areciprocal link back to this site under ESL_Home on all These pages were all active in March, 2001these pages, courtesy of Craig McLaughlan, webmaster.(viewed January 2003) • The Internet TESL Journals Activities for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/s/ • Selected ESL/EFL Links for Students, at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/ESL.html “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 95• Self-study Quizzes for ESL Students: TESL/TEFL/TESOL/ESL/EFL/ESOL Links http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/• Crossword Puzzles for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/cw/• Interactive Javascript Quizzes for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/js/• Daily Page for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/daily/ (has such things as "Proverb of the Day", "Quiz of the Day")• Easy Vocabulary Quizzes with Pictures at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/vq/ (Interactive JavaScript quizzes. Good for beginners.)• Commonly used Proverbs at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/proverbs/ (Well- known short sayings presented in a quiz-like fashion.)• Commonly-used American Slang at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/slang/ (Slang is informal, often entertaining, language.)• Fun with Randomly-Generated Sentences: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/rs/ (These JavaScript pages will make sentences for you which you can study.)• Everyday Vocabulary Anagrams at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/anagrams/ {These are words made by using letters of another word in a different order.) The Internet TESL Journal, ESL links page at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/ESL3.html displays the following search engine and at last count 3,000 links. You can search it from here: “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 96ANNEX I 8. Teachers should provide the students opportunities to learn the language toGUIDELINES TO DEVELOP THE SYLLABUS communicate orally and in written form. 9. It is valid to use as much learning material as possible. 1. The English syllabus for language teaching and 10. Evaluation activities must reflect those types learning is the official document that organizes already practiced in class. teaching aspects in the Secondary Education in 11. Teachers should use all sources of materials and Costa Rica. devices; realia, authentic print and audio material 2. Teachers should read the syllabus before planning (books, newspapers, tourist information, brochures, their lessons. The introductory pages help internet, computer games ,specific software, didactic teachers to set their teaching practice in the games, scenarios, discussion, round tables, critical communicative approach. Teacher must provide thinking exercises, and other procedures that help the opportunity to facilitate pre-while and post improve the students competence and performance of activities to assure language). the language they learn. 3. The language use to carry out the planning for 12. Native speakers of English are good resources for teaching must be English. teachers and students. They should be invited to visit the school and provide real practice on the language 4. Teachers must take into consideration the learned to discuss topics on different fields. teaching phases: Introduction, Practice, Production and Consolidation. 13. Both teachers and students should devote time to do some research to keep updated sources. 5. Classroom and evaluation activities must follow the objectives. 14. Language teaching and learning must be in context. 6. The teaching practice should reflect the principles of the communicative approach and should 15. The English class must be dynamic and a unique provide opportunities to develop the four basic opportunity for the students to learn the language. skills. 7. The language use in the classroom to give instructions and other teaching tasks has to be English. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 97ANNEXO 2 MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PÚBLICA EDUCACIÓN ACADÉMICA ASESORÍA NACIONAL DE INGLÉS III CICLO Y EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA FUNDAMENTACIÓN DE LA ELABORACIÓN DE LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO DE LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Asesora Nacional de Inglés sin embargo, lo más importante es la función Para la elaboración de los programas de comunicativa o el propósito por el cual se lleva a cabo el estudio de inglés general (GE) para la acto comunicativo. Educación Académica y para los cursos de inglés especializado, para la De igual manera, en la descripción del objeto de estudio Educación Técnica, se ha tomado como de la asignatura, éste se divide en tres componentes: 1) base filosófica los postulados del enfoque Formal, que se debe estudiar como un medio para llegar comunicativo para la enseñanza de las a una comunicación eficiente. 2) Funcional, que se lenguas extranjeras, los principios para refiere al propósito comunicativo por el cual se usa la escribir programas de estudio de John lengua. 3) Cultural, debe estar presente en l estudio de Munby (1978), en su libro Communicative los otros dos componentes. La lengua es una Syllabys Design y las funciones del manifestación cultural de un grupo lingüístico. El uso lenguaje, que hacen posible los actos de pertinente de los tres componentes garantiza el habla. desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa requerida.El enfoque comunicativo centra su atención en el alumno En este enfoque, se requiere que el estudiante aprendaque aprende, cuyo interés en el aprendizaje permite diferentes formas para cumplir con una función. Paraorganizar el currículo de acuerdo con las necesidades pedir un lapicero, el estudiante puede utilizar:de aprendizaje específicas. Este ordenamiento, permiteentonces, que la lengua que se aprende tenga un A) Excuse me; do you have an extra pen Ipropósito en especial. Importante sigue siendo dentro del can use?enfoque comunicativo, el estudio del componente formal; B) Can I borrow your pen? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 98 C) Is there a pen I can use ? Los programas de inglés de III Ciclo y Educación D) May I borrow your pen? Diversificada, están organizados por destrezas o habilidades, “skills”, Listening, Speaking, Reading andLa función del lenguaje es: Asking for and giving Wrting. El abordaje de la lengua se hace por medio delinformation (Pedir y solicitar información). desarrollo de micro habilidades, o destrezas individuales que en conjunto completan una actividad como sería “escuchar una clase magistral.”ORGANIZACIÓN DEL DISEÑO CURRICULAR DE LOSPROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO Algunos ejemplos que Richards nos proporciona, tomados de Munby son:Al organizar un curso o programa de lengua extranjera,dentro del enfoque comunicativo, se puede hacer WRTING “creating a topic sentence”utilizando diferentes marcos referenciales como son: LISTENING “recognizing key information” SPEAKING “recognizing turn-taking signals”Por temas ( gira alrededor de temas o unidades de la READING “reading for a gist”lengua y contenido que están íntimamente relacionadas.)Por competencias ( énfasis en el dominio de ciertas En cada uno de los casos anteriores, las microcompetencias ( situaciones o actividades específicas.) habilidades son pasos básicos en el proceso de alcanzarPor destrezas o habilidades ( enfatiza el desarrollo de el desarrollo de cada habilidad.habilidades y micro habilidades.)Por tareas ( según las tareas o actividades que se Cada una de las unidades del programa de estudios,realizan.) está escrita alrededor de una meta o unidad dePor funciones ( de acuerdo con las funciones significación que es la que hace posible que seespecíficas o actos de habla) materialice el componente formal de la lengua; en otrasSituacional ( según las situaciones específicas, palabras, es el contexto en el cual se promueve elgeneralmente orales) desarrollo de todos los actos de habla de esa unidad.Integrado (características de todos los programas , puesdeben concordar la organización de los elementos Los grandes objetivos generales se plantean en términoslingüísticos con los funcionales y el tipo de tarea por de objetivos de ciclo, o perfiles de salida, que se llegan arealizar) (Richards : 2001). alcanzar mediante la ejercitación de las habilidades y micro habilidades lingüísticas en cada nivel, que están redactadas en términos de objetivos, que tienen que ver “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 99con asuntos especiales y muy particulares de la lengua La siguiente columna es la de Language Examples, enque se aprende y del producto deseado. Además incluye la que se presentan ejemplos de las formas lingüísticasestrategias de aprendizaje válidas para el propósito de que se utilizarán en la unidad y las funciones ocada una de las unidades de significación. propósitos comunicativos. Se incluye esta columna para dar uniformidad al formato diseñado para los programas,La estructura curricular tiene cinco columnas: sin que sean los ejemplos de lengua, el objeto de aprendizaje, que genere horinzontalidad entre lasObjectives escritos en términos de habilidades y micro columnas, como lo garantizaba un enfoquehabilidades por desarrollar y según la taxonomía de estructuralista.Munby (1978). La columna de Procedures, que precisamente RichardsRichards(2000) define el skill syullabus o programa por y Rogers (1986), en su libro Approaches in Languagehabilidades, de la siguiente manera “ el que es Teaching – A Description and Análisis, definen Aorganizado alrededor de las habilidades más Procedure como “Técnicas de clase, prácticas ysobresalientes que comprende el uso de la lengua por comportamientos observados cuando se usa un método.”medio de las habilidades; se basa en la creencia de que Mi traducción.el aprendizaje es una actividad compleja como esescuchar una ponencia, que requiere del dominio de una El contenido de las columnas de Objetives, más la deserie de habilidades o micro habilidades, que en conjunto Values /Attitudes and Culture, se concretan alhace o componen la actividad mayor.” Mi traducción. desarrollar los procedimientos o acciones mediatizadoras que conjugan el contexto general y los contenidosEn esta línea, los objetivos se escriben de la siguiente funcional, lingüístico y cultural que se materializanmanera: mediante el desarrollo de las habilidades y micro habilidades de la lengua como el insumo del procesoUnderstanding the use of graphic presentation, namely, enseñanza y aprendizaje.headings, boldprints, footnotes.Skimming to obtain the gist of the text. La columna de Values/Attitudes que también incluyeScanning to locate specifically required information on a Culture, por tratarse de una lengua extranjera, sesingle point. relaciona con la cultura del grupo social que la habla,Tanscoding information presented in diagrammatic como una manifestación inmediata de esa cultura. Es dedisplay, involving completing a diagram/table/graph. vital importancia, para llegar al menos el comportamientoCompleting note-frames. de los hablantes de un determinado grupo lingüístico, “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 100incluir el estudio de la cultura. Las comparaciones entre En otras palabras, lo que el estudiante puede hacer conaspectos de ambas culturas, la de la lengua materna y la la lengua que aprende en cada una de las habilidadesde la lengua meta, representan un momento de reflexión, lingüísticas.de respeto, de admiración , con el objeto de apreciar lonuestro y reforzar nuestros valores. El contenido de estacolumna se escribe en término de frases preposicionalescon el objetivo de llegar a un análisis a un análisis, a unejecutar dentro de los procesos de aprendizaje, quecompletan la acción mediatizadora.Finalmente, la cuarta columna se dedica a lo que se hadenominado en español Aprendizajes por evaluar, cuyaequivalencia más cercana en lengua inglesa esEvaluation of Language Outcomes, en ella se evalúa elproducto de la acción mediatizadora, derivada delobjetivo y de las estrategias desarrolladas durante elproceso. En esta línea los productos deseados, sontodos aquellos que resaltan el logro de una sub habilidad.Si en el objetivo se promueve el desarrollo de la escuchapara completar un cuadro/tabla/gráfico, en esta columnase espera que el estudiante complete esecuadro/tabla/gráfica después de haber escuchado lacinta, persona o situación.Al inicio de cada nivel educativo, se presenta unarecomendación para llevar a cabo la unidad introductoria,de diagnóstico y de motivación para el inicio del cursolectivo. También se adjunta al final de cada nivel, unalista de competencias lingüísticas o perfil de salida, queel alumno adquirirá mediante el estudio de cada unidad oTarget Content. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
    • 101 BibliografíaBrown, H.D. (1980). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. The United States of America: Prentice Hall-Hall.Finocchiaro, M. and C. Brumfit.(1983). The Functional- Notional Approach From Theory to Practice. Oxford : Oxford University Press.Ministerio de Educación Pública.(2001). Programas de Estudio de Inglés III CICLO Y EDUCACIÓN DI- VERSIFICADA. San José: MEP.Munby, J. (1978). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.Richards, J.C. and S. Rodgers. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. A Descriptive and analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Richards, J. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Language Education. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”