4                                                               la posición humanista expresada en la Política Educativa  ...
5Cultura Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible                       actitudes y aptitudes responsables, reconociendo   ...
6       crítico de sí mismo, su realidad sociocultural y en       información, sino que busca desarrollar conocimientos,  ...
7ciudadana en los ámbitos familiar, comunal, institucional y      •   Practica acciones, actitudes y conductas dirigidasna...
8                                                              principios de la transversalidad.    Esto plantea, enCon re...
9                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS                                         EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFIC...
10INDEX OF UNITS10º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …                                    ...
11UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO POR NIVELEDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA-TÉCNICA         EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA                  ...
12           EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA                       EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA                  ACADÉMICA             ...
13                                                  Comisión Programas 2003                                               ...
14"The English Syllabus", was written within the principles                 -      offer insights into the culture and civ...
15   -   The sounds and intonation patterns of the second             2. Education should promote the broadening of       ...
16Achieving quality in education is an integral process            acquires responsibility for the quality of learning, to...
17prevention of common and more recent diseases.                   In the end, the learner will apply his/her knowledge of...
18By itself, the formal component is an important part of the     main objective of the whole process of language learning...
19"learning" is exploring, experimenting, discovering and        Listeningreconstructing the learners own knowledge. Learn...
20                                                            SpeakingThe teacher should encourage in the learners thedeve...
215.   For the students to speak English it is essential that           Reading activities should focus on normal reasons ...
228.    integrated with the other language skills. For example:   Any written practice should:      -Reading and writing e...
23Besides these general principles, teachers should pay             METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHattention to the rhetorical dev...
24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH                             LEARNER                                            TEACHER-   Cen...
25LEARNING STRATEGIES                                              Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective,...
26                   DIRECT STRATEGIES                                     INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies        ...
27LEARNING STYLES                                                  their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation ...
28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfan...
29       STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER                              STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experi...
30  STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER?                                 STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usabilit...
31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES                                                                  3. Interpersonal: the ability to...
32  the classroom encourage children           to   vary   the   VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND  arrangements of mate...
33knowledge of the language and their development of the           PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENINGlanguage skills.     ...
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
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Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
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Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de  Inglés  de  Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)
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Programas de Inglés de Educacion diversificada (Englishpost.org)

  1. 1. 4 la posición humanista expresada en la Política Educativa LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE y en la Ley Fundamental de Educación. ESTUDIO A partir del Eje transversal de los valores y de lasLos cambios sociales, económicos, culturales, científicos, obligaciones asumidas por el estado desde la legislaciónambientales y tecnológicos del mundo contemporáneo, existente, en Costa Rica se han definido los siguienteshan exigido al currículo educativo no solo aportar Temas transversales: Cultura Ambiental para elconocimientos e información, sino también favorecer el Desarrollo Sostenible, Educación Integral de ladesarrollo de valores, actitudes, habilidades y destrezas Sexualidad, Educación para la Salud y Vivencia de losque apunten al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la Paz.personas y de las sociedades (Marco de Acción Regionalde “Educación para Todos en las Américas”, Santo Para cada uno de los temas transversales se han definidoDomingo, 2000). Sin embargo, existe en nuestro Sistema una serie de competencias por desarrollar en los y lasEducativo una dificultad real de incorporar nuevas estudiantes a lo largo de su período de formaciónasignaturas o contenidos relacionados con los temas educativa. Las Competencias se entienden como: “Unemergentes de relevancia para nuestra sociedad, pues se conjunto integrado de conocimientos, procedimientos,corre el riesgo de saturar y fragmentar los programas de actitudes y valores, que permite un desempeñoestudio. satisfactorio y autónomo ante situaciones concretas de la vida personal y social” (Comisión Nacional Ampliada deUna alternativa frente a estas limitaciones es la Transversalidad, 2002). Las mismas deben orientar lostransversalidad, la cual se entiende como un “Enfoque procesos educativos y el desarrollo mismo de laEducativo que aprovecha las oportunidades que ofrece el transversalidad.currículo, incorporando en los procesos de diseño,desarrollo, evaluación y administración curricular, Desde la condición pedagógica de las competencias sedeterminados aprendizajes para la vida, integradores y han definido competencias de la transversalidad como:significativos, dirigidos al mejoramiento de la calidad de “Aquellas que atraviesan e impregnan horizontal yvida individual y social. Es de carácter holístico, verticalmente, todas las asignaturas del currículo yaxiológico, interdisciplinario y contextualizado” (Comisión requieren para su desarrollo del aporte integrado yNacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). coordinado de las diferentes disciplinas de estudio, así como de una acción pedagógica conjunta” (BeatrizDe acuerdo con los lineamientos emanados del Consejo Castellanos, 2002). De esta manera, están presentesSuperior de Educación (SE 339-2003), el único eje tanto en las programaciones anuales como a lo largo detransversal del currículo costarricense es el de valores. todo el sistema educativo.De esta manera, el abordaje sistemático de los Valores enel currículo nacional, pretende potenciar el desarrollo A continuación se presenta un resumen del enfoque desocio-afectivo y ético de los y las estudiantes, a partir de cada tema transversal y las competencias respectivas: “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  2. 2. 5Cultura Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible actitudes y aptitudes responsables, reconociendo la necesidad de interdependencia con el ambiente.La educación ambiental se considera como el instrumentoidóneo para la construcción de una cultura ambiental delas personas y las sociedades, en función de alcanzar un Educación Integral de la Sexualidaddesarrollo humano sostenible, mediante un proceso queles permita comprender su interdependencia con el A partir de las “Políticas de Educación Integral de laentorno, a partir del conocimiento crítico y reflexivo de la Expresión de la Sexualidad Humana” (2001), una vivenciarealidad inmediata, tanto biofísica como social, madura de la sexualidad humana requiere de unaeconómica, política y cultural. educación integral, por lo que deben atenderse los aspectos físicos, biológicos, psicológicos, socioculturales,Tiene como objetivo que, a partir de ese conocimiento y éticos y espirituales. No puede reducirse a los aspectosmediante actividades de valoración y respeto, las y los biológicos reproductivos, ni realizarse en un contextoestudiantes se apropien de la realidad, de manera que, la desprovisto de valores y principios éticos y morales sobrecomunidad educativa participe activamente en la la vida, el amor, la familia y la convivencia.detección y solución de problemas, en el ámbito local,pero con visión planetaria. La educación de la sexualidad humana inicia desde la primera infancia y se prolonga a lo largo de la vida. Es unCompetencias por desarrollar derecho y un deber, en primera instancia, de las madres y los padres de familia. Le corresponde al Estado una • Aplica los conocimientos adquiridos mediante acción subsidaria y potenciar la acción de las familias en procesos críticos y reflexivos de la realidad, en la el campo de la educación y la información, como lo resolución de problemas (ambientales, expresa el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. económicos, sociales, políticos, éticos) de manera creativa y mediante actitudes, prácticas y valores El sistema educativo debe garantizar vivencias y que contribuyan al logro del desarrollo sostenible y estrategias pedagógicas que respondan a las una mejor calidad de vida. potencialidades de la población estudiantil, en • Participa comprometida, activa y responsablemente concordancia con su etapa de desarrollo y con los en proyectos tendientes a la conservación, contextos socioculturales en los cuales se desenvuelven. recuperación y protección del ambiente; identificando sus principales problemas y Competencias por desarrollar necesidades, generando y desarrollando alternativas de solución, para contribuir al • Se relaciona con hombres y mujeres de manera mejoramiento de su calidad de vida, la de los equitativa, solidaria y respetuosa de la diversidad. demás y al desarrollo sostenible. • Toma decisiones referentes a su sexualidad desde • Practica relaciones armoniosas consigo mismo, con un proyecto de vida basado en el conocimiento los demás, y los otros seres vivos por medio de “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  3. 3. 6 crítico de sí mismo, su realidad sociocultural y en información, sino que busca desarrollar conocimientos, sus valores éticos y morales. habilidades y destrezas que contribuyan a la producción • Enfrenta situaciones de acoso, abuso y violencia, social de la salud, mediante procesos de enseñanza – mediante la identificación de recursos internos y aprendizajes dinámicos, donde se privilegia la externos oportunos. comunicación de doble vía, así como la actitud crítica y • Expresa su identidad de forma auténtica, participativa del estudiantado. responsable e integral, favoreciendo el desarrollo personal en un contexto de interrelación y manifestación permanente de sentimientos, Competencias por desarrollar actitudes, pensamientos, opiniones y derechos. • Promueve procesos reflexivos y constructivos en su • Vivencia un estilo de vida que le permite, en forma familia, dignificando su condición de ser humano, crítica y reflexiva, mantener y mejorar la salud integral para identificar y proponer soluciones de acuerdo al y la calidad de vida propia y la de los demás. contexto sociocultural en el cual se desenvuelve. • Toma decisiones que favorecen su salud integral y la de quienes lo rodean, a partir del conocimiento de síEducación para la Salud mismo y de los demás, así como del entorno en que se desenvuelve.La educación para la salud es un derecho fundamental de • Elige mediante un proceso de valoración crítica, lostodos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El estado de salud, medios personales más adecuados para enfrentar lasestá relacionado con su rendimiento escolar y con su situaciones y factores protectores y de riesgo para lacalidad de vida. De manera que, al trabajar en educación salud integral propia y la de los demás.para la salud en los centros educativos, según las • Hace uso en forma responsable, crítica y participativanecesidades de la población estudiantil, en cada etapa de de los servicios disponibles en el sector salud,su desarrollo, se están forjando ciudadanos con estilos de educación y en su comunidad, adquiriendovida saludables, y por ende, personas que construyen y compromisos en beneficio de la calidad de los mismos.buscan tener calidad de vida, para sí mismas y paraquienes les rodean. Vivencia de los Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la PazLa educación para la salud debe ser un proceso social,organizado, dinámico y sistemático que motive y oriente a Costa Rica es una democracia consolidada pero enlas personas a desarrollar, reforzar, modificar o sustituir permanente estado de revisión y retroalimentación, por loprácticas por aquellas que son más saludables en lo cual la vigencia de los derechos humanos es inherente alindividual, lo familiar y lo colectivo y en su relación con el compromiso de fortalecer una cultura de paz y demedio ambiente. democracia.De manera que, la educación para la salud en el En los escenarios educativos es oportuno gestionarescenario escolar no se limita únicamente a transmitir mecanismos que promuevan una verdadera participación “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  4. 4. 7ciudadana en los ámbitos familiar, comunal, institucional y • Practica acciones, actitudes y conductas dirigidasnacional. Para ello, la sociedad civil debe estar informada a la no violencia en el ámbito escolar, en lay educada en relación con el marco legal brindado por el convivencia con el grupo de pares, familia ypaís, de manera que, desarrolle una participación efectiva comunidad ejercitando la resolución de conflictosy no se reduzca a una participación periódica con carácter de manera pacífica y la expresión del afecto, laelectoral. ternura y el amor. • Aplica estrategias para la solución pacífica deSe debe propiciar un modelo de sistema democrático que conflictos en diferentes contextospermita hacer del ejercicio de la ciudadanía una actividad • Respeta las diversidades individuales, culturalesatractiva, interesante y cívica que conlleva éticas, social y generacional.responsabilidades y derechos. Abordaje Metodológico de la Transversalidad desdeCompetencias por desarrollar los Programas de Estudio y en el Planeamiento Didáctico • Practica en la vivencia cotidiana los derechos y responsabilidades que merece como ser humano y La transversalidad es un proceso que debe evidenciarse ser humana, partiendo de una convivencia en las labores programáticas del Sistema Educativo democrática, ética, tolerante y pacífica. Nacional; desde los presentes Programas de estudio • Asume su realidad como persona, sujeto de hasta el Planeamiento didáctico que el ó la docente derechos y responsabilidades. realizan en el aula. • Elige las alternativas personales, familiares y de convivencia social que propician la tolerancia, la Con respecto a los Programas de Estudio, en algunos justicia y la equidad entre géneros de acuerdo a los Procedimientos y Valores se podrán visualizar procesos contextos donde se desenvuelve. que promueven, explícitamente, la incorporación de los • Participa en acciones inclusivas para la vivencia de temas transversales. Sin embargo, las opciones para la equidad en todos los contextos socioculturales. realizar convergencias no se limitan a las mencionadas en • Ejercita los derechos y responsabilidades para la los programas, ya que el ó la docente puede identificar convivencia democrática vinculada a la cultura de otras posibilidades para el desarrollo de los procesos de paz. transversalidad. • Es tolerante para aceptar y entender las diferencias culturales, religiosas y étnicas que, propician En este caso, se presenta como tarea para las y los posibilidades y potencialidades de y en la docentes identificar -a partir de una lectura exhaustiva de convivencia democrática y cultura de paz. los conocimientos previos del estudiantado, del contexto • Valora las diferencias culturales de los distintos sociocultural, de los acontecimientos relevantes y actuales modos de vida. de la sociedad-, cuáles de los objetivos de los programas representan oportunidades para abordar la transversalidad y para el desarrollo de las competencias. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  5. 5. 8 principios de la transversalidad. Esto plantea, enCon respecto al planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad definitiva, un reto importante para cada institucióndebe visualizarse en las columnas de Actividades de educativa hacia el desarrollo de postulados humanistas,mediación y de Valores y Actitudes, posterior a la críticos y ecológicos.identificación realizada desde los Programas de Estudio.El proceso de transversalidad en el aula debe considerarlas características de la población estudiantil y las COMISIÓN TEMAS TRANSVERSALESparticularidades del entorno mediato e inmediato para ellogro de aprendizajes más significativos. M.Sc. Priscilla Arce León. DANEA.Además del planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad M.Sc. Viviana Richmond. Departamento de Educacióndebe visualizarse y concretizarse en el plan Institucional, Integral de la Sexualidad Humanapotenciando la participación activa, crítica y reflexiva delas madres, los padres y encargados, líderes comunales, M.Sc. Mario Segura Castillo. Departamento deinstancias de acción comunal, docentes, personal Evaluación Educativaadministrativo y de toda la comunidad educativa. M.Sc. Carlos Rojas Montoya. Departamento deEn este sentido, el centro educativo debe tomar las Educación Ambiental.decisiones respectivas para que exista una coherenciaentre la práctica cotidiana institucional y los temas y “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  6. 6. 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA Presentation (Temas Transversales) ………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Index of units ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Unidades por nivel ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 I. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 II The Purpose of English Language Teaching in our Educational System ………………………………………. 14 III Implications of the Educational Policy in the Learning and Teaching of English ………………………………. 15 IV English as Means of Implementing the Educational Policy …………………………………………………… 16 V English as a Foreign Language in the Costa Rican Educational System ……………………………………… 17 - General Guidelines for the Mediation of Learning …………………………………………………………… 18 - Methodological Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 - Learning Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25 - Learning Styles …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 - Multiple Intelligences …………………………………………………………………………………………..... 31VI E.F.L. Classroom Assessment and Evaluation Suggestions ……………………………………………………. 32VII Objectives of the English Program in the “Educación Diversificada” in Costa Rica …………………. 34 - Tenth Grade …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 - Eleventh Grade ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58VIII Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82 IX Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88 X Annex 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96 Annex 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97 XI Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  7. 7. 10INDEX OF UNITS10º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… … 36 1. Achievements of our national athletes……………………………………………………………………………… .. 37 2. Costa Rican Art, music and crafts…………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 3. Words with same/different meaning…………………………………………………………………………………... 39 4. Costa Rican typical food………………………………………………………………………………………………... 42 5. Holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English Speaking countries……………. . 44 6. Causes and effects of natural resources misuse……………………………………………………………………. 45 7. Linking words in context………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48 8. Tourist attractions offered by Costa Rican Communities…………………………………………………………… 49 9. Common illnesses and new diseases and epidemics……………………………………………………………….. 51 10. Our Democratic Tradition……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 11. Careers, jobs and lifestyles…………………………………………………………………………………………… 55Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5711º LEVELIntroductory unit………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 58 1. Types of food, eating habits and behaviors at the table…………………………………………………………… . 59 2. Tourists aspects worldwide…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61 3. Linking words in contexts………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63 4. Job demand in Costa Rica…………………………………………………………………………………………… 64 5. Careers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66 6. Science and technology……………………………………………………………………………………………… . 68 7. Morals and values……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70 8. Prefixes, suffixes and root words………………………………………………………………………………………. 72 9. Gender :Men’s and Women’s roles…………………………………………………………………………………… 73 10. Senior citizens, minority groups and ………………………………………………………………………………… 75 11. Words with the same pronunciation but different meanings………………………………………………………… 77 12. Mass media and communications……………………………………………………………………………………… 78Summary of language outcomes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  8. 8. 11UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO POR NIVELEDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA-TÉCNICA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA TÉCNICA10º Level 11º Level 10 º Level 11 º Level 12º LevelUnits Units Units Units UnitsAchievements of our Types of food, eating Achievements of our Common illnesses Science andnational athletes habits and behaviors national athletes and new diseases and technologyCosta Rican Art, music at the table Costa Rican Art, music epidemics Morals and valuesand crafts Tourists aspects and crafts Our Democratic Prefixes, suffixesWords with worldwide Words with Tradition and root wordssame/different meaning Linking words in same/different meaning Careers, jobs and Gender :Men’s andCosta Rican typical food contexts Costa Rican typical food lifestyles Women’s rolesHolidays and Job demand in Costa Holidays and Types of food, eating Senior citizens,celebrations in Costa Rica celebrations in Costa habits and behaviors minority groups andRica with some Careers Rica with some at the table …celebrations in English Science and celebrations in English Tourists aspects Words with the sameSpeaking countries technology Speaking countries worldwide pronunciation butCauses and effects of Morals and values Causes and effects of Linking words in different meaningsnatural resources misuse Prefixes, suffixes and natural resources misuse contexts Mass media andLinking words in context root words Linking words in context Job demand in Costa communicationsTourist attractions Gender :Men’s and Tourist attractions Ricaoffered by Costa Rican Women’s roles offered by Costa Rican CareersCommunities Senior citizens, CommunitiesCommon illnesses and minority groups andnew diseases and …epidemicsOur Democratic Tradition “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  9. 9. 12 EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFECADA EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA ACADÉMICA TÉCNICA10º Level 11º Level 10 º Level 11 º Level 12º LevelUnits Units Units Units UnitsCareers, jobs and Words with the samelifestyles pronunciation but different meanings Mass media and communications “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  10. 10. 13 Comisión Programas 2003 M. Sc. Ana Isabel Campos Centeno M. Sc. Yamileth Cháves Lic. Doreen Walters Brown M. A. Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Coordinadora Agradecimiento a todos los Asesores Regionales de Inglés por su apoyo y recomendaciones.COMISIÓN REDACTORA : 1996Cira Delgado QuesadaLeonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeDoreen Walters BrownRosa Elena Simón RojasCoordinadores Revisión : 2001Leonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeMarco Tulio Villegas RubíASESORÍA TÉCNICA BRITÁNICAMichael A. VaughanI INTRODUCTION “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  11. 11. 14"The English Syllabus", was written within the principles - offer insights into the culture and civilization ofstated both in our Constitution, The Education Law and in English speaking countries.;the Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" in order - develop an awareness of the nature of languageto help the students face life and work situations which and language learning;require an average command of English, with the desire - incite enjoyment and intellectual stimulation;that this preparation will allow them to participate actively - encourage positive attitudes towards to foreigninto the challenges of the global economy for the benefit of languages and cultures;the country. - promote cognitive skills like application analysis, memorization, inferring;II. THE PURPOSES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE - develop students understanding of themselvesTEACHING IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM and their own culture.The large number of individuals who speak English either Along with the required study of the mother tongue, theas their first or as a second or foreign language justifies the study of second languages contributes to enrich the schoolfact that English is considered a universal language. curriculum because of the following reasons:Likewise, within the scientific, technological and humanisticspheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. - it provides a combination of linguistic skills bothConsequently, teaching English in our school system physical and intellectual with personal and socialresponds to basic needs: development; - it offers better opportunities to develop oral and written1. To offer students a second language which can unable communication skills; them to communicate within a broader social-economic - it inculcates valuable study skills such predicting, context in and outside Costa Rica. selecting, comparing, and interpreting information and2. To give students a tool to directly access scientific, memorizing, and focusing on general and detailed technological and humanistic information and , in this meaning in listening and speaking; way expand their knowledge of the world. - it helps develop the learners awareness of cross- curricular at the time that builds on the four From the perspective of those two basic needs the communication skills. educational aims of teaching English are listed as follows: In addition to the above reasons, the study of a foreign language, by definition, adds a distinctive dimension of its - develop the ability to communicate for practical own since: purposes; - frame a sound basis of the language skills, and - it exposes learners to new experiences and enables attitudes required for further study, work and them to make connections in a way which, leisure; otherwise, would not be possible. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  12. 12. 15 - The sounds and intonation patterns of the second 2. Education should promote the broadening of language present a challenge to learners capacity to understanding through challenging teaching discriminate and imitate. classroom situations and opportunities that can arise - It enhances the learner’s self confidence of their self-growth and learn how to learn. abilities provoking a sense of self-achievement and discovery which grow along with a gradual 3. Education should contribute to narrow down social – proficiency. economic gaps by providing the individuals with the - It improves the learners understanding of not only proper opportunities to integrate into everyday target cultures but also their own. problem-solving situations, all this aiming to promote a self-sufficient society.In sum, learning English as a foreign language will 4. Achieving sustainability in production and the economiccontribute to an integral formation of the learners which will in general represents a challenge for education. Theunable them to be able to insert into the coming century in country needs more qualified people in order to increasea lively and healthy way. productivity and improve the spirit of competitiveness. Furthermore, there is a need to integrate the countryIII. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN more effectively into the global economy THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN 5. The information or the content the learners handle OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. should be up-to-date and should be relevant to global development in the 21st century.The Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" gives 6. Education should aim to solidly reinforce values andthe learners the opportunity to express their care for their attitudes. This is a moral imperative.country, its democratic environment, cultural diversity anddeep respect for law, nature and peace. At the same time, The underlying principles for our educational approach,the policy encourages Costa Rican people to become humanism, rationalism and constructivism are clearly statedpositive leaders and critical thinkers through activities in the Policy.promoting a democratic environment, resulting in the Every person is considered capable of achieving his/her fullreinforcement of values such as self-identity and authentic potential. This entails interacting harmoniously with her/hisgrowth as independent and interdependent learners. surroundings, in three dimensions of human development: The cognitive, socio-affective and psycho motive.Some of the basic principles of the Policy can besummarized as follows: Every person constantly contributes both to the common good and the development of education, and is responsible 1. The citizens should be able to develop as persons for improving the quality of human, individual and collective through seeking for opportunities of self-fulfillment life. and happiness while contributing to the development Education ought to be a permanent formative process, of their country. which each person has not only a right, but also a duty to exercise. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  13. 13. 16Achieving quality in education is an integral process acquires responsibility for the quality of learning, togetherthrough which the results express the initial aims. Through with the family and the educational authorities.this process learners are offered equality of opportunities to In summary, learning English as a foreign language insucceed and appropriate educational provision according to Costa Rica will allow students to develop communicativetheir needs, problems and aspirations. competence, to gain knowledge of a new culture, beliefs and attitudes and to understand the messages given and,Educational research at national, provincial, regional and reflect on them. They also have the opportunity to analyzeinstitutional levels will ensure more systematic the real message and intentions of speakers in order toimplementation of the policy from everyday classroom distinguish the negative from the positive and to developpractice to administrative decision taking. greater and more desirable autonomy.The design of the syllabus encourages participativeinteraction, and its adaptation. IV. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING THEThe implementation of educational provision encourages EDUCATIONAL POLICYdemocratic participation, cooperative and self-reliantattitudes. English, in common with other subjects in the Costa Rican curriculum, must provide the learner with the opportunity toThe process of "mediation" for the construction of learning, develop awareness of the urgent need for the balancedand the transference of knowledge is framed, primarily, development of our environment, our human resources,within an epistemological-constructivist position. The ties and also the socio-political and the economy and means ofwith other disciplines allow for deductive as well as for production. This balance is essential to ensure the successinductive processes. of the new era of sustainable development.The evaluation of the learning processes must reflectcoherence between the three components. It must also The English language syllabus provides the necessaryconsider both the process and the product. situations to support each one of the areas mentionedEvaluation is conceived of as an instrument to monitor above. As far as environment is concerned, it emphasizeslearning, and so provides feedback on the educational the analysis of the cause and effect of the use and misuseprocess. In addition, it enhances the quality of education of natural resources and the possible solutions, as well asthrough its three functions: diagnostic, formative and the value of our existing resources and the ecologicalsummative. The methodology proposed centers on the diversity we possess. It also reinforces the harmoniousactivity of the learner as builder of his/her own learning. development of human beings and nature.The student, as the main focus of the curriculum, carriesout the learning process, is considered to represent an Our syllabus pays special attention to those topics relatedinherited culture, and has the liberty to select his / her own to the basic needs of highly qualified people consideringway. their successful realization in time, society and in theThe teacher, is conceived of as facilitator, collaborator and national and international surroundings. An example of thisadvisor in the students learning. Therefore, the teacher is provided by the topics which conduct research into an exchange information on health; the symptoms and “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  14. 14. 17prevention of common and more recent diseases. In the end, the learner will apply his/her knowledge ofLikewise, drug abuse is another topic for discussion in the English to accept and adapt him/her self to constantEnglish class. changes confidently.The syllabus takes into account other relevant areas of awell-rounded education, such as the job market and ENGLISH AS AN OBJECT OF STUDYcareers, in terms of active participation in the evolution ofsociety. The object of study of the English language in ourOther aspects like the socio-political development of curriculum is written and oral communication, emphasizingcitizens is dealt with explicitly, leading to personal, and the four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, readingcollective improvement through themes relating to values and writing. The practice of these skills permits thesuch as: gender equality, political liberties, and respect for students to communicate efficiently according to theethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvement knowledge acquired.in community activities.In the field of the economy and production, the syllabus Through the learning of the language, the learner canprovides for the promotion of a productive culture in compare and apply different registers (formal and informal)harmony with the environment, coupled with the efficient and recognize expressions in British, American and otheruse of energy and resources. varieties of English.In all cases, English can be the means for exposure to andacquisition of valuable and permanent behavior patterns. BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE SUBJECT MATTERThese patterns will fulfill his/her own needs, and those ofthe country. For the purpose of studying the English language, we haveThe present generations should respect sustainable divided the subject matter into three components:development to guarantee that future generations have the 1. Formal 2. Functional 3. Culturalopportunity to satisfy their own needs.V. ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE COSTA Formal Component RICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM This component has been traditionally called theEnglish is conceived of as a linguistic and cultural tool for grammatical component. In this sense, the structures of thecommunication, which allows the learner to complement language have been graded, selected and chosenhis/her whole education. His/her knowledge of according to the different functions of the language and the topics to be studied. Lexics, syntax and morphology areEnglish contributes to the social, economical and part of this component.technological development. It also allows the learner toapply techniques to understand and produce appropriateoral and written messages. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  15. 15. 18By itself, the formal component is an important part of the main objective of the whole process of language learninglanguage, but it has to be studied as a means to effective is to enable the students to use the language forcommunication. communication.Furthermore, the teaching of grammar should be focused GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MEDIATION OFon the practical use of oral and written language for LEARNINGcommunication. The Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century"Functional Component presents the learner as a human being full of potential with the possibility to develop him/herself in harmony with theThe functional component refers to the communicative three dimensions of human development: cognitive, socio-purpose for which we use the language. Language is not affective and psycho-motive. Education has to provide thisonly forms; we have to start looking at what people do with global development in a given context.those forms. For example, expressing ones opinionsasking for someone’s opinion, expressing doubts, etc. The objective of learning is to provide a contribution to social and personal development. Therefore, education is seen as a formative and permanent process. Education isCultural Component considered as a social process in which human beings meet human experiences. These experiences, contributeThis component considers understanding of the culture of to shape the capacities and values that will serve humansthe country or countries where the language is spoken. to give a contribution to the social welfare.Knowing the features of the target culture makes it easier tounderstand the language itself. Some of the cultural The Policy establishes an educational process whichfeatures that should be taken into account are: values, provides similar opportunities for everybody: theattitudes, behavior, patterns, points of view, ways of achievement of high standards of education as well asthinking, appreciation, etc. opportunities that take into consideration the participants needs, problems and expectations. Another feature of theThe cultural component should always be present in the Policy is the way it emphasizes the need to provide positiveother components. Language and culture go together in learning conditions.order to communicate social meanings. This means that thelanguage must be presented in meaningful situations The Policy also states that learners acquire education to beaccording to the appropriate cultural contexts. able to participate as individuals in their own development and the development of society; for that reason, they haveThe pertinent use of the three components guarantees the to be acquainted with the knowledge that humanity hasrequired communicative competence. This competence been accumulating and systematizing through history.does not occur by itself. The speaker must acquire linguistic They must learn about its common uses, thoughts andcompetence simultaneously, starting in early stages. The actions in a particular social context. Within this approach “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  16. 16. 19"learning" is exploring, experimenting, discovering and Listeningreconstructing the learners own knowledge. Learning isdescribed as a comprehensible, dynamic and meaningful Listening is one of the most important skills that has to beprocess for those who learn. It is guided by the interest developed in early stages of language learning. Throughshown by the learner towards its acquisition and it is listening the students should be prepared to cope with:orientated to the acquisition of learning. From thisperspective the teacher is the person who organizes andguides the learning situations, taking into account not onlythe students characteristics (background, learning styles, a. understanding speech in different settings (backgroundetc.), but also the curriculum, and the cultural and natural noise, distance or unclear sound reproductions)context). b. becoming acquainted with speech containing false starts hesitations, etc. (everyday speech)In the teaching of English, as mentioned earlier the written c. understanding speakers who vary in tempo, speech,and oral aspects of the language are the objects of study. clarity of articulation and accent, non-native speakersEmphasis is given to the four basic linguistic abilities: of the language as well.listening and reading comprehension, oral and writtenproduction. An equal amount of classroom time should be Listening, understanding and responding in an appropriatedevoted to the development of each of the four linguistic way is an essential part of communication and, therefore,skills. In this sense, any learning activity in the regular practice of aural comprehension is a vital part of thedevelopment of a topic (should take into consideration the teaching program although listening is fully practiced in ourintegration of these skills). In addition the teacher should classes, there are specific listening activities that should bedesign different teaching procedures to approach a topic. included in the syllabus, such as:This can be done by emphasizing, for example, listening,then reading, speaking and writing, or by altering the stepsany time the educator deals with a classroom procedure. 1. Distinguishing between sounds, stress and intonationThe basic idea is to create a highly motivating atmosphere patterns.to encourage learning. 2. Answering quick questions. 3. Understanding comprehension passages.Whenever the teacher is developing an objective, he/she 4. Listening to broadcasts.should know about the topic itself and the different ways 5. Listening to lectures.he/she will be introducing the development of the skills 6. Taking dictation.listed above. Teachers should expose the learner to a considerableTo help teachers with a general view of the sub skills to be amount of meaningful language input through listening to:developed, we are including a summary of the most conversations, descriptions, directions, discussions, drama,relevant aspects of each main skill: films, songs, sports, reports, advertisements and any other form of authentic spoken language. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  17. 17. 20 SpeakingThe teacher should encourage in the learners thedevelopment of the following strategies: The development of the skills of speaking is the ultimate goal for students learning English. It is also a "wish" of every Costa Rican; parent, politician and in our society.1. Thinking about the purpose of listening.2. Thinking ahead about what learners already know and However, the development of the skill has to be carried out keep predicting what the speaker will say next. in conjunction with the development of the other skills. In3. Focus on what they do, understand and use to help particular, speaking and listening are complementary to them work out what they dont understand. each other in the act of communication. For that reason, both should be practiced in close relation to each other.When developing listening comprehension, the activities The teacher should provide a variety of opportunities for theshould: students, in order to bring about the necessary models or language input.1. Meet the students interests and needs.2. Be designed according to the students performance Through speech, learners acquire the fundamentals of level. language pertinent to carry out specific interaction where3. Provide practice in distinguishing between sounds, they have to exercise the use of some functions, through stress, intonation patterns, to understand sentences, the appropriate language structures, cultural short texts, etc. appropriateness and acceptable language input.4. Provide the students with practice in listening techniques. To promote the development of this skill, it is necessary that5. State the purpose of the task clearly. students be aware of the following principles:6. Make use of background knowledge.7. Follow an organized procedure. 1. Oral speech is acquired through listening and through8. Provide the learners with the necessary steps in the constant practice. development of the activity. 2. Speech delivery, rhythm, intonation and pronunciation9. Engage the learners in a variety of situations which are learned by listening to appropriate language provide practice, going from memorization to models (tapes, native speakers, teachers and other evaluation. English speakers).10. Follow the objectives. 3. Learning to speak English means knowing what to talk11. Be graded. about. Introducing knowledge of the world and up-to-12. Integrate other language skills. date topics are essential. 4. Learning to speak English means saying the appropriate words for a situation at the right time for a specific purpose. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  18. 18. 215. For the students to speak English it is essential that Reading activities should focus on normal reasons for English is spoken in class and in any other situation reading. People normally read because: when it is required.6. Since learning to speak means speaking to others, 1. They want information for some purpose or because interactive practice must be set up in pairs, groups and they are curious about the topic; with teachers and visitors. 2. They need instructions in order to perform some tasks7. The language tasks designed must be authentic and for their work or for their daily life. For instance, they the same ones that native speakers of the language want to know how an appliance works; they are use to communicate with others. interested in a new recipe; they have forms to fill in,8. The integration of skills is vital when speaking. e.g. etc. giving an oral explanation of information presented in a 3. They want to play a new game, do a puzzle or carry chart or diagram. out some activity which is pleasant and amusing. 4. They want to keep in touch with friends byReading correspondence. 5. They want to know when or where something will takeReading, although often regarded as a passive receptive place (timetables, program menus, etc.).skill is, in fact, an active skill which involves guessing, 6. They want to know what is happening or haspredicting, and asking questions. These should therefore be happened (they read newspapers, magazines, etc.).considered when designing reading comprehensionexercises. It is, for instance, possible to develop the Activities for developing reading skills should make use ofstudents powers of inference through systematic practice, these natural needs and interests preferably by supplyingor introduce questions which encourage students to something which is interesting, amusing, exciting, useful oranticipate the content of a text from its title and illustrations leads to a pleasant or beneficial activity.or the end of a story from the preceding paragraphs. In Any reading activity should be :brief, students should be encouraged to transfer theadvanced skills they have when reading Spanish to the 1. interesting to the students.reading of English. 2. chosen according to the students interests, age and needs.Students learning English expect to be able to read the 3. authentic . Its purpose must be the same as for nativelanguage sooner or later. Their personal expectations may speakers.vary from wanting to read the lyrics of popular songs to 4. leading to a purpose ( information, details, globalnewspaper ads to magazines or even classical literature. meaning).Teachers should , therefore offer a variety of texts and also 5. graded according to the students level of proficiency.remember that students in the same class may read at very 6. able to help the students build on information alreadydifferent levels of difficulty in English, just as they do in their acquired in their own language by complementing itnative language. with information learned in English. 7. not too culturally bound. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  19. 19. 228. integrated with the other language skills. For example: Any written practice should: -Reading and writing e.g. summarizing, mentioning 1. be related to the topic being studied. what you have read in a letter, note-taking, etc. 2. follow the objectives. - Reading and listening e.g. reading the lyrics while 3. be creative. listening to a song recorded information to solve a 4. take account of the students cognitive knowledge and written problem, matching opinions and texts, etc. skills. Reading and speaking e.g. discussions, debates, 5. be graded from simple sentence descriptions to more etc complex products.9. flexible and varied. 6. include the use of appropriate language, style,10. meaningful and related directly to the text. punctuation and other characteristics. 7. involve the teacher and students in the development Teachers should be aware of the students reading and production of writing.interests in order to design the appropriate reading 8. use a collaborative approach in which teachers createcomprehension exercises. It is important to emphasize here together and give each other feedback through thethat students must become effective readers. These process.reading exercises must be designed to develop the 9. use real-life tasks for students, write authentic textsfollowing reading skills. notes and letters. 10. integrate the other skills before, while or after the- Skimming: a quick running of the eyes over a text to get writing task is performed. the gist or global meaning of it. 11. motivate the students to express their feelings,- Scanning: quick overview of a text to find specific emotions and points of view in a written form. information.- Extensive reading: reading longer texts for own To promote the development of written skills teachers can pleasure. (involves global understanding). design a series of activities enabling students: to write- Intensive reading: reading shorter texts to extract notes and shopping lists, keep records, send messages, specific information (reading for detail). write letters to friends, keep diaries, complete reports and write poetry or fiction. All of these authentic tasks shouldWriting be guided by following principles in which the writer :Writing is a skill which emphasizes the formal expression of 1. attempts to communicate something.thoughts through written language or graphic symbols. 2. has a goal or purpose in mind.The teacher should facilitate the writing process by 3. has to establish and maintain contact with the reader.providing the necessary guidance for the learner to be able 4. has to organize the material by using certain logicalto express her/his knowledge of the topic. and grammatical devices.It is also necessary to define the type of written productionthe students will perform. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  20. 20. 23Besides these general principles, teachers should pay METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHattention to the rhetorical devices, logical, grammatical andlexical: appropriate to different types of texts, spelling, The Communicative approach provides the basis for thepunctuation and other organizational features. methodology used in the English classroom. Its main features are:Writing just like listening, has to be taught by practicingdifferent techniques and types of writing . It should be 1. It creates an stress-free atmosphere conducive topreceded by exposure to a wide range of models of written learning a language with plenty of opportunities tolanguage. It is also important to show the students how the communicate.written language functions as a system of communication. 2. It provides ample opportunities for interactionThe learner also needs to know how to organize sentences promoting a pleasant, warm and enjoyableinto a coherent text; write different kinds of texts; or select environment which features positive feedback for thethe appropriate style, formal or informal, according to the learner from both the teacher and peers.task, subject matter and target audience. However, most of 3. The learners needs and interests are taken intoall, tasks must be as realistic as possible. account making them as the center of the learningWhenever a teacher is ready to introduce an activity process.focusing on one of the four basic skills described 4. The methodology used is participative, dynamic andabove, he/she should take into account five steps : offers the opportunity for real use of the language. 5. The teacher guides the learning process but sharesa. Preparationb. Demonstrationc. Time to introduce the the responsibility with the learners. They use criticalskill thinking to solve problems, work in groups, take risks,d. Correction e. Follow-up discuss different topics, and appreciate and reinforce their own as well as English speaking cultures. AllIn order to follow these steps, the teacher should these aspects take place in real-life situations .provide : "Pre-activities" to help the students think 6. The teacher and students make decisions together. Byabout what they already know and find a reason for doing this, the learner gets completely involved in thelistening, speaking, reading or writing; "While- language-learning process and becomes responsibleactivities" to exploit oral or written speech. These for it.exercise different skills to carry out the task assigned 7. The objectives of the syllabus develop theand "Post-activities" to link the new information and communicative functions of the language elements.skills with the students own experience and otherskills. The following chart provides a better idea of some of the characteristics of the different components of the communicative approach. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  21. 21. 24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH LEARNER TEACHER- Central, active, creative and participative. - Facilitator, guide.- Responsible for his/her own and others learning, - Participates in process - with learners. planning, resources and assessment. - Not the center of the process.- Confident, motivated. - Takes more time for individual needs.- Develops full potential and builds on interests. - Gains skills and takes responsibility from planners,- Individual/collective roles. writers, linguists. - Shows expert role. AIMS MATERIALS- Communication - Authentic, real-world significance.- Gain transferable skills. - Related to learners needs, interests and culture.- Cooperation - Flexible.- Concentrate on meaning and process. - Motivating and interesting.- Focus on fluency. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT- Successful (even conventional terms). - Real-world context.- Permanent learning. - Beyond classroom, into community. - Relevant, stimulating, interesting. LEARNING STYLE ASSESSMENT- Integrated skills - Communicative competence.- Real-life skills in communicative contexts. - Process-oriented.- Active. - Continuous.- Active-based. - Profiling skills.- Variety of style, pace, etc. - Learning process.- Flexible. - Self and peer assessment. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  22. 22. 25LEARNING STRATEGIES Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective, and social strategies.Learning strategies should be considered when planning atnational, institutional and classroom levels. Metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their ownLearning strategies are operations employed by the learner cognitive processes and to focus, plan and evaluate theirto aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of progress as they move toward communicative competence.information. But they can also be described as specificactions of the learner to make learning easier, faster, more Affective strategies develop the self-confidence andenjoyable, self-directed, effective and transferable. In other perseverance needed for learners to be actively involved inwords, learning strategies are tools students use when they language learning.have to solve a problem, accomplish a task, meet an Social strategies provide increased interaction and moreobjective or attain a goal. emphatic understanding with others.Teachers should be aware of learning strategies in order to Below is Rebecca Oxfords chart on learning strategies.provide opportunities for all of their students to developcommunicative competence.Learning strategies have been divided into two groups :Direct and Indirect.Direct strategies include memory, cognitive andcompensation strategies.Memory strategies help foster particular aspects ofcompetence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, etc.)by using imagery and structured review.Cognitive strategies strengthen grammatical accuracy byreasoning deductively and using contrastive analysis.Compensation strategies help develop strategiccompetence by using inference and guessing when themeaning is not known, using synonyms or gestures toexpress meaning of an unknown word or expression. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  23. 23. 26 DIRECT STRATEGIES INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies I. Metacognitive strategies A. Creating mental linkages A. Centering your learning B. Applying images and sounds B. Arranging and planning your learning C. Reviewing well C. Evaluating your learning D. EmployingII. Cognitive strategies II. Affective strategies A. Practicing A. Lowering your anxiety B. Receiving and sending messages B. Encouraging yourself C. Analyzing and reasoning C. Taking your emotional temperature D. Creating structure for input and outputIII. Compensation strategies III. Social strategies A. Guessing intelligently A. Asking questions B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing B. Cooperating with others Oxford, R.1990 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  24. 24. 27LEARNING STYLES their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation will increase and they will learn more efficiently. For thisThe learning styles are as important as the development of reason, here is a summary of each style and some ideasskills or learning strategies when deciding on how relevant for its implementation in the classroom.the curriculum is. Concrete Sequential (CS)Here learning styles are presented as possibilities to be The learner whose style is the Concrete Sequential derivesincluded when planning learning to guarantee success. information primarily through direct sensory experience. The real world, for this domain, is the concrete world ofGregorc defines learning style as the outward expression to senses. The way of thinking is methodical and deliberate-athe human minds ability to mediate knowledge. i.e. the train of thought. The individuals that belong to this domainmeans and capacities we employ to receive and express tend to be task-oriented and consistently striving forinformation. perfection.Two principal factors in determining learning styles are the Some recommended learning activities are: keepingways in which information is perceived and how it is records of experiences and experiments, conductingordered in our brains. surveys, writing computer programs, observing and classifying phenomena, undertaking practical work and1. Perceptual abilities are the means whereby we grasp preparing displays. information: The perception may be: a. abstract through reason, emotion, or intuition, or b. Abstract Sequential (AS) concrete through the physical senses of hearing , The mainly Abstract Sequential learner lives mostly in the sight, smell, taste and touch. abstract, non-physical world of thoughts, theories and2. Ordering abilities are the ways in which information is mental constructions. Reality consists of words and systematized, arranged and distributed. Ordering may concepts, such as justice and peace. The thinking is logical, be a. sequential (linear, step by step and methodical) analytical and evaluative. They have outstanding ability to or b. random- (non -linear) with multiple patterns of outline, correlate, compare and categorize. data being processed simultaneously and holistically. Some learning activities include: listening to lectures,3. Four different learning styles have been identified: comparing and contrasting different accounts and interpretations of events, project research and the synthesis Concrete Sequential (CS) of ideas and information in essay or project form, library Abstract Sequential (AS) study and group plenary discussion. Abstract Random (AR) and Concrete Random (CR) Abstract Random (AR) The real world of the dominant Abstract Random is theTeacher should prepare different materials and activities to non-physical world of feelings, emotions and imagination.develop their students learning process. If the students feel “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  25. 25. 28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfantasy and imagery, imaginative writing and thepreparation and production of multimedia presentations.Concrete Random (CR)For this domain the concrete physical world is the startingpoint. The learners way of thinking is impulsive and she/hecan make intuitive leaps towards identifying and unifyingprinciples behind experiences. Learning activities to suitthis domain are: experimental units, simulation games, roleplays, problem-solving exercises, independent study,practical experiments and exercises which challenge thestudent to find alternative paths to a particular goal. Thefollowing chart from Bernice Mc Carthy is reproduced tohelp teachers visualize the four quadrants and becomeaware of their own characteristics for classroom purposes. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  26. 26. 29 STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experience and application - integrates experience with self- seeks hidden possibilities and excitement - seeks meaning, clarity and integrity- needs to know what can be done with things - needs to be personally involved- learns by trial and error - absorbs reality- perceives information concretely and processes it actively - perceives information concretely and processes it- adaptable to and relishes change reflectively- excels in situations calling for flexibility - interested in people and culture- tends to take risks - divergent thinkers who believe in their own experience- often reaches accurate conclusions in the absence of and excel in viewing concrete situations from manylogical evidence perspectives- functions by acting and testing experience - model themselves on those they respect- Strengths: acting and carrying out plans - learn by listening and sharing ideas- Goals: making things happen, bringing action to concepts - function through social interaction- Favorite Questions: If? What can this become? - Strengths : innovation and imagination (ideas, people) - Goals : self-involvement in important issues, bringing unity to diversity - Favorite Questions: Why ? Why Not ? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  27. 27. 30 STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER? STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usability, utility, results - seeks facts- needs to know how things work - needs to know what the experts think- learns by testing theories that seem sensible - learns by thinking through ideas- skill-oriented - values sequential thinking, needs details- perceives information abstractly and processes it actively - perceives information abstractly and processes it- needs hands-on experiences reflectively- enjoys problem solving -restricts judgment to concrete - less interested in people than ideasthings - critiques information and collects data-resets being given answers and limited tolerance of fuzzy - thorough and industrious, re-examining facts if situationsideas. are perplexing- needs to know how things she is asked to do will help in - enjoys traditional classroomreal life. - functions by thinking things through and adapting to- functions through inferences drawn from sensory expertsexperience - Strengths: creating concepts and models- Strengths. practical application of ideas - Goals : self-satisfaction, intellectual recognition- Goal: bringing their view of the present into line with future - Favorite Question: What?security- Favorite Question: How does it work? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  28. 28. 31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES 3. Interpersonal: the ability to understand other people andThe theory of multiple intelligences was developed by work effectively with them and to notice who plays withHoward Gardner who introduces the concept of developing them at school, and why. How you can nurture: Givemore than one type of intelligence. Traditionally, only the children lots of opportunities to talk about one anotherlinguistic and logical mathematical intelligences were and their social interactions, and to problem-solveconsidered by teachers and educators. For more than conflicts together, play games in which one has to figureeighty years an intelligent person was the one who had a out the knowledge or intentions of other players.high I.Q.Thomas Asmstrong in the last plenary session of TESOL’97 4. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand things aboutin Orlando Florida encouraged teachers to be careful in oneself, how one is similar to, different from others;their classroom settings when developing the different remind oneself to remember to do something; know howtypes of intelligences and to develop the other types, to soothe oneself when sad. How you can nurture: Letbesides the two mentioned previously. children express their own unique emotions,The following is a summary presented by Mary Ann preferences, and strategies; help them understand theirChristison at the National Conference for Teachers of own wishes and fears and how best to deal with them.English, in San Jose, January 1997. In this summary theyhave incorporated the naturalistic intelligence. 5. Bodily/kinesthetic: The ability to use the body or parts of the body (hands, feet, etc.) to solve problems, as inWe present Dr. Mary Ann Christison’s summary of Multiple playing a ballgame, dancing, or making things with theIntelligences. hands. How you can nurture: Provide opportunities for physical challenges throughout the day, not just1. Musical: the ability to produce and recognize simple outdoors. songs; play with these melodies, varying speed and rhythm. How you can nurture: Incorporate music daily. 6. Linguistic. The ability to use language to express Use a tape recorder for listening, singing along, and meaning, understand others, tell a simple story; react recording songs and rhythmic and melodic instruments. appropriately to stories with different moods; learn new vocabulary or a second language that is used naturally.2. Logical / mathematical: the ability to understand the How you can nurture: Make sure your program is rich basic properties of numbers, adding or taking away; with language opportunities and that children’s linguistic appreciate principles of cause and effect, one-to-one expression is listened to and appreciated. correspondence; ability to predict, as in which objects will float, sink, etc. How you can nurture: Provide 7. Spatial: the ability to be able to form a mental image of manipulatives to help children experiment with numbers; large ( a home) and local (a block building) spatial use simple machines to help children think about cause layouts; find one’s way around a new building. How you and effect. can nurture: Provide many opportunities for mapping of “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  29. 29. 32 the classroom encourage children to vary the VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND arrangements of materials in the space. EVALUATION SUGGESTIONS8. Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or As it has been stated previously, The National Educational animals in one’s environment, for example, to learn the Policy, "Towards the 21 st Century", encourages teachers characteristics of different birds. How you can nurture: to create an active and stimulating atmosphere for their Play games in which children recognize fine distinctions students in the E.F.L. class and also when assessing. among members of a plant or animal group; explore the outdoors regularly and bring the outdoors in; provide One of the main characteristics of the policy is the belief sample books, visual, and props related to the natural that students should exercise their cognitive skills as well as world. their linguistic ones. The policy emphasizes learning processes and sets out the cognitive operations students Lately, they have named as you have noticed two should master before they can achieve certain learningother types of intelligence: the naturalistic, and the goals. Students are also encouraged to work with eachemotional intelligence. These two inclusions give a wide other and to learn from each other.range of possibilities to classroom teachers to incorporateas many experiences as possible to help students develop To cope with the E.F.L. approach used in teaching, thewholly. At the same time, teachers must be aware of assessing techniques used should reflect the dynamicreceiving new information applicable in their class to classroom procedures and should promote critical thinkingimprove the teaching and learning process. among the students in any learning activity they perform such as: information-gap, opinion-gap, problem solving, games and critical cultural incidents which help the learners appreciate their own culture and the culture of the target language. The first levels 7, 8 and 9 belong to the III Cycle of the General Basic Education and are the basic levels where students are learning the main features of the English language as well as some relevant sociocultural features learned through the development of the four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Higher levels, 10 and 11, have the opportunity to learn more about the language and culture they are learning and their level of performance is also high. As a consequence the assessment tasks should correspond to their “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  30. 30. 33knowledge of the language and their development of the PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENINGlanguage skills. a. The language used should be delivered at normalGENERAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES speed. b. The input should be delivered twice.When teachers are planning a test, classroom assessment c. The language used should be as authentic a possible.or students self-assessment, the tasks assigned should d. If using tapes, recordings should be of excellentfollow the following features : quality. e. Recording equipment has to be in excellent conditions.a. Tasks should provide a purpose for using the f. The setting should be free of noise. language.b. Tasks should provide a context for language use rather PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING SPEAKING than just isolated items.c. Tasks should lead towards real language use, to give a. Give the students more than one task to judge the students the opportunities to do the sorts of things students speaking ability. native speakers do with the language. b. Set only tasks and topics that the students should bed. Tasks should promote individual and group activities, able to cope with in their own language. to allow the students to learn by themselves as c. Create a pleasant atmosphere so that students will not individuals as well as from their peers. feel threatened.e. Tasks should allow students to experience what they d. Teachers should avoid talking too much when have practiced in the classroom: using activities such interviewing students. as information gap, problem solving, etc. e. Encourage the students to speak.f. Tasks should simulate learning situations to allow f. Teachers should design different instruments such as students to re-organize and re-plan their learning rating scales and check-lists to recall students strategies. performance.g. Tasks should provide opportunities for critical thinking, PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING READING they should motivate the students creative thinking skills , so they can solve communication problems by a. The tasks should be stated briefly and concisely. using the language. b. In the case of multiple-choice questions, alternativesh. Tasks should be suitable for the students age, level in should have a parallel structure. school and language proficiency. c. A variety of assessment techniques must be used. d. Skills students master in their native language must be tested first. e. Texts length should be appropriate for the students’ level. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
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