4         LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS           PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO                                A partir del Eje transve...
5La educación ambiental se considera como el instrumentoidóneo para la construcción de una cultura ambiental delas persona...
6   •   Enfrenta situaciones de acoso, abuso y violencia,         social de la salud, mediante procesos de enseñanza –    ...
7y educada en relación con el marco legal brindado por el             comunidad ejercitando la resolución de conflictospaí...
8mediación y de Valores y Actitudes, posterior a laidentificación realizada desde los Programas de Estudio.El proceso de t...
9                                                  Comisión Programas 2003                                                ...
10             Presentation (Temas Transversales)…………………………………………………………………………….…                              4           ...
117º LEVELIntroductory unit………………………………………………………………………………………………………                                     37    1. Exchange g...
12  1. Sports and leisure activities……………………………………………………………………………………                       81  2. Life and achievements of...
13                7º Level                                8º Level                                   9º Level             ...
14                                                                          -     develop students understanding of themse...
15In sum, learning English as a foreign language will                 4. Achieving sustainability in production and thecon...
16The design of the syllabus encourages participative              IV. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING THEinteraction, ...
17ethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvementin community activities.                                    ...
18Cultural Component                                              considered as a social process in which human beings    ...
19production. An equal amount of classroom time should be          teaching program although listening is fully practiced ...
204.  Provide the students with practice in listening             To promote the development of this skill, it is necessar...
21anticipate the content of a text from its title and illustrations     something which is interesting, amusing, exciting,...
22-    Skimming: a quick running of the eyes over a text to get   10. integrate the other skills before, while or after th...
23a. Preparationb. Demonstrationc. Time to introduce the              their own as well as English speaking cultures. Alls...
24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH                             LEARNER                                            TEACHER-   Cen...
25LEARNING STRATEGIES                                              Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective,...
26                   DIRECT STRATEGIES                                     INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies        ...
27LEARNING STYLES                                                  their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation ...
28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfan...
29STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER                              STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experience an...
30STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER?                            STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usability, util...
31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES                                                                  3. Interpersonal: the aiblity to...
32  the classroom encourage children to            vary   the  arrangementes of materials in the space.8. Naturalist: The ...
33VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND                               knowledge of the language and their development of the...
34PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENING                             e.  Texts length should be appropriate for the students’ ...
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
Programas  de Ingles   III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)
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Programas de Ingles III Ciclo (Englishpost.org)

  1. 1. 4 LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO A partir del Eje transversal de los valores y de las obligaciones asumidas por el estado desde la legislaciónLos cambios sociales, económicos, culturales, científicos, existente, en Costa Rica se han definido los siguientesambientales y tecnológicos del mundo contemporáneo, Temas transversales: Cultura Ambiental para elhan exigido al currículo educativo no solo aportar Desarrollo Sostenible, Educación Integral de laconocimientos e información, sino también favorecer el Sexualidad, Educación para la Salud y Vivencia de losdesarrollo de valores, actitudes, habilidades y destrezas Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la Paz.que apunten al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de laspersonas y de las sociedades (Marco de Acción Regional Para cada uno de los temas transversales se han definidode “Educación para Todos en las Américas”, Santo una serie de competencias por desarrollar en los y lasDomingo, 2000). Sin embargo, existe en nuestro Sistema estudiantes a lo largo de su período de formaciónEducativo una dificultad real de incorporar nuevas educativa. Las Competencias se entienden como: “Unasignaturas o contenidos relacionados con los temas conjunto integrado de conocimientos, procedimientos,emergentes de relevancia para nuestra sociedad, pues se actitudes y valores, que permite un desempeñocorre el riesgo de saturar y fragmentar los programas de satisfactorio y autónomo ante situaciones concretas de laestudio. vida personal y social” (Comisión Nacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). Las mismas deben orientar losUna alternativa frente a estas limitaciones es la procesos educativos y el desarrollo mismo de latransversalidad, la cual se entiende como un “Enfoque transversalidad.Educativo que aprovecha las oportunidades que ofrece elcurrículo, incorporando en los procesos de diseño, Desde la condición pedagógica de las competencias sedesarrollo, evaluación y administración curricular, han definido competencias de la transversalidad como:determinados aprendizajes para la vida, integradores y “Aquellas que atraviesan e impregnan horizontal ysignificativos, dirigidos al mejoramiento de la calidad de verticalmente, todas las asignaturas del currículo yvida individual y social. Es de carácter holístico, requieren para su desarrollo del aporte integrado yaxiológico, interdisciplinario y contextualizado” (Comisión coordinado de las diferentes disciplinas de estudio, asíNacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). como de una acción pedagógica conjunta” (Beatriz Castellanos, 2002). De esta manera, están presentesDe acuerdo con los lineamientos emanados del Consejo tanto en las programaciones anuales como a lo largo deSuperior de Educación (SE 339-2003), el único eje todo el sistema educativo.transversal del currículo costarricense es el de valores.De esta manera, el abordaje sistemático de los Valores en A continuación se presenta un resumen del enfoque deel currículo nacional, pretende potenciar el desarrollo cada tema transversal y las competencias respectivas:socio-afectivo y ético de los y las estudiantes, a partir dela posición humanista expresada en la Política Educativa y Cultura Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenibleen la Ley Fundamental de Educación. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  2. 2. 5La educación ambiental se considera como el instrumentoidóneo para la construcción de una cultura ambiental delas personas y las sociedades, en función de alcanzar un Educación Integral de la Sexualidaddesarrollo humano sostenible, mediante un proceso queles permita comprender su interdependencia con el A partir de las “Políticas de Educación Integral de laentorno, a partir del conocimiento crítico y reflexivo de la Expresión de la Sexualidad Humana” (2001), una vivenciarealidad inmediata, tanto biofísica como social, madura de la sexualidad humana requiere de unaeconómica, política y cultural. educación integral, por lo que deben atenderse los aspectos físicos, biológicos, psicológicos, socioculturales,Tiene como objetivo que, a partir de ese conocimiento y éticos y espirituales. No puede reducirse a los aspectosmediante actividades de valoración y respeto, las y los biológicos reproductivos, ni realizarse en un contextoestudiantes se apropien de la realidad, de manera que, la desprovisto de valores y principios éticos y morales sobrecomunidad educativa participe activamente en la la vida, el amor, la familia y la convivencia.detección y solución de problemas, en el ámbito local,pero con visión planetaria. La educación de la sexualidad humana inicia desde la primera infancia y se prolonga a lo largo de la vida. Es unCompetencias por desarrollar derecho y un deber, en primera instancia, de las madres y los padres de familia. Le corresponde al Estado una • Aplica los conocimientos adquiridos mediante acción subsidaria y potenciar la acción de las familias en procesos críticos y reflexivos de la realidad, en la el campo de la educación y la información, como lo resolución de problemas (ambientales, expresa el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. económicos, sociales, políticos, éticos) de manera creativa y mediante actitudes, prácticas y valores El sistema educativo debe garantizar vivencias y que contribuyan al logro del desarrollo sostenible y estrategias pedagógicas que respondan a las una mejor calidad de vida. potencialidades de la población estudiantil, en • Participa comprometida, activa y responsablemente concordancia con su etapa de desarrollo y con los en proyectos tendientes a la conservación, contextos socioculturales en los cuales se desenvuelven. recuperación y protección del ambiente; identificando sus principales problemas y Competencias por desarrollar necesidades, generando y desarrollando alternativas de solución, para contribuir al • Se relaciona con hombres y mujeres de manera mejoramiento de su calidad de vida, la de los equitativa, solidaria y respetuosa de la diversidad. demás y al desarrollo sostenible. • Toma decisiones referentes a su sexualidad desde • Practica relaciones armoniosas consigo mismo, con un proyecto de vida basado en el conocimiento los demás, y los otros seres vivos por medio de crítico de sí mismo, su realidad sociocultural y en actitudes y aptitudes responsables, reconociendo la sus valores éticos y morales. necesidad de interdependencia con el ambiente. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  3. 3. 6 • Enfrenta situaciones de acoso, abuso y violencia, social de la salud, mediante procesos de enseñanza – mediante la identificación de recursos internos y aprendizajes dinámicos, donde se privilegia la externos oportunos. comunicación de doble vía, así como la actitud crítica y • Expresa su identidad de forma auténtica, participativa del estudiantado. responsable e integral, favoreciendo el desarrollo personal en un contexto de interrelación y manifestación permanente de sentimientos, Competencias por desarrollar actitudes, pensamientos, opiniones y derechos. • Promueve procesos reflexivos y constructivos en su • Vivencia un estilo de vida que le permite, en forma familia, dignificando su condición de ser humano, crítica y reflexiva, mantener y mejorar la salud integral para identificar y proponer soluciones de acuerdo al y la calidad de vida propia y la de los demás. contexto sociocultural en el cual se desenvuelve. • Toma decisiones que favorecen su salud integral y la de quienes lo rodean, a partir del conocimiento de síEducación para la Salud mismo y de los demás, así como del entorno en que se desenvuelve.La educación para la salud es un derecho fundamental de • Elige mediante un proceso de valoración crítica, lostodos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El estado de salud, medios personales más adecuados para enfrentar lasestá relacionado con su rendimiento escolar y con su situaciones y factores protectores y de riesgo para lacalidad de vida. De manera que, al trabajar en educación salud integral propia y la de los demás.para la salud en los centros educativos, según las • Hace uso en forma responsable, crítica y participativanecesidades de la población estudiantil, en cada etapa de de los servicios disponibles en el sector salud,su desarrollo, se están forjando ciudadanos con estilos de educación y en su comunidad, adquiriendovida saludables, y por ende, personas que construyen y compromisos en beneficio de la calidad de los mismos.buscan tener calidad de vida, para sí mismas y paraquienes les rodean. Vivencia de los Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la PazLa educación para la salud debe ser un proceso social,organizado, dinámico y sistemático que motive y oriente a Costa Rica es una democracia consolidada pero enlas personas a desarrollar, reforzar, modificar o sustituir permanente estado de revisión y retroalimentación, por loprácticas por aquellas que son más saludables en lo cual la vigencia de los derechos humanos es inherente alindividual, lo familiar y lo colectivo y en su relación con el compromiso de fortalecer una cultura de paz y demedio ambiente. democracia.De manera que, la educación para la salud en el En los escenarios educativos es oportuno gestionarescenario escolar no se limita únicamente a transmitir mecanismos que promuevan una verdadera participacióninformación, sino que busca desarrollar conocimientos, ciudadana en los ámbitos familiar, comunal, institucional yhabilidades y destrezas que contribuyan a la producción nacional. Para ello, la sociedad civil debe estar informada “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  4. 4. 7y educada en relación con el marco legal brindado por el comunidad ejercitando la resolución de conflictospaís, de manera que, desarrolle una participación efectiva de manera pacífica y la expresión del afecto, lay no se reduzca a una participación periódica con carácter ternura y el amor.electoral. • Aplica estrategias para la solución pacífica de conflictos en diferentes contextosSe debe propiciar un modelo de sistema democrático que • Respeta las diversidades individuales, culturalespermita hacer del ejercicio de la ciudadanía una actividad éticas, social y generacional.atractiva, interesante y cívica que conllevaresponsabilidades y derechos. Abordaje Metodológico de la Transversalidad desde los Programas de Estudio y en el PlaneamientoCompetencias por desarrollar Didáctico • Practica en la vivencia cotidiana los derechos y La transversalidad es un proceso que debe evidenciarse responsabilidades que merece como ser humano y en las labores programáticas del Sistema Educativo ser humana, partiendo de una convivencia Nacional; desde los presentes Programas de estudio democrática, ética, tolerante y pacífica. hasta el Planeamiento didáctico que el ó la docente • Asume su realidad como persona, sujeto de realizan en el aula. derechos y responsabilidades. • Elige las alternativas personales, familiares y de Con respecto a los Programas de Estudio, en algunos convivencia social que propician la tolerancia, la Procedimientos y Valores se podrán visualizar procesos justicia y la equidad entre géneros de acuerdo a los que promueven, explícitamente, la incorporación de los contextos donde se desenvuelve. temas transversales. Sin embargo, las opciones para • Participa en acciones inclusivas para la vivencia de realizar convergencias no se limitan a las mencionadas en la equidad en todos los contextos socioculturales. los programas, ya que el ó la docente puede identificar • Ejercita los derechos y responsabilidades para la otras posibilidades para el desarrollo de los procesos de convivencia democrática vinculada a la cultura de transversalidad. paz. • Es tolerante para aceptar y entender las diferencias En este caso, se presenta como tarea para las y los culturales, religiosas y étnicas que, propician docentes identificar -a partir de una lectura exhaustiva de posibilidades y potencialidades de y en la los conocimientos previos del estudiantado, del contexto convivencia democrática y cultura de paz. sociocultural, de los acontecimientos relevantes y actuales • Valora las diferencias culturales de los distintos de la sociedad-, cuáles de los objetivos de los programas modos de vida. representan oportunidades para abordar la • Practica acciones, actitudes y conductas dirigidas a transversalidad y para el desarrollo de las competencias. la no violencia en el ámbito escolar, en la convivencia con el grupo de pares, familia y Con respecto al planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad debe visualizarse en las columnas de Actividades de “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  5. 5. 8mediación y de Valores y Actitudes, posterior a laidentificación realizada desde los Programas de Estudio.El proceso de transversalidad en el aula debe considerar COMISIÓN TEMAS TRANSVERSALESlas características de la población estudiantil y lasparticularidades del entorno mediato e inmediato para el M.Sc. Priscilla Arce León. DANEA.logro de aprendizajes más significativos. M.Sc. Viviana Richmond. Departamento de EducaciónAdemás del planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad Integral de la Sexualidad Humanadebe visualizarse y concretizarse en el plan Institucional,potenciando la participación activa, crítica y reflexiva de M.Sc. Mario Segura Castillo. Departamento delas madres, los padres y encargados, líderes comunales, Evaluación Educativainstancias de acción comunal, docentes, personaladministrativo y de toda la comunidad educativa. M.Sc. Carlos Rojas Montoya. Departamento de Educación Ambiental.En este sentido, el centro educativo debe tomar lasdecisiones respectivas para que exista una coherenciaentre la práctica cotidiana institucional y los temas yprincipios de la transversalidad. Esto plantea, endefinitiva, un reto importante para cada institucióneducativa hacia el desarrollo de postulados humanistas,críticos y ecológicos. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  6. 6. 9 Comisión Programas 2003 M. Sc. Ana Isabel Campos Centeno M. Sc. Yamileth Cháves Lic. Doreen Walters Brown M. A. Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Coordinadora Agradecimiento a todos los Asesores Regionales de Inglés por su apoyo y recomendaciones.COMISIÓN REDACTORA : 1996Cira Delgado QuesadaLeonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeDoreen Walters BrownRosa Elena Simón RojasCoordinadores Revisión : 2001Leonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeMarco Tulio Villegas RubíASESORÍA TÉCNICA BRITÁNICAMichael A. Vaughan TABLE OF CONTENTS III CICLO “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  7. 7. 10 Presentation (Temas Transversales)…………………………………………………………………………….… 4 Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 10 Index of units………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 11 Unidades de estudio por nivel……………………………………………………………………………………….. 13I. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 14II. The Purpose of English Language Teaching in our Educational System …………….…………………….….. 14III. Implications of the Educational Policy in the Learning and Teaching of English …………………………...…. 15IV. English as Means of Implementing the Educational Policy ………..…………………………………………….. 16V. English as a Foreign Language in the Costa Rican Educational System..……………………………………... 17 - General Guidelines for the Mediation of Learning…………………………………………………………….… 18 - Methodological Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………….… 23 - Learning Strategies………..…………………………………………………………………………………….…. 25 - Learning Styles ………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 27 - Multiple Intelligencies…………………………………………………………………………………………….… 31VII. E.F.L. Classroom Assesment and Evaluation Suggestions…………..…………………………………………… 33VIII. Objectives of the English Program in the Third Cycle of Basic Education in Costa Rica………………..…….. 35IX - Seventh Grade…………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 37 - Eighth Grade………..………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55 - Ninth Grade…………..……………………………………………………………………………………………... 80X Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………………………....………….. 100XII. Bibliography…..…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………... 106XI. Annex 1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114 Annexo 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115XII. Bibliografía…...…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………….... 118INDEX OF UNITS “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  8. 8. 117º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 1. Exchange greetings, leave takings and introductions…………………………………………………… 38 2. Identification to oneself to others…………………………………………………………………………... 40 3. Directions or instructions………………………………………………………………………………….… 42 4. How a dictionary is organized…………………………………………………………………………….… 44 5. Classroom objects……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 6. Location of people and objects……………………………………………………………………………... 46 7. Description of something……………………………………………………………………………………. 47 8. Use a dictionary to spell words……………………………………………………………………………… 49 9. Goods and services………………………………………………………………………………………..… 50 10. Instructions……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52Summary of language outcomes…………………………………………………………………………………… 548º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………...…. 55 1. Identification of family members and partner’s relatives…………………………………………………… 56 2. Description of people’s physical appearance……………………………………………………………….. 58 3. Comparison of people’s physical features and personality traits………………………………………….. 60 4. Meaning of words according to a give context………………………………………………………………. 62 5. Relevant characteristics of the means of transportation available….…………………………………….. 63 6. Personal travel plans…………………………………………………………………………………………... 66 7. Acceptance and refusal of goods and services…………………………………………………………….. 69 8. Likes, dislikes and preferences………………………………………………………………………………. 71 9. Grammatical functions of words……………………………………………………………………………… 74 10. Give and follow directions……………………………………………………………………………………. 75 11. Occupations……………………………………………………………….……………………………………. 77Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………… 799 º LEVELIntroductory unit………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  9. 9. 12 1. Sports and leisure activities…………………………………………………………………………………… 81 2. Life and achievements of famous athletes and musicians………………………………………………… 83 3. Operation of electronic equipment……………………………………………………………………………. 86 4. Roots, suffixes and prefixes…………………………………………………………………………………… 88 5. Transportation, quality, rentability and use…………………………………………………………………... 89 6. Computers and technology today in our lives……………………………………………………………….. 91 7. Natural resources and the promotions of conservation…………………………………………………..… 93 8. Specific information of words in a given context (registers)………………………………………………... 96 9. Causes, effects, and prevention of environmental pollution………………………………………………. 97Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………… 99UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO POR NIVELIII CICLO “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  10. 10. 13 7º Level 8º Level 9º Level Units Units UnitsExchange greetings, leave takings Identification of family members and Sports and leisure activitiesand introductions. partner’s relatives Life and achievements of famous athletes andIdentification to oneself to others. Description of people’s physical musiciansDirections or instructions appearance Operation of electronic equipmentHow a dictionary is organized Comparison of people’s physical Roots, suffixes and prefixesClassroom objects features and personality traits Transportation, quality, rentability and useLocation of people and objects Meaning of words according to a give Computers and technology today in our livesDescription of something context Natural resources and the promotions ofUse a dictionary to spell words Relevant characteristics of conservationGoods and services the means of transportation available Specific information of words in a givenInstructions Personal travel plans context (registers) Acceptance and refusal of goods and Causes, effects, and prevention of services environmental pollution Likes, dislikes and preferences Grammatical functions of words Give and follow directions OccupationsI INTRODUCTION to help the students face life and work situations which require an average command of English, with the desire"The English Syllabus", was written within the principles that this preparation will allow them to participate activelystated both in our Constitution, The Education Law and in into the challenges of the global economy for the benefitthe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" in order of the country. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  11. 11. 14 - develop students understanding of themselvesII. THE PURPOSES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE and their own culture.TEACHING IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Along with the required study of the mother tongue, theThe large number of individuals who speak English either study of second languages contributes to enrich the schoolas their first or as a second or foreign language justifies the curriculum because of the following reasons:fact that Englis is considered a universal language.Likewise, within the scientific, technological and humanistic - it provides a combination of linguistic skills bothspheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. Written. physical and intellectual with personal and socialConsequently, teaching English in our school system development;responds to basic needs: - it offers better opportunities to develop oral and written communication skills;1. To offer students a second language which can - it inculcates valuable study skills such predicting, anable them to communicate within a broader social- selecting, comparing, and interpreting information and economic context in and outside Costa Rica. memorizing, and focussing on general and detailed2. To give students a tool to directly access scientific, meaning in listening and speaking; technological and humanistic information and , in this - it helps develop the learners awareness of cross- way expand their knowledge of the world. curricular at the time that builds on the four communication skills. From the perspective of those two basic needs the educational aims of teaching English are listed as In addition to the above reasons, the study of a foreign follows: language, by definition, adds a distinctive dimension of its own since: - develop the ability to communicate for practical purposes; - it exposes learners to new experiences and enables - frame a sound basis of the language skills, and them to make connections in a way which, attitudes required for further study, work and otherwise, would not be possible. leisure; - The sounds and intonation patterns of the second - offer insights into the culture and civilization of language present a challenge to learners capacity to English speaking countries.; discriminate and imitate. - develop an awareness of the nature of language - It enhaces the learner´s self confidence of their and language learning; abilities provoking a sense of self-achievement and - incite enjoyment and intellectual stimulation; discovery which grow along with a gradual - encourage positive attitudes towards to foreign proficiency. languages and cultures; - It improves the learners understanding of not only - promote cognitive skills like application analysis, target cultures but also their own. memorization, inferring; “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  12. 12. 15In sum, learning English as a foreign language will 4. Achieving sustainability in production and thecontribute to an integral formation of the learners which will economic in general represents a challenge foranable them to be able to insert into the coming century in education. The country needs more qualified peoplea lively and healthy way. in order to increase productivity and improve the spirit of competitiveness. Furthermore, there is aIII. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN need to integrate the country more effectively into THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN the global economy. OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. 5. The information or the content the learners handle should be up-to-date and should be relevant toThe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" gives global development in the 21st century.the learners the opportunity to express their care for their 6. Education should aim to solidly reinforce values andcountry, its democratic environment, cultural diversity and attitudes. This is a moral imperative.deep respect for law, nature and peace. At the same time,the policy encourages Costa Rican people to become The underlying principles for our educational approach,positive leaders and critical thinkers through activities humanism, rationalism and constructivism are clearly statedpromoting a democratic environment, resulting in the in the Policy.reinforcement of values such as self-indentity and authentic Every person is considered capable of achieving his/her fullgrowth as independent and interdependent learners. potential. This entails interacting harmoniously with her/his surroundings, in three dimensions of human development:Some of the basic principles of the Policy can be The cognitive, socio-affective and psychomotive.summarized as follows: Every person constantly contributes both to the common good and the development of education, and is responsible 1. The citizens should be able to develop as persons for improving the quality of human, individual and collective through seeking for opportunities of self-fulfillment life. and happiness while contributing to the development Education ought to be a permanent formative process, of their country. which each person has not only a right, but also a duty to exercise. 2. Education should promote the broadening of Achieving quality in education is an integral process understanding through challenging teaching through which the results express the initial aims. Through classroom situations and opportunities that can arise this process learners are offered equality of opportunities to self-growth and learn how to learn. succeed and appropriate educational provision according to their needs, problems and aspirations. 3. Education should contribute to narrow down social – economic gaps by providing the individuals with the Educational research at national, provincial, regional and proper opportunities to intergrate into everyday institutional levels will ensure more systematic problem-solving situtations, all this aiming to implementation of the policy from everyday classroom promote a self-suficient society. practice to administrative decision taking. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  13. 13. 16The design of the syllabus encourages participative IV. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING THEinteraction, and its adaptation. EDUCATIONAL POLICYThe implementation of educational provision encouragesdemocratic participation, cooperative and self-reliant English, in common with other subjects in the Costa Ricanattitudes. curriculum, must provide the learner with the opportunity to develop awareness of the urgent need for the balancedThe process of "mediation" for the construction of learning, development of our environment, our human resources,and the transference of knowledge is framed, primarily, and also the socio-political and the economy and means ofwithin an epistemological-constructivist position. The ties production. This balance is essential to ensure the successwith other disciplines allow for deductive as well as for of the new era of sustainable development.inductive processes.The evaluation of the learning processes must reflect The English language syllabus provides the necessarycoherence between the three components. It must also situations to support each one of the areas mentionedconsider both the process and the product. above. As far as environment is concerned, it emphasizesEvaluation is conceived of as an instrument to monitor the analysis of the cause and effect of the use and misuselearning, and so provides feedback on the educational of natural resources and the possible solutions, as well asprocess. In addition, it enhances the quality of education the value of our existing resources and the ecologicalthrough its three functions: diagnostic, formative and diversity we possess. It also reinforces the harmonioussummative. The methodology proposed centers on the development of human beings and nature.activity of the learner as builder of his/her own learning.The student, as the main focus of the curriculum, carries Our syllabus pays special attention to those topics relatedout the learning process, is considered to represent an to the basic needs of highly qualified people consideringinherited culture, and has the liberty to select his / her own their successful realization in time, society and in theway. national and international surroundings. An example of thisThe teacher, is conceived of as facilitator, collaborator and is provided by the topics which conduct research into anadvisor in the students learning. Therefore, the teacher exchange information on health; the symptoms andacquires responsibility for the quality of learning, together prevention of common and more recent diseases.with the family and the educational authorities. Likewise, drug abuse is another topic for discussion in theIn summary, learning English as a foreign language in English class.Costa Rica will allow students to develop communicative The syllabus takes into account other relevant areas of acompetence, to gain knowledge of a new culture, beliefs well-rounded education, such as the job market andand attitudes and to understand the messages given and, careers, in terms of active participation in the evolution ofreflect on them. They also have the opportunity to analyze society.the real message and intentions of speakers in order to Other aspects like the socio-political development ofdistinguish the negative from the positive and to develop citizens is dealt with explicitly, leading to personal, andgreater and more desirable autonomy. collective improvement through themes relating to values such as: gender equality, political liberties, and respect for “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  14. 14. 17ethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvementin community activities. Through the learning of the language, the learner canIn the field of the economy and production, the syllabus compare and apply different registers (formal and informal)provides for the promotion of a productive culture in and recognize expressions in British, American and otherharmony with the environment, coupled with the efficient varieties of English.use of energy and resources.In all cases, English can be the means for exposure to and BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE SUBJECT MATTERacquisition of valuable and permanent behavior patterns.These patterns, will fulfill his/her own needs, and those of For the purpose of studying the English language, we havethe country. divided the subject matter into three components:The present generations should respect sustainable 1. Formal 2. Functional 3. Culturaldevelopment to guarantee that future generations have theopportunity to satisfy their own needs. Formal ComponentV. ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE COSTA This component has been traditionally called the RICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM grammatical component. In this sense, the structures of the language have been graded, selected and chosenEnglish is conceived of as a linguistic and cultural tool for according to the different functions of the language and thecommunication, which allows the learner to complement topics to be studied. Lexics, syntax and morphology arehis/her whole education. His/her knowledge of part of this component.English contributes to the social, economical and By itself, the formal component is an important part of thetechnological development. It also allows the learner to language, but it has to be studied as a means to effectiveapply techniques to understand and produce appropriate communication.oral and written messages.In the end, the learner will apply his/her knowledge of Furthermore, the teaching of grammar should be focusedEnglish to accept and adapt him/her self to constant on the practical use of oral and written language forchanges confidently. communication.ENGLISH AS AN OBJECT OF STUDY Functional ComponentThe object of study of the English language in our The functional component refers to the communicativecurriculum is written and oral communication, emphasizing purpose for which we use the language. Language is notthe four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading only forms; we have to start looking at what people do withand writing. The practice of these skills permits the those forms. For example, expressing ones opinionsstudents to communicate efficiently according to the asking for someone`s opinion, expressing doubts, etc.knowledge acquired. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  15. 15. 18Cultural Component considered as a social process in which human beings meet human experiences. These experiences, contributeThis component considers understanding of the culture of to shape the capacities and values that will serve humansthe country or countries where the language is spoken. to give a contribution to the social welfare.Knowing the features of the target culture makes it easier tounderstand the language itself. Some of the cultural The Policy establishes an educational process whichfeatures that should be taken into account are: values, provides similar opportunities for everybody: theattitudes, behavior, patterns, points of view, ways of achievement of high standards of education as well asthinking, appreciation, etc. opportunities that take into consideration the participants needs, problems and expectations. Another feature of theThe cultural component should always be present in the Policy is the way it emphasizes the need to provide positiveother components. Language and culture go together in learning conditions.order to communicate social meanings. This means that thelanguage must be presented in meaningful situations The Policy also states that learners acquire education to beaccording to the appropriate cultural contexts. able to participate as individuals in their own development and the development of society; for that reason, they haveThe pertinent use of the three components guarantees the to be acquainted with the knowledge that humanity hasrequired communicative competence. This competence been accumulating anddoes not occur by itself. The speaker must acquire linguisticcompetence simultaneously, starting in early stages. The systematizing through history. They must learn about itsmain objective of the whole process of language learning is common uses, thoughts and actions in a particular socialto enable the students to use the language for context. Within this approach "learning" is exploring,communication. experimenting, discovering and reconstructing the learners own knowledge. Learning is described as aGENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MEDIATION OF comprehensible, dynamic and meaningful process for thoseLEARNING who learn. It is guided by the interest shown by the learner towards its acquisition and it is orientated to the acquisitionThe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" of learning. From this perspective the teacher is the personpresents the learner as a human being full of potential with who organizes and guides the learning situations, takingthe possibility to develop him/herself in harmony with the into account not only the students characteristicsthree dimensions of human development: cognitive, socio- (background, learning styles, etc.) but also the curriculum,affective and psycho-motive. Education has to provide this and the cultural and natural context).global development in a given context. In the teaching of English, as mentioned earlier the writtenThe objective of learning is to provide a contribution to and oral aspects of the language are the objects of study.social and personal development. Therefore, education is Emphasis is given to the four basic linguistic abilities:seen as a formative and permanent process. Education is listening and reading comprehension, oral and written “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  16. 16. 19production. An equal amount of classroom time should be teaching program although listening is fully practiced indevoted to the development of each of the four linguistic our classes, there are specific listening activities that shouldskills. In this sense, any learning activity in the be included in the syllabus, such as:development of a topic (should take into consideration theintegration of these skills). In addition the teacher should 1. Distinguishing between sounds, stress and intonationdesign different teaching procedures to approach a topic. patterns.This can be done by emphasizing, for example, listening, 2. Answering quick questions.then reading, speaking and writing, or by altering the steps 3. Understanding comprehension passages.any time the educator deals with a classroom procedure. 4. Listening to broadcasts.The basic idea is to create a highly motivating atmosphere 5. Listening to lectures.to encourage learning. 6. Taking dictation.Whenever the teacher is developing an objective, he/she Teachers should expose the learner to a considerableshould know about the topic itself and the different ways amount of meaningful language input through listening to:he/she will be introducing the development of the skills conversations, descriptions, directions, discussions, drama,listed above. films, songs, sports, reports, advertisements and any other form of authentic spoken language.To help teachers with a general view of the subskills to bedeveloped, we are including a summary of the most The teacher should encourage in the learners therelevant aspects of each main skill: development of the following strategies:Listening 1. Thinking about the purpose of listening. 2. Thinking ahead about what learners already know andListening is one of the most important skills that has to be keep predicting what the speaker will say next.developed in early stages of language learning. Through 3. Focus on what they do, understand and use to helplistening the students should be prepared to cope with: them work out what they dont understand.a. understanding speech in different settings (background noise, distance or unclear sound reproductions) When developing listening comprehension, the activitiesb. becoming acquainted with speech containing false should: starts hesitations, etc. (everyday speech)c. understanding speakers who vary in tempo, speech, 1. Meet the students interests and needs. clarity of articulation and accent, non-native speakers 2. Be designed according to the students performance of the language as well. level. 3. Provide practice in distinguishing between sounds,Listening, understanding and responding in an appropriate stress, intonation patterns, to understand sentences,way is an essential part of communication and, therefore, short texts, etc.regular practice of aural comprehension is a vital part of the “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  17. 17. 204. Provide the students with practice in listening To promote the development of this skill, it is necessary techniques. that students be aware of the following principles:5. State the purpose of the task clearly.6. Make use of background knowledge. 1. Oral speech is acquired through listening and through7. Follow an organized procedure. constant practice.8. Provide the learners with the necessary steps in the 2. Speech delivery, rhythm, intonation and pronunciation development of the activity. are learned by listening to appropriate language9. Engage the learners in a variety of situations which models (tapes, native speakers, teachers and other provide practice, going from memorization to English speakers). evaluation. 3. Learning to speak English means knowing what to talk10. Follow the objectives. about. Introducing knowledge of the world and up-to-11. Be graded. date topics are essential.12. Integrate other language skills. 4. Learning to speak English means saying the appropriate words for a situation at the right time for aSpeaking specific purpose. 5. For the students to speak English it is essential thatThe development of the skills of speaking is the ultimate English is spoken in class and in any other situationgoal for students learning English. It is also a "wish" of when it is required.every Costa Rican; parent, politician and in our society. 6. Since learning to speak means speaking to others, interactive practice must be set up in pairs, groups andHowever, the development of the skill has to be carried out with teachers and visitors.in conjunction with the development of the other skills. In 7. The language tasks designed must be authentic andparticular, speaking and listening are complementary to the same ones that native speakers of the languageeach other in the act of communication. For that reason, use to communicate with others.both should be practiced in close relation to each other. 8. The integration of skills is vital when speaking. e.g. giving an oral explanation of information presented in aThe teacher should provide a variety of opportunities for the chart or diagram.students, in order to bring about the necessary models orlanguage input. ReadingThrough speech, learners acquire the fundamentals of Reading, although often regarded as a passive receptivelanguage pertinent to carry out specific interaction where skill is, in fact, an active skill which involves guessing,they have to exercise the use of some functions, through predicting, and asking questions. These should therefore bethe appropriate language structures, cultural considered when designing reading comprehensionappropriateness and acceptable language input. exercises. It is, for instance, possible to develop the students powers of inference through systematic practice, or introduce questions which encourage students to “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  18. 18. 21anticipate the content of a text from its title and illustrations something which is interesting, amusing, exciting, usefulor the end of a story from the preceding paragraphs. In or leads to a pleasant or beneficial activity.brief, students should be encouraged to transfer the Any reading activity should be :advanced skills they have when reading Spanish to thereading of English. 1. interesting to the students. 2. chosen according to the students interests, age andStudents learning English expect to be able to read the needs.language sooner or later. Their personal expectations may 3. authentic . Its purpose must be the same as for nativevary from wanting to read the lyrics of popular songs to speakers.newspaper ads to magazines or even classical literature. 4. leading to a purpose ( information, details, globalTeachers should, therefore offer a variety of texts and also meaning).remember that students in the same class may read at very 5. graded according to the students level of proficiency.different levels of difficulty in English, just as they do in their 6. able to help the students build on information alreadynative language. acquired in their own language by complementing it with information learned in English.Reading activities should focus on normal reasons for 7. not too culturally bound.reading. People normally read because: 8. integrated with the other language skills. For example:1. They want information for some purpose or because - Reading and writing e.g. summarizing, mentioning they are curious about the topic; what you have read in a letter, note-taking, etc.2. They need instructions in order to perform some tasks - Reading and listening e.g. reading the lyrics while for their work or for their daily life. For instance, they listening to a song recorded information to solve a want to know how an appliance works; they are written problem, matching opinions and texts, etc. interested in a new recipe; they have forms to fill in, Reading and speaking e.g. discussions, debates, etc. etc3. They want to play a new game, do a puzzle or carry out some activity which is pleasant and amusing. 9. flexible and varied.4. They want to keep in touch with friends by 10. meaningful and related directly to the text. correspondence.5. They want to know when or where something will take Teachers should be aware of the students reading place (timetables, program menus, etc.). interests in order to design the appropriate reading6. They want to know what is happening or has comprehension exercises. It is important to emphasize here happened (they read newspapers, magazines, etc.). that students must become effective readers. These reading exercises must be designed to develop theActivities for developing reading skills should make use of following reading skills.these natural needs and interests preferably by supplying “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  19. 19. 22- Skimming: a quick running of the eyes over a text to get 10. integrate the other skills before, while or after the the gist or global meaning of it. writing task is performed.- Scanning: quick overview of a text to find specific 11. motivate the students to express their feelings, information. emotions and points of view in a written form.- Extensive reading: reading longer texts for own pleasure. (involves global understanding). To promote the development of written skills teachers can- Intensive reading: reading shorter texts to extract design a series of activities enabling students: to write specific information (reading for detail). notes and shopping lists, keep records, send messages, write letters to friends, keep diaries, complete reports andWriting write poetry or fiction. All of these authentic tasks should be guided by following principles in which the writer :Writing is a skill which emphasizes the formal expression ofthoughts through written language or graphic symbols. 1. attempts to communicate something.The teacher should facilitate the writing process by 2. has a goal or purpose in mind.providing the necessary guidance for the learner to be able 3. has to establish and maintain contact with the reader.to express her/his knowledge of the topic. 4. has to organize the material by using certain logicalIt is also necessary to define the type of written production and grammatical devices.the students will perform.Any written practice should: Besides these general principles, teachers should pay attention to the rhetorical devices, logical, grammatical and1. be related to the topic being studied. lexical: appropriate to different types of texts, spelling,2. follow the objectives. punctuation and other organizational features.3. be creative.4. take account of the students cognitive knowledge and Writing just like listening, has to be taught by practicing skills. different techniques and types of writing . It should be5. be graded from simple sentence descriptions to more preceded by exposure to a wide range of models of written complex products. language. It is also important to show the students how the6. include the use of appropriate language, style, written language functions as a system of communication. punctuation and other characteristics. The learner also needs to know how to organize sentences7. involve the teacher and students in the development into a coherent text; write different kinds of texts; or select and production of writing. the appropriate style, formal or informal, according to the8. use a collaborative approach in which teachers create task, subject matter and target audience. However, most of together and give each other feedback through the all, tasks must be as realistic as possible. process. Whenever a teacher is ready to introduce an activity9. use real-life tasks for students, write authentic texts focusing on one of the four basic skills described notes and letters. above, he/she should take into account five steps: “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  20. 20. 23a. Preparationb. Demonstrationc. Time to introduce the their own as well as English speaking cultures. Allskill these aspects take place in real-life situations.d. Correction e. Follow-up 6. The teacher and students make decisions together. By doing this, the learner gets completely involved in theIn order to follow these steps, the teacher should language-learning process and becomes responsibleprovide : "Pre-activities" to help the students think for it.about what they already know and find a reason for 7. The objectives of the syllabus develop thelistening, speaking, reading or writing; "While- communicative functions of the language elements.activities" to exploit oral or written speech. Theseexercise different skills to carry out the task assignedand "Post-activities" to link the new information and The following chart provides a better idea of some of theskills with the students own experience and other characteristics of the different components of theskills. communicative approach.METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHThe Communicative approach provides the basis for themethodology used in the English classroom. Its mainfeatures are:1. It creates an stress-free atmosphere conducive to learning a language with plenty of opportunities to communicate.2. It provides ample opportunities for interaction promoting a pleasant, warm and enjoyable environment which features positive feedback for the learner from both the teacher and peers.3. The learners needs and interests are taken into account making them as the center of the learning process.4. The methodology used is participative, dynamic and offers the opportunity for real use of the language.5. The teacher guides the learning process but shares the responsibility with the learners. They use critical thinking to solve problems, work in groups, take risks, discuss different topics, and appreciate and reinforce “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  21. 21. 24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH LEARNER TEACHER- Central, active, creative and participative. - Facilitator, guide.- Responsible for his/her own and others learning, - Participates in process - with learners. planning, resources and assessment. - Not the center of the process.- Confident, motivated. - Takes more time for individual needs.- Develops full potential and builds on interests. - Gains skills and takes responsibility from planners,- Individual/collective roles. writers, linguists. - Shows expert role. AIMS MATERIALS- Communication - Authentic, real-world significance.- Gain transferable skills. - Related to learners needs, interests and culture.- Cooperation - Flexible.- Concentrate on meaning and process. - Motivating and interesting.- Focus on fluency. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT- Successful (even conventional terms). - Real-world context.- Permanent learning. - Beyond classroom, into community. - Relevant, stimulating, interesting. LEARNING STYLE ASSESSMENT- Integrated skills - Communicative competence.- Real-life skills in communicative contexts. - Process-oriented.- Active. - Continuous.- Active-based. - Profiling skills.- Variety of style, pace, etc. - Learning process.- Flexible. - Self and peer assessment. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  22. 22. 25LEARNING STRATEGIES Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective, and social strategies.Learning strategies should be considered when planning atnational, institutional and classroom levels. Metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their ownLearning strategies are operations employed by the learner cognitive processes and to focus, plan and evaluate theirto aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of progress as they move toward communicative competence.information. But they can also be described as specificactions of the learner to make learning easier, faster, more Affective strategies develop the self-confidence andenjoyable, self-directed, effective and transferable. In other perseverance needed for learners to be actively involved inwords, learning strategies are tools students use when they language learning.have to solve a problem, accomplish a task, meet an Social strategies provide increased interaction and moreobjective or attain a goal. emphatic understanding with others.Teachers should be aware of learning strategies in order to Below is Rebecca Oxfords chart on learning strategies.provide opportunities for all of their students to developcommunicative competence.Learning strategies have been divided into two groups:Direct and Indirect.Direct strategies include memory, cognitive andcompensation strategies.Memory strategies help foster particular aspects ofcompetence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, etc.)by using imagery and structured review.Cognitive strategies strengthen grammatical accuracy byreasoning deductively and using contrastive analysis.Compensation strategies help develop strategiccompetence by using inference and guessing when themeaning is not known, using synonyms or gestures toexpress meaning of an unknown word or expression. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  23. 23. 26 DIRECT STRATEGIES INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies I. Metacognitive strategies A. Creating mental linkages A. Centering your learning B. Applying images and sounds B. Arranging and planning your learning C. Reviewing well C. Evaluating your learning D. EmployingII. Cognitive strategies II. Affective strategies A. Practicing A. Lowering your anxiety B. Receiving and sending messages B. Encouraging yourself C. Analyzing and reasoning C. Taking your emotional temperature D. Creating structure for input and outputIII. Compensation strategies III. Social strategies A. Guessing intelligently A. Asking questions B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing B. Cooperating with others Oxford, R.1990 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  24. 24. 27LEARNING STYLES their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation will increase and they will learn more efficiently. For thisThe learning styles are as important as the development of reason, here is a summary of each style and some ideasskills or learning strategies when deciding on how relevant for its implementation in the classroom.the curriculum is. Concrete Sequential (CS)Here learning styles are presented as possibilities to be The learner whose style is the Concrete Sequential derivesincluded when planning learning to guarantee success. information primarily through direct sensory experience. The real world, for this domain, is the concrete world ofGregorc defines learning style as the outward expression to senses. The way of thinking is methodical and deliberate-athe human minds ability to mediate knowledge. i.e. the train of thought. The individuals that belong to this domainmeans and capacities we employ to receive and express tend to be task-oriented and consistently striving forinformation. perfection.Two principal factors in determining learning styles are the Some recommended learning activities are: keepingways in which information is perceived and how it is records of experiences and experiments, conductingordered in our brains. surveys, writing computer programs, observing and classifying phenomena, undertaking practical work and1. Perceptual abilities are the means whereby we grasp preparing displays. information: The perception may be: a. abstract through reason, emotion, or intuition, or b. Abstract Sequential (AS) concrete through the physical senses of hearing , The mainly Abstract Sequential learner lives mostly in the sight, smell, taste and touch. abstract, non-physical world of thoughts, theories and2. Ordering abilities are the ways in which information is mental constructions. Reality consists of words and systematized, arranged and distributed. Ordering may concepts, such as justice and peace. The thinking is logical, be a. sequential (linear, step by step and methodical) analytical and evaluative. They have outstanding ability to or b. random- (non -linear) with multiple patterns of outline, correlate, compare and categorize. data being processed simultaneously and holistically. Some learning activities include: listening to lectures,3. Four different learning styles have been identified: comparing and contrasting different accounts and interpretations of events, project research and the synthesis Concrete Sequential (CS) of ideas and information in essay or project form, library Abstract Sequential (AS) study and group plenary discussion. Abstract Random (AR) and Concrete Random (CR) Abstract Random (AR) The real world of the dominant Abstract Random is theTeacher should prepare different materials and activities to non-physical world of feelings, emotions and imagination.develop their students learning process. If the students feel “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  25. 25. 28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfantasy and imagery, imaginative writing and thepreparation and production of multimedia presentations.Concrete Random (CR)For this domain the concrete physical world is the startingpoint. The learners way of thinking is impulsive and she/hecan make intuitive leaps towards identifying and unifyingprinciples behind experiences. Learning activities to suitthis domain are: experimental units, simulation games, roleplays, problem-solving exercises, independent study,practical experiments and exercises which challenge thestudent to find alternative paths to a particular goal. Thefollowing chart from Bernice Mc Carthy is reproduced tohelp teachers visualize the four quadrants and becomeaware of their own characteristics for classroom purposes. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  26. 26. 29STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experience and application - integrates experience with self- seeks hidden possibilities and excitement - seeks meaning, clarity and integrity- needs to know what can be done with things - needs to be personally involved- learns by trial and error - absorbs reality- perceives information concretely and processes it actively - perceives information concretely and processes it- adaptable to and relishes change reflectively- excels in situations calling for flexibility - interested in people and culture- tends to take risks - divergent thinkers who believe in their own experience- often reaches accurate conclusions in the absence of and excel in viewing concrete situations from manylogical evidence perspectives- functions by acting and testing experience - model themselves on those they respect- Strengths: acting and carrying out plans - learn by listening and sharing ideas- Goals: making things happen, bringing action to concepts - function through social interaction- Favorite Questions: If? What can this become? - Strengths : innovation and imagination (ideas, people) - Goals : self-involvement in important issues, bringing unity to diversity - Favorite Questions: Why? Why Not? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  27. 27. 30STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER? STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usability, utility, results - seeks facts- needs to know how things work - needs to know what the experts think- learns by testing theories that seem sensible - learns by thinking through ideas- skill-oriented - values sequential thinking, needs details- perceives information abstractly and processes it actively - perceives information abstractly and processes it- needs hands-on experiences reflectively- enjoys problem solving -restricts judgement to concrete - less interested in people than ideasthings - critiques information and collects data-resets being given answers and limited tolerance of fuzzy - thorough and industrious, re-examining facts if situationsideas. are perplexing- needs to know how things she is asked to do will help in - enjoys traditional classroomreal life. - functions by thinking things through and adapting to- functions through inferences drawn from sensory expertsexperience - Strengths: creating concepts and models- Strengths. practical application of ideas - Goals : self-satisfaction, intellectual recognition- Goal: bringing their view of the present into line with future - Favorite Question: What ?security- Favorite Question: How does it work? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  28. 28. 31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES 3. Interpersonal: the aiblity to understand other people andThe theory of multiple intelligences was developed by work effectively with them and to notice who plays withHoward Gardner who introduces the concept of developing them at school, and why. How you can nurture: Givemore than one type of intelligence. Traditionally, only the children lots of opportunities to talk about one anotherlinguistic and logical mathematical intelligences were and their social interactions, and to problem-solveconsidered by teachers and educators. For more than conflilcts together, play games in which one has to figureeighty years an intelligent person was the one who had a out the knowledge or intentions of other players.high I.Q.Thomas Asmstrong in the last plenary session of TESOL’97 4. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand things aboutin Orlando Florida encouraged teachers to be careful in oneself, how one is similar to, different from others;their classroom settings when developing the different remind oneself to remember to do something; know howtypes of intelligences and to develop the other types, to soothe oneself when sad.How you can nurture: Letbesides the two mentioned previously. children express their own unique emotions,The following is a summary presented by Mary Ann preferences, and strategies; help them understan theirChristison at the National Conference for Teachers of own wishes and fears and how best to deal with them.English, in San Jose, January 1997. In this summary theyhave incorporated the naturalistic intelligence. 5. Bodily/kinesthetic: The ability to use the body or parts of the body (hands, feet, etc.) to solve problems, as inWe present Dr. Mary Ann Christison’s summary of Multiple playing a ballgame, dancing, or making things with theIntelligencies. hands.How you can nurture: Provide opportunities for physical challenges throughout the day, not just1. Musical: the ability to produce and recognize simple outdoors. songs; play with these melodies, varying speed and rhythm. How you can nurture: Incorporate music daily. 6. Linguistic. The ability to use language to express Use a tape recorder for listening, singing along, and meaning, understand others, tell a simple story; react recording songs and rhythmic and melodic instruments. appropriately to stories with different moods; learn new vocabulary or a second language that is used2. Logical / mathematical: the ability to understand the naturally.How you can nurture: Make sure your program basic properties of numbers, adding or taking away; is rich with language opportunieties and that children’s appreciate principles of cause and effect, one-to-one linguistic expression is listened to and appreacited. correspondence; ability to predict, as in which objects will float, sink, etc.How you can nurture: Provide 7. Spatial: the ability to be able to form a mental image of manipulatives to help children experiment with numbers; large ( a home) and local (a block building) spatial use simple machines to help children think about cause layouts; find one’s way around a new building.How you and effect. can nurture: Provide many opportunities for mapping of “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  29. 29. 32 the classroom encourage children to vary the arrangementes of materials in the space.8. Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or animals in one’s environment, for example, to learn the characteristics of different birds.How you can nurture: Play games in which children recognize fine distinctions among members of a plant or animal group; explore the outdoors regularly and bring the outdoors in; provide sample books, visual, and props related to the natural world. Lately, they have named as you have noticed twoother types of intelligence: the naturalistic, and theemotional intelligence. These two inclusions give a widerange of possibilities to classroom teachers to incorporateas many experiences as possible to help students developwholly. At the same time, teachers must be aware ofreceiving new information applicable in their class toimprove the teaching and learning process. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  30. 30. 33VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND knowledge of the language and their development of theEVALUATION SUGGESTIONS language skills. GENERAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLESAs it has been stated previously, The National EducationalPolicy, "Towards the 21 st Century", encourages teachers When teachers are planning a test, classroom assessmentto create an active and stimulating atmosphere for their or student’s self-assessment, the tasks assigned shouldstudents in the E.F.L. class and also when assessing. follow the following features:One of the main characteristics of the policy is the belief a. Tasks should provide a purpose for using thethat students should exercise their cognitive skills as well as language.their linguistic ones. The policy emphasizes learning b. Tasks should provide a context for language use ratherprocesses and sets out the cognitive operations students than just isolated items.should master before they can achieve certain learning c. Tasks should lead towards real language use, to givegoals. Students are also encouraged to work with each students the opportunities to do the sorts of thingsother and to learn from each other. native speakers do with the language. d. Tasks should promote individual and group activities,To cope with the E.F.L. approach used in teaching, the to allow the students to learn by themselves asassessing techniques used should reflect the dynamic individuals as well as from their peers.classroom procedures and should promote critical thinking e. Tasks should allow students to experience what theyamong the students in any learning activity they perform have practiced in the classroom: using activities suchsuch as: information-gap, opinion-gap, problem solving, as information gap, problem solving, etc.games and critical cultural incidents which help the learners f. Tasks should simulate learning situations to allowappreciate their own culture and the culture of the target students to re-organize and re-plan their learninglanguage. strategies.The first levels 7, 8 and 9 belong to the III Cycle of the g. Tasks should provide opportunities for critical thinking;General Basic Education and are the basic levels where they should motivate the students creative thinkingstudents are learning the main features of the English skills, so they can solve communication problems bylanguage as well as some relevant sociocultural features using the language.learned through the development of the four basic linguistic h. Tasks should be suitable for the students age, level inskills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. school and language proficiency.Higher levels, 10 and 11, have the opportunity to learnmore about the language and culture they are learning andtheir level of performance is also high. As a consequencethe assessment tasks should correspond to their “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  31. 31. 34PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENING e. Texts length should be appropriate for the students’ level.a. The language used should be delivered at normal f. The chosen texts should be appropriate for the speed. candidates interests.b. The input should be delivered twice. g. Texts should not be too culturally bound.c. The language used should be as authentic a possible. h. Students should be tested on topics they have alreadyd. If using tapes, recordings should be of excellent read. quality. PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING WRITINGe. Recording equipment has to be in excellent conditions.f. The setting should be free of noise. a. Writing tasks should be similar to the types of writing students will do in real-life:PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING SPEAKING - they should specify an audience. - they should specify a purpose for writing.a. Give the students more than one task to judge the - they should specify a context. students speaking ability.b. Set only tasks and topics that the students should be b. Tasks should test a wide range of functions able to cope with in their own language. (describing, comparing, contrasting, expressingc. Create a pleasant atmosphere so that students will not opinions, giving reasons, asking for opinions, asking feel threatened. for information, etc).d. Teachers should avoid talking too much when c. Tasks should test different registers (formal / informal) interviewing students. d. Instructions must indicate:e. Encourage the students to speak.f. Teachers should design different instruments such as - the amount of time allowed for writing. rating scales and check-lists to recall student’s - the number of words expected. performance. - the way the writing will be marked. e. Instructions must be clear and concise.PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING READINGa. The tasks should be stated briefly and concisely.b. In the case of multiple-choice questions, alternatives should have a parallel structure.c. A variety of assessment techniques must be used.d. Skills students master in their native language must be tested first. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
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