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  • 1. 4 LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO A partir del Eje transversal de los valores y de las obligaciones asumidas por el estado desde la legislaciónLos cambios sociales, económicos, culturales, científicos, existente, en Costa Rica se han definido los siguientesambientales y tecnológicos del mundo contemporáneo, Temas transversales: Cultura Ambiental para elhan exigido al currículo educativo no solo aportar Desarrollo Sostenible, Educación Integral de laconocimientos e información, sino también favorecer el Sexualidad, Educación para la Salud y Vivencia de losdesarrollo de valores, actitudes, habilidades y destrezas Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la Paz.que apunten al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de laspersonas y de las sociedades (Marco de Acción Regional Para cada uno de los temas transversales se han definidode “Educación para Todos en las Américas”, Santo una serie de competencias por desarrollar en los y lasDomingo, 2000). Sin embargo, existe en nuestro Sistema estudiantes a lo largo de su período de formaciónEducativo una dificultad real de incorporar nuevas educativa. Las Competencias se entienden como: “Unasignaturas o contenidos relacionados con los temas conjunto integrado de conocimientos, procedimientos,emergentes de relevancia para nuestra sociedad, pues se actitudes y valores, que permite un desempeñocorre el riesgo de saturar y fragmentar los programas de satisfactorio y autónomo ante situaciones concretas de laestudio. vida personal y social” (Comisión Nacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). Las mismas deben orientar losUna alternativa frente a estas limitaciones es la procesos educativos y el desarrollo mismo de latransversalidad, la cual se entiende como un “Enfoque transversalidad.Educativo que aprovecha las oportunidades que ofrece elcurrículo, incorporando en los procesos de diseño, Desde la condición pedagógica de las competencias sedesarrollo, evaluación y administración curricular, han definido competencias de la transversalidad como:determinados aprendizajes para la vida, integradores y “Aquellas que atraviesan e impregnan horizontal ysignificativos, dirigidos al mejoramiento de la calidad de verticalmente, todas las asignaturas del currículo yvida individual y social. Es de carácter holístico, requieren para su desarrollo del aporte integrado yaxiológico, interdisciplinario y contextualizado” (Comisión coordinado de las diferentes disciplinas de estudio, asíNacional Ampliada de Transversalidad, 2002). como de una acción pedagógica conjunta” (Beatriz Castellanos, 2002). De esta manera, están presentesDe acuerdo con los lineamientos emanados del Consejo tanto en las programaciones anuales como a lo largo deSuperior de Educación (SE 339-2003), el único eje todo el sistema educativo.transversal del currículo costarricense es el de valores.De esta manera, el abordaje sistemático de los Valores en A continuación se presenta un resumen del enfoque deel currículo nacional, pretende potenciar el desarrollo cada tema transversal y las competencias respectivas:socio-afectivo y ético de los y las estudiantes, a partir dela posición humanista expresada en la Política Educativa y Cultura Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenibleen la Ley Fundamental de Educación. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 2. 5La educación ambiental se considera como el instrumentoidóneo para la construcción de una cultura ambiental delas personas y las sociedades, en función de alcanzar un Educación Integral de la Sexualidaddesarrollo humano sostenible, mediante un proceso queles permita comprender su interdependencia con el A partir de las “Políticas de Educación Integral de laentorno, a partir del conocimiento crítico y reflexivo de la Expresión de la Sexualidad Humana” (2001), una vivenciarealidad inmediata, tanto biofísica como social, madura de la sexualidad humana requiere de unaeconómica, política y cultural. educación integral, por lo que deben atenderse los aspectos físicos, biológicos, psicológicos, socioculturales,Tiene como objetivo que, a partir de ese conocimiento y éticos y espirituales. No puede reducirse a los aspectosmediante actividades de valoración y respeto, las y los biológicos reproductivos, ni realizarse en un contextoestudiantes se apropien de la realidad, de manera que, la desprovisto de valores y principios éticos y morales sobrecomunidad educativa participe activamente en la la vida, el amor, la familia y la convivencia.detección y solución de problemas, en el ámbito local,pero con visión planetaria. La educación de la sexualidad humana inicia desde la primera infancia y se prolonga a lo largo de la vida. Es unCompetencias por desarrollar derecho y un deber, en primera instancia, de las madres y los padres de familia. Le corresponde al Estado una • Aplica los conocimientos adquiridos mediante acción subsidaria y potenciar la acción de las familias en procesos críticos y reflexivos de la realidad, en la el campo de la educación y la información, como lo resolución de problemas (ambientales, expresa el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. económicos, sociales, políticos, éticos) de manera creativa y mediante actitudes, prácticas y valores El sistema educativo debe garantizar vivencias y que contribuyan al logro del desarrollo sostenible y estrategias pedagógicas que respondan a las una mejor calidad de vida. potencialidades de la población estudiantil, en • Participa comprometida, activa y responsablemente concordancia con su etapa de desarrollo y con los en proyectos tendientes a la conservación, contextos socioculturales en los cuales se desenvuelven. recuperación y protección del ambiente; identificando sus principales problemas y Competencias por desarrollar necesidades, generando y desarrollando alternativas de solución, para contribuir al • Se relaciona con hombres y mujeres de manera mejoramiento de su calidad de vida, la de los equitativa, solidaria y respetuosa de la diversidad. demás y al desarrollo sostenible. • Toma decisiones referentes a su sexualidad desde • Practica relaciones armoniosas consigo mismo, con un proyecto de vida basado en el conocimiento los demás, y los otros seres vivos por medio de crítico de sí mismo, su realidad sociocultural y en actitudes y aptitudes responsables, reconociendo la sus valores éticos y morales. necesidad de interdependencia con el ambiente. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 3. 6 • Enfrenta situaciones de acoso, abuso y violencia, social de la salud, mediante procesos de enseñanza – mediante la identificación de recursos internos y aprendizajes dinámicos, donde se privilegia la externos oportunos. comunicación de doble vía, así como la actitud crítica y • Expresa su identidad de forma auténtica, participativa del estudiantado. responsable e integral, favoreciendo el desarrollo personal en un contexto de interrelación y manifestación permanente de sentimientos, Competencias por desarrollar actitudes, pensamientos, opiniones y derechos. • Promueve procesos reflexivos y constructivos en su • Vivencia un estilo de vida que le permite, en forma familia, dignificando su condición de ser humano, crítica y reflexiva, mantener y mejorar la salud integral para identificar y proponer soluciones de acuerdo al y la calidad de vida propia y la de los demás. contexto sociocultural en el cual se desenvuelve. • Toma decisiones que favorecen su salud integral y la de quienes lo rodean, a partir del conocimiento de síEducación para la Salud mismo y de los demás, así como del entorno en que se desenvuelve.La educación para la salud es un derecho fundamental de • Elige mediante un proceso de valoración crítica, lostodos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El estado de salud, medios personales más adecuados para enfrentar lasestá relacionado con su rendimiento escolar y con su situaciones y factores protectores y de riesgo para lacalidad de vida. De manera que, al trabajar en educación salud integral propia y la de los demás.para la salud en los centros educativos, según las • Hace uso en forma responsable, crítica y participativanecesidades de la población estudiantil, en cada etapa de de los servicios disponibles en el sector salud,su desarrollo, se están forjando ciudadanos con estilos de educación y en su comunidad, adquiriendovida saludables, y por ende, personas que construyen y compromisos en beneficio de la calidad de los mismos.buscan tener calidad de vida, para sí mismas y paraquienes les rodean. Vivencia de los Derechos Humanos para la Democracia y la PazLa educación para la salud debe ser un proceso social,organizado, dinámico y sistemático que motive y oriente a Costa Rica es una democracia consolidada pero enlas personas a desarrollar, reforzar, modificar o sustituir permanente estado de revisión y retroalimentación, por loprácticas por aquellas que son más saludables en lo cual la vigencia de los derechos humanos es inherente alindividual, lo familiar y lo colectivo y en su relación con el compromiso de fortalecer una cultura de paz y demedio ambiente. democracia.De manera que, la educación para la salud en el En los escenarios educativos es oportuno gestionarescenario escolar no se limita únicamente a transmitir mecanismos que promuevan una verdadera participacióninformación, sino que busca desarrollar conocimientos, ciudadana en los ámbitos familiar, comunal, institucional yhabilidades y destrezas que contribuyan a la producción nacional. Para ello, la sociedad civil debe estar informada “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 4. 7y educada en relación con el marco legal brindado por el comunidad ejercitando la resolución de conflictospaís, de manera que, desarrolle una participación efectiva de manera pacífica y la expresión del afecto, lay no se reduzca a una participación periódica con carácter ternura y el amor.electoral. • Aplica estrategias para la solución pacífica de conflictos en diferentes contextosSe debe propiciar un modelo de sistema democrático que • Respeta las diversidades individuales, culturalespermita hacer del ejercicio de la ciudadanía una actividad éticas, social y generacional.atractiva, interesante y cívica que conllevaresponsabilidades y derechos. Abordaje Metodológico de la Transversalidad desde los Programas de Estudio y en el PlaneamientoCompetencias por desarrollar Didáctico • Practica en la vivencia cotidiana los derechos y La transversalidad es un proceso que debe evidenciarse responsabilidades que merece como ser humano y en las labores programáticas del Sistema Educativo ser humana, partiendo de una convivencia Nacional; desde los presentes Programas de estudio democrática, ética, tolerante y pacífica. hasta el Planeamiento didáctico que el ó la docente • Asume su realidad como persona, sujeto de realizan en el aula. derechos y responsabilidades. • Elige las alternativas personales, familiares y de Con respecto a los Programas de Estudio, en algunos convivencia social que propician la tolerancia, la Procedimientos y Valores se podrán visualizar procesos justicia y la equidad entre géneros de acuerdo a los que promueven, explícitamente, la incorporación de los contextos donde se desenvuelve. temas transversales. Sin embargo, las opciones para • Participa en acciones inclusivas para la vivencia de realizar convergencias no se limitan a las mencionadas en la equidad en todos los contextos socioculturales. los programas, ya que el ó la docente puede identificar • Ejercita los derechos y responsabilidades para la otras posibilidades para el desarrollo de los procesos de convivencia democrática vinculada a la cultura de transversalidad. paz. • Es tolerante para aceptar y entender las diferencias En este caso, se presenta como tarea para las y los culturales, religiosas y étnicas que, propician docentes identificar -a partir de una lectura exhaustiva de posibilidades y potencialidades de y en la los conocimientos previos del estudiantado, del contexto convivencia democrática y cultura de paz. sociocultural, de los acontecimientos relevantes y actuales • Valora las diferencias culturales de los distintos de la sociedad-, cuáles de los objetivos de los programas modos de vida. representan oportunidades para abordar la • Practica acciones, actitudes y conductas dirigidas a transversalidad y para el desarrollo de las competencias. la no violencia en el ámbito escolar, en la convivencia con el grupo de pares, familia y Con respecto al planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad debe visualizarse en las columnas de Actividades de “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 5. 8mediación y de Valores y Actitudes, posterior a laidentificación realizada desde los Programas de Estudio.El proceso de transversalidad en el aula debe considerar COMISIÓN TEMAS TRANSVERSALESlas características de la población estudiantil y lasparticularidades del entorno mediato e inmediato para el M.Sc. Priscilla Arce León. DANEA.logro de aprendizajes más significativos. M.Sc. Viviana Richmond. Departamento de EducaciónAdemás del planeamiento didáctico, la transversalidad Integral de la Sexualidad Humanadebe visualizarse y concretizarse en el plan Institucional,potenciando la participación activa, crítica y reflexiva de M.Sc. Mario Segura Castillo. Departamento delas madres, los padres y encargados, líderes comunales, Evaluación Educativainstancias de acción comunal, docentes, personaladministrativo y de toda la comunidad educativa. M.Sc. Carlos Rojas Montoya. Departamento de Educación Ambiental.En este sentido, el centro educativo debe tomar lasdecisiones respectivas para que exista una coherenciaentre la práctica cotidiana institucional y los temas yprincipios de la transversalidad. Esto plantea, endefinitiva, un reto importante para cada institucióneducativa hacia el desarrollo de postulados humanistas,críticos y ecológicos. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 6. 9 Comisión Programas 2003 M. Sc. Ana Isabel Campos Centeno M. Sc. Yamileth Cháves Lic. Doreen Walters Brown M. A. Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Coordinadora Agradecimiento a todos los Asesores Regionales de Inglés por su apoyo y recomendaciones.COMISIÓN REDACTORA : 1996Cira Delgado QuesadaLeonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeDoreen Walters BrownRosa Elena Simón RojasCoordinadores Revisión : 2001Leonor Eugenia Cabrera MongeMarco Tulio Villegas RubíASESORÍA TÉCNICA BRITÁNICAMichael A. Vaughan TABLE OF CONTENTS III CICLO “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 7. 10 Presentation (Temas Transversales)…………………………………………………………………………….… 4 Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 10 Index of units………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 11 Unidades de estudio por nivel……………………………………………………………………………………….. 13I. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 14II. The Purpose of English Language Teaching in our Educational System …………….…………………….….. 14III. Implications of the Educational Policy in the Learning and Teaching of English …………………………...…. 15IV. English as Means of Implementing the Educational Policy ………..…………………………………………….. 16V. English as a Foreign Language in the Costa Rican Educational System..……………………………………... 17 - General Guidelines for the Mediation of Learning…………………………………………………………….… 18 - Methodological Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………….… 23 - Learning Strategies………..…………………………………………………………………………………….…. 25 - Learning Styles ………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 27 - Multiple Intelligencies…………………………………………………………………………………………….… 31VII. E.F.L. Classroom Assesment and Evaluation Suggestions…………..…………………………………………… 33VIII. Objectives of the English Program in the Third Cycle of Basic Education in Costa Rica………………..…….. 35IX - Seventh Grade…………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 37 - Eighth Grade………..………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55 - Ninth Grade…………..……………………………………………………………………………………………... 80X Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………………………....………….. 100XII. Bibliography…..…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………... 106XI. Annex 1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114 Annexo 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115XII. Bibliografía…...…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………….... 118INDEX OF UNITS “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 8. 117º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 1. Exchange greetings, leave takings and introductions…………………………………………………… 38 2. Identification to oneself to others…………………………………………………………………………... 40 3. Directions or instructions………………………………………………………………………………….… 42 4. How a dictionary is organized…………………………………………………………………………….… 44 5. Classroom objects……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 6. Location of people and objects……………………………………………………………………………... 46 7. Description of something……………………………………………………………………………………. 47 8. Use a dictionary to spell words……………………………………………………………………………… 49 9. Goods and services………………………………………………………………………………………..… 50 10. Instructions……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52Summary of language outcomes…………………………………………………………………………………… 548º LEVELIntroductory unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………...…. 55 1. Identification of family members and partner’s relatives…………………………………………………… 56 2. Description of people’s physical appearance……………………………………………………………….. 58 3. Comparison of people’s physical features and personality traits………………………………………….. 60 4. Meaning of words according to a give context………………………………………………………………. 62 5. Relevant characteristics of the means of transportation available….…………………………………….. 63 6. Personal travel plans…………………………………………………………………………………………... 66 7. Acceptance and refusal of goods and services…………………………………………………………….. 69 8. Likes, dislikes and preferences………………………………………………………………………………. 71 9. Grammatical functions of words……………………………………………………………………………… 74 10. Give and follow directions……………………………………………………………………………………. 75 11. Occupations……………………………………………………………….……………………………………. 77Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………… 799 º LEVELIntroductory unit………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 9. 12 1. Sports and leisure activities…………………………………………………………………………………… 81 2. Life and achievements of famous athletes and musicians………………………………………………… 83 3. Operation of electronic equipment……………………………………………………………………………. 86 4. Roots, suffixes and prefixes…………………………………………………………………………………… 88 5. Transportation, quality, rentability and use…………………………………………………………………... 89 6. Computers and technology today in our lives……………………………………………………………….. 91 7. Natural resources and the promotions of conservation…………………………………………………..… 93 8. Specific information of words in a given context (registers)………………………………………………... 96 9. Causes, effects, and prevention of environmental pollution………………………………………………. 97Summary of language outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………… 99UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO POR NIVELIII CICLO “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 10. 13 7º Level 8º Level 9º Level Units Units UnitsExchange greetings, leave takings Identification of family members and Sports and leisure activitiesand introductions. partner’s relatives Life and achievements of famous athletes andIdentification to oneself to others. Description of people’s physical musiciansDirections or instructions appearance Operation of electronic equipmentHow a dictionary is organized Comparison of people’s physical Roots, suffixes and prefixesClassroom objects features and personality traits Transportation, quality, rentability and useLocation of people and objects Meaning of words according to a give Computers and technology today in our livesDescription of something context Natural resources and the promotions ofUse a dictionary to spell words Relevant characteristics of conservationGoods and services the means of transportation available Specific information of words in a givenInstructions Personal travel plans context (registers) Acceptance and refusal of goods and Causes, effects, and prevention of services environmental pollution Likes, dislikes and preferences Grammatical functions of words Give and follow directions OccupationsI INTRODUCTION to help the students face life and work situations which require an average command of English, with the desire"The English Syllabus", was written within the principles that this preparation will allow them to participate activelystated both in our Constitution, The Education Law and in into the challenges of the global economy for the benefitthe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" in order of the country. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 11. 14 - develop students understanding of themselvesII. THE PURPOSES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE and their own culture.TEACHING IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Along with the required study of the mother tongue, theThe large number of individuals who speak English either study of second languages contributes to enrich the schoolas their first or as a second or foreign language justifies the curriculum because of the following reasons:fact that Englis is considered a universal language.Likewise, within the scientific, technological and humanistic - it provides a combination of linguistic skills bothspheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. Written. physical and intellectual with personal and socialConsequently, teaching English in our school system development;responds to basic needs: - it offers better opportunities to develop oral and written communication skills;1. To offer students a second language which can - it inculcates valuable study skills such predicting, anable them to communicate within a broader social- selecting, comparing, and interpreting information and economic context in and outside Costa Rica. memorizing, and focussing on general and detailed2. To give students a tool to directly access scientific, meaning in listening and speaking; technological and humanistic information and , in this - it helps develop the learners awareness of cross- way expand their knowledge of the world. curricular at the time that builds on the four communication skills. From the perspective of those two basic needs the educational aims of teaching English are listed as In addition to the above reasons, the study of a foreign follows: language, by definition, adds a distinctive dimension of its own since: - develop the ability to communicate for practical purposes; - it exposes learners to new experiences and enables - frame a sound basis of the language skills, and them to make connections in a way which, attitudes required for further study, work and otherwise, would not be possible. leisure; - The sounds and intonation patterns of the second - offer insights into the culture and civilization of language present a challenge to learners capacity to English speaking countries.; discriminate and imitate. - develop an awareness of the nature of language - It enhaces the learner´s self confidence of their and language learning; abilities provoking a sense of self-achievement and - incite enjoyment and intellectual stimulation; discovery which grow along with a gradual - encourage positive attitudes towards to foreign proficiency. languages and cultures; - It improves the learners understanding of not only - promote cognitive skills like application analysis, target cultures but also their own. memorization, inferring; “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 12. 15In sum, learning English as a foreign language will 4. Achieving sustainability in production and thecontribute to an integral formation of the learners which will economic in general represents a challenge foranable them to be able to insert into the coming century in education. The country needs more qualified peoplea lively and healthy way. in order to increase productivity and improve the spirit of competitiveness. Furthermore, there is aIII. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN need to integrate the country more effectively into THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN the global economy. OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. 5. The information or the content the learners handle should be up-to-date and should be relevant toThe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" gives global development in the 21st century.the learners the opportunity to express their care for their 6. Education should aim to solidly reinforce values andcountry, its democratic environment, cultural diversity and attitudes. This is a moral imperative.deep respect for law, nature and peace. At the same time,the policy encourages Costa Rican people to become The underlying principles for our educational approach,positive leaders and critical thinkers through activities humanism, rationalism and constructivism are clearly statedpromoting a democratic environment, resulting in the in the Policy.reinforcement of values such as self-indentity and authentic Every person is considered capable of achieving his/her fullgrowth as independent and interdependent learners. potential. This entails interacting harmoniously with her/his surroundings, in three dimensions of human development:Some of the basic principles of the Policy can be The cognitive, socio-affective and psychomotive.summarized as follows: Every person constantly contributes both to the common good and the development of education, and is responsible 1. The citizens should be able to develop as persons for improving the quality of human, individual and collective through seeking for opportunities of self-fulfillment life. and happiness while contributing to the development Education ought to be a permanent formative process, of their country. which each person has not only a right, but also a duty to exercise. 2. Education should promote the broadening of Achieving quality in education is an integral process understanding through challenging teaching through which the results express the initial aims. Through classroom situations and opportunities that can arise this process learners are offered equality of opportunities to self-growth and learn how to learn. succeed and appropriate educational provision according to their needs, problems and aspirations. 3. Education should contribute to narrow down social – economic gaps by providing the individuals with the Educational research at national, provincial, regional and proper opportunities to intergrate into everyday institutional levels will ensure more systematic problem-solving situtations, all this aiming to implementation of the policy from everyday classroom promote a self-suficient society. practice to administrative decision taking. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 13. 16The design of the syllabus encourages participative IV. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING THEinteraction, and its adaptation. EDUCATIONAL POLICYThe implementation of educational provision encouragesdemocratic participation, cooperative and self-reliant English, in common with other subjects in the Costa Ricanattitudes. curriculum, must provide the learner with the opportunity to develop awareness of the urgent need for the balancedThe process of "mediation" for the construction of learning, development of our environment, our human resources,and the transference of knowledge is framed, primarily, and also the socio-political and the economy and means ofwithin an epistemological-constructivist position. The ties production. This balance is essential to ensure the successwith other disciplines allow for deductive as well as for of the new era of sustainable development.inductive processes.The evaluation of the learning processes must reflect The English language syllabus provides the necessarycoherence between the three components. It must also situations to support each one of the areas mentionedconsider both the process and the product. above. As far as environment is concerned, it emphasizesEvaluation is conceived of as an instrument to monitor the analysis of the cause and effect of the use and misuselearning, and so provides feedback on the educational of natural resources and the possible solutions, as well asprocess. In addition, it enhances the quality of education the value of our existing resources and the ecologicalthrough its three functions: diagnostic, formative and diversity we possess. It also reinforces the harmonioussummative. The methodology proposed centers on the development of human beings and nature.activity of the learner as builder of his/her own learning.The student, as the main focus of the curriculum, carries Our syllabus pays special attention to those topics relatedout the learning process, is considered to represent an to the basic needs of highly qualified people consideringinherited culture, and has the liberty to select his / her own their successful realization in time, society and in theway. national and international surroundings. An example of thisThe teacher, is conceived of as facilitator, collaborator and is provided by the topics which conduct research into anadvisor in the students learning. Therefore, the teacher exchange information on health; the symptoms andacquires responsibility for the quality of learning, together prevention of common and more recent diseases.with the family and the educational authorities. Likewise, drug abuse is another topic for discussion in theIn summary, learning English as a foreign language in English class.Costa Rica will allow students to develop communicative The syllabus takes into account other relevant areas of acompetence, to gain knowledge of a new culture, beliefs well-rounded education, such as the job market andand attitudes and to understand the messages given and, careers, in terms of active participation in the evolution ofreflect on them. They also have the opportunity to analyze society.the real message and intentions of speakers in order to Other aspects like the socio-political development ofdistinguish the negative from the positive and to develop citizens is dealt with explicitly, leading to personal, andgreater and more desirable autonomy. collective improvement through themes relating to values such as: gender equality, political liberties, and respect for “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 14. 17ethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvementin community activities. Through the learning of the language, the learner canIn the field of the economy and production, the syllabus compare and apply different registers (formal and informal)provides for the promotion of a productive culture in and recognize expressions in British, American and otherharmony with the environment, coupled with the efficient varieties of English.use of energy and resources.In all cases, English can be the means for exposure to and BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE SUBJECT MATTERacquisition of valuable and permanent behavior patterns.These patterns, will fulfill his/her own needs, and those of For the purpose of studying the English language, we havethe country. divided the subject matter into three components:The present generations should respect sustainable 1. Formal 2. Functional 3. Culturaldevelopment to guarantee that future generations have theopportunity to satisfy their own needs. Formal ComponentV. ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE COSTA This component has been traditionally called the RICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM grammatical component. In this sense, the structures of the language have been graded, selected and chosenEnglish is conceived of as a linguistic and cultural tool for according to the different functions of the language and thecommunication, which allows the learner to complement topics to be studied. Lexics, syntax and morphology arehis/her whole education. His/her knowledge of part of this component.English contributes to the social, economical and By itself, the formal component is an important part of thetechnological development. It also allows the learner to language, but it has to be studied as a means to effectiveapply techniques to understand and produce appropriate communication.oral and written messages.In the end, the learner will apply his/her knowledge of Furthermore, the teaching of grammar should be focusedEnglish to accept and adapt him/her self to constant on the practical use of oral and written language forchanges confidently. communication.ENGLISH AS AN OBJECT OF STUDY Functional ComponentThe object of study of the English language in our The functional component refers to the communicativecurriculum is written and oral communication, emphasizing purpose for which we use the language. Language is notthe four basic linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading only forms; we have to start looking at what people do withand writing. The practice of these skills permits the those forms. For example, expressing ones opinionsstudents to communicate efficiently according to the asking for someone`s opinion, expressing doubts, etc.knowledge acquired. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 15. 18Cultural Component considered as a social process in which human beings meet human experiences. These experiences, contributeThis component considers understanding of the culture of to shape the capacities and values that will serve humansthe country or countries where the language is spoken. to give a contribution to the social welfare.Knowing the features of the target culture makes it easier tounderstand the language itself. Some of the cultural The Policy establishes an educational process whichfeatures that should be taken into account are: values, provides similar opportunities for everybody: theattitudes, behavior, patterns, points of view, ways of achievement of high standards of education as well asthinking, appreciation, etc. opportunities that take into consideration the participants needs, problems and expectations. Another feature of theThe cultural component should always be present in the Policy is the way it emphasizes the need to provide positiveother components. Language and culture go together in learning conditions.order to communicate social meanings. This means that thelanguage must be presented in meaningful situations The Policy also states that learners acquire education to beaccording to the appropriate cultural contexts. able to participate as individuals in their own development and the development of society; for that reason, they haveThe pertinent use of the three components guarantees the to be acquainted with the knowledge that humanity hasrequired communicative competence. This competence been accumulating anddoes not occur by itself. The speaker must acquire linguisticcompetence simultaneously, starting in early stages. The systematizing through history. They must learn about itsmain objective of the whole process of language learning is common uses, thoughts and actions in a particular socialto enable the students to use the language for context. Within this approach "learning" is exploring,communication. experimenting, discovering and reconstructing the learners own knowledge. Learning is described as aGENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MEDIATION OF comprehensible, dynamic and meaningful process for thoseLEARNING who learn. It is guided by the interest shown by the learner towards its acquisition and it is orientated to the acquisitionThe Educational Policy "Towards the 21st Century" of learning. From this perspective the teacher is the personpresents the learner as a human being full of potential with who organizes and guides the learning situations, takingthe possibility to develop him/herself in harmony with the into account not only the students characteristicsthree dimensions of human development: cognitive, socio- (background, learning styles, etc.) but also the curriculum,affective and psycho-motive. Education has to provide this and the cultural and natural context).global development in a given context. In the teaching of English, as mentioned earlier the writtenThe objective of learning is to provide a contribution to and oral aspects of the language are the objects of study.social and personal development. Therefore, education is Emphasis is given to the four basic linguistic abilities:seen as a formative and permanent process. Education is listening and reading comprehension, oral and written “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 16. 19production. An equal amount of classroom time should be teaching program although listening is fully practiced indevoted to the development of each of the four linguistic our classes, there are specific listening activities that shouldskills. In this sense, any learning activity in the be included in the syllabus, such as:development of a topic (should take into consideration theintegration of these skills). In addition the teacher should 1. Distinguishing between sounds, stress and intonationdesign different teaching procedures to approach a topic. patterns.This can be done by emphasizing, for example, listening, 2. Answering quick questions.then reading, speaking and writing, or by altering the steps 3. Understanding comprehension passages.any time the educator deals with a classroom procedure. 4. Listening to broadcasts.The basic idea is to create a highly motivating atmosphere 5. Listening to lectures.to encourage learning. 6. Taking dictation.Whenever the teacher is developing an objective, he/she Teachers should expose the learner to a considerableshould know about the topic itself and the different ways amount of meaningful language input through listening to:he/she will be introducing the development of the skills conversations, descriptions, directions, discussions, drama,listed above. films, songs, sports, reports, advertisements and any other form of authentic spoken language.To help teachers with a general view of the subskills to bedeveloped, we are including a summary of the most The teacher should encourage in the learners therelevant aspects of each main skill: development of the following strategies:Listening 1. Thinking about the purpose of listening. 2. Thinking ahead about what learners already know andListening is one of the most important skills that has to be keep predicting what the speaker will say next.developed in early stages of language learning. Through 3. Focus on what they do, understand and use to helplistening the students should be prepared to cope with: them work out what they dont understand.a. understanding speech in different settings (background noise, distance or unclear sound reproductions) When developing listening comprehension, the activitiesb. becoming acquainted with speech containing false should: starts hesitations, etc. (everyday speech)c. understanding speakers who vary in tempo, speech, 1. Meet the students interests and needs. clarity of articulation and accent, non-native speakers 2. Be designed according to the students performance of the language as well. level. 3. Provide practice in distinguishing between sounds,Listening, understanding and responding in an appropriate stress, intonation patterns, to understand sentences,way is an essential part of communication and, therefore, short texts, etc.regular practice of aural comprehension is a vital part of the “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 17. 204. Provide the students with practice in listening To promote the development of this skill, it is necessary techniques. that students be aware of the following principles:5. State the purpose of the task clearly.6. Make use of background knowledge. 1. Oral speech is acquired through listening and through7. Follow an organized procedure. constant practice.8. Provide the learners with the necessary steps in the 2. Speech delivery, rhythm, intonation and pronunciation development of the activity. are learned by listening to appropriate language9. Engage the learners in a variety of situations which models (tapes, native speakers, teachers and other provide practice, going from memorization to English speakers). evaluation. 3. Learning to speak English means knowing what to talk10. Follow the objectives. about. Introducing knowledge of the world and up-to-11. Be graded. date topics are essential.12. Integrate other language skills. 4. Learning to speak English means saying the appropriate words for a situation at the right time for aSpeaking specific purpose. 5. For the students to speak English it is essential thatThe development of the skills of speaking is the ultimate English is spoken in class and in any other situationgoal for students learning English. It is also a "wish" of when it is required.every Costa Rican; parent, politician and in our society. 6. Since learning to speak means speaking to others, interactive practice must be set up in pairs, groups andHowever, the development of the skill has to be carried out with teachers and visitors.in conjunction with the development of the other skills. In 7. The language tasks designed must be authentic andparticular, speaking and listening are complementary to the same ones that native speakers of the languageeach other in the act of communication. For that reason, use to communicate with others.both should be practiced in close relation to each other. 8. The integration of skills is vital when speaking. e.g. giving an oral explanation of information presented in aThe teacher should provide a variety of opportunities for the chart or diagram.students, in order to bring about the necessary models orlanguage input. ReadingThrough speech, learners acquire the fundamentals of Reading, although often regarded as a passive receptivelanguage pertinent to carry out specific interaction where skill is, in fact, an active skill which involves guessing,they have to exercise the use of some functions, through predicting, and asking questions. These should therefore bethe appropriate language structures, cultural considered when designing reading comprehensionappropriateness and acceptable language input. exercises. It is, for instance, possible to develop the students powers of inference through systematic practice, or introduce questions which encourage students to “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 18. 21anticipate the content of a text from its title and illustrations something which is interesting, amusing, exciting, usefulor the end of a story from the preceding paragraphs. In or leads to a pleasant or beneficial activity.brief, students should be encouraged to transfer the Any reading activity should be :advanced skills they have when reading Spanish to thereading of English. 1. interesting to the students. 2. chosen according to the students interests, age andStudents learning English expect to be able to read the needs.language sooner or later. Their personal expectations may 3. authentic . Its purpose must be the same as for nativevary from wanting to read the lyrics of popular songs to speakers.newspaper ads to magazines or even classical literature. 4. leading to a purpose ( information, details, globalTeachers should, therefore offer a variety of texts and also meaning).remember that students in the same class may read at very 5. graded according to the students level of proficiency.different levels of difficulty in English, just as they do in their 6. able to help the students build on information alreadynative language. acquired in their own language by complementing it with information learned in English.Reading activities should focus on normal reasons for 7. not too culturally bound.reading. People normally read because: 8. integrated with the other language skills. For example:1. They want information for some purpose or because - Reading and writing e.g. summarizing, mentioning they are curious about the topic; what you have read in a letter, note-taking, etc.2. They need instructions in order to perform some tasks - Reading and listening e.g. reading the lyrics while for their work or for their daily life. For instance, they listening to a song recorded information to solve a want to know how an appliance works; they are written problem, matching opinions and texts, etc. interested in a new recipe; they have forms to fill in, Reading and speaking e.g. discussions, debates, etc. etc3. They want to play a new game, do a puzzle or carry out some activity which is pleasant and amusing. 9. flexible and varied.4. They want to keep in touch with friends by 10. meaningful and related directly to the text. correspondence.5. They want to know when or where something will take Teachers should be aware of the students reading place (timetables, program menus, etc.). interests in order to design the appropriate reading6. They want to know what is happening or has comprehension exercises. It is important to emphasize here happened (they read newspapers, magazines, etc.). that students must become effective readers. These reading exercises must be designed to develop theActivities for developing reading skills should make use of following reading skills.these natural needs and interests preferably by supplying “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 19. 22- Skimming: a quick running of the eyes over a text to get 10. integrate the other skills before, while or after the the gist or global meaning of it. writing task is performed.- Scanning: quick overview of a text to find specific 11. motivate the students to express their feelings, information. emotions and points of view in a written form.- Extensive reading: reading longer texts for own pleasure. (involves global understanding). To promote the development of written skills teachers can- Intensive reading: reading shorter texts to extract design a series of activities enabling students: to write specific information (reading for detail). notes and shopping lists, keep records, send messages, write letters to friends, keep diaries, complete reports andWriting write poetry or fiction. All of these authentic tasks should be guided by following principles in which the writer :Writing is a skill which emphasizes the formal expression ofthoughts through written language or graphic symbols. 1. attempts to communicate something.The teacher should facilitate the writing process by 2. has a goal or purpose in mind.providing the necessary guidance for the learner to be able 3. has to establish and maintain contact with the reader.to express her/his knowledge of the topic. 4. has to organize the material by using certain logicalIt is also necessary to define the type of written production and grammatical devices.the students will perform.Any written practice should: Besides these general principles, teachers should pay attention to the rhetorical devices, logical, grammatical and1. be related to the topic being studied. lexical: appropriate to different types of texts, spelling,2. follow the objectives. punctuation and other organizational features.3. be creative.4. take account of the students cognitive knowledge and Writing just like listening, has to be taught by practicing skills. different techniques and types of writing . It should be5. be graded from simple sentence descriptions to more preceded by exposure to a wide range of models of written complex products. language. It is also important to show the students how the6. include the use of appropriate language, style, written language functions as a system of communication. punctuation and other characteristics. The learner also needs to know how to organize sentences7. involve the teacher and students in the development into a coherent text; write different kinds of texts; or select and production of writing. the appropriate style, formal or informal, according to the8. use a collaborative approach in which teachers create task, subject matter and target audience. However, most of together and give each other feedback through the all, tasks must be as realistic as possible. process. Whenever a teacher is ready to introduce an activity9. use real-life tasks for students, write authentic texts focusing on one of the four basic skills described notes and letters. above, he/she should take into account five steps: “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 20. 23a. Preparationb. Demonstrationc. Time to introduce the their own as well as English speaking cultures. Allskill these aspects take place in real-life situations.d. Correction e. Follow-up 6. The teacher and students make decisions together. By doing this, the learner gets completely involved in theIn order to follow these steps, the teacher should language-learning process and becomes responsibleprovide : "Pre-activities" to help the students think for it.about what they already know and find a reason for 7. The objectives of the syllabus develop thelistening, speaking, reading or writing; "While- communicative functions of the language elements.activities" to exploit oral or written speech. Theseexercise different skills to carry out the task assignedand "Post-activities" to link the new information and The following chart provides a better idea of some of theskills with the students own experience and other characteristics of the different components of theskills. communicative approach.METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHThe Communicative approach provides the basis for themethodology used in the English classroom. Its mainfeatures are:1. It creates an stress-free atmosphere conducive to learning a language with plenty of opportunities to communicate.2. It provides ample opportunities for interaction promoting a pleasant, warm and enjoyable environment which features positive feedback for the learner from both the teacher and peers.3. The learners needs and interests are taken into account making them as the center of the learning process.4. The methodology used is participative, dynamic and offers the opportunity for real use of the language.5. The teacher guides the learning process but shares the responsibility with the learners. They use critical thinking to solve problems, work in groups, take risks, discuss different topics, and appreciate and reinforce “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 21. 24THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH LEARNER TEACHER- Central, active, creative and participative. - Facilitator, guide.- Responsible for his/her own and others learning, - Participates in process - with learners. planning, resources and assessment. - Not the center of the process.- Confident, motivated. - Takes more time for individual needs.- Develops full potential and builds on interests. - Gains skills and takes responsibility from planners,- Individual/collective roles. writers, linguists. - Shows expert role. AIMS MATERIALS- Communication - Authentic, real-world significance.- Gain transferable skills. - Related to learners needs, interests and culture.- Cooperation - Flexible.- Concentrate on meaning and process. - Motivating and interesting.- Focus on fluency. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT- Successful (even conventional terms). - Real-world context.- Permanent learning. - Beyond classroom, into community. - Relevant, stimulating, interesting. LEARNING STYLE ASSESSMENT- Integrated skills - Communicative competence.- Real-life skills in communicative contexts. - Process-oriented.- Active. - Continuous.- Active-based. - Profiling skills.- Variety of style, pace, etc. - Learning process.- Flexible. - Self and peer assessment. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 22. 25LEARNING STRATEGIES Indirect strategies group the metacognitive, affective, and social strategies.Learning strategies should be considered when planning atnational, institutional and classroom levels. Metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their ownLearning strategies are operations employed by the learner cognitive processes and to focus, plan and evaluate theirto aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of progress as they move toward communicative competence.information. But they can also be described as specificactions of the learner to make learning easier, faster, more Affective strategies develop the self-confidence andenjoyable, self-directed, effective and transferable. In other perseverance needed for learners to be actively involved inwords, learning strategies are tools students use when they language learning.have to solve a problem, accomplish a task, meet an Social strategies provide increased interaction and moreobjective or attain a goal. emphatic understanding with others.Teachers should be aware of learning strategies in order to Below is Rebecca Oxfords chart on learning strategies.provide opportunities for all of their students to developcommunicative competence.Learning strategies have been divided into two groups:Direct and Indirect.Direct strategies include memory, cognitive andcompensation strategies.Memory strategies help foster particular aspects ofcompetence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, etc.)by using imagery and structured review.Cognitive strategies strengthen grammatical accuracy byreasoning deductively and using contrastive analysis.Compensation strategies help develop strategiccompetence by using inference and guessing when themeaning is not known, using synonyms or gestures toexpress meaning of an unknown word or expression. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 23. 26 DIRECT STRATEGIES INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Memory strategies I. Metacognitive strategies A. Creating mental linkages A. Centering your learning B. Applying images and sounds B. Arranging and planning your learning C. Reviewing well C. Evaluating your learning D. EmployingII. Cognitive strategies II. Affective strategies A. Practicing A. Lowering your anxiety B. Receiving and sending messages B. Encouraging yourself C. Analyzing and reasoning C. Taking your emotional temperature D. Creating structure for input and outputIII. Compensation strategies III. Social strategies A. Guessing intelligently A. Asking questions B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing B. Cooperating with others Oxford, R.1990 “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 24. 27LEARNING STYLES their particular needs are fulfilled, their motivation will increase and they will learn more efficiently. For thisThe learning styles are as important as the development of reason, here is a summary of each style and some ideasskills or learning strategies when deciding on how relevant for its implementation in the classroom.the curriculum is. Concrete Sequential (CS)Here learning styles are presented as possibilities to be The learner whose style is the Concrete Sequential derivesincluded when planning learning to guarantee success. information primarily through direct sensory experience. The real world, for this domain, is the concrete world ofGregorc defines learning style as the outward expression to senses. The way of thinking is methodical and deliberate-athe human minds ability to mediate knowledge. i.e. the train of thought. The individuals that belong to this domainmeans and capacities we employ to receive and express tend to be task-oriented and consistently striving forinformation. perfection.Two principal factors in determining learning styles are the Some recommended learning activities are: keepingways in which information is perceived and how it is records of experiences and experiments, conductingordered in our brains. surveys, writing computer programs, observing and classifying phenomena, undertaking practical work and1. Perceptual abilities are the means whereby we grasp preparing displays. information: The perception may be: a. abstract through reason, emotion, or intuition, or b. Abstract Sequential (AS) concrete through the physical senses of hearing , The mainly Abstract Sequential learner lives mostly in the sight, smell, taste and touch. abstract, non-physical world of thoughts, theories and2. Ordering abilities are the ways in which information is mental constructions. Reality consists of words and systematized, arranged and distributed. Ordering may concepts, such as justice and peace. The thinking is logical, be a. sequential (linear, step by step and methodical) analytical and evaluative. They have outstanding ability to or b. random- (non -linear) with multiple patterns of outline, correlate, compare and categorize. data being processed simultaneously and holistically. Some learning activities include: listening to lectures,3. Four different learning styles have been identified: comparing and contrasting different accounts and interpretations of events, project research and the synthesis Concrete Sequential (CS) of ideas and information in essay or project form, library Abstract Sequential (AS) study and group plenary discussion. Abstract Random (AR) and Concrete Random (CR) Abstract Random (AR) The real world of the dominant Abstract Random is theTeacher should prepare different materials and activities to non-physical world of feelings, emotions and imagination.develop their students learning process. If the students feel “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 25. 28Learning activities for this domain are: group discussionwork, interpersonal work in small groups, role plays, guidedfantasy and imagery, imaginative writing and thepreparation and production of multimedia presentations.Concrete Random (CR)For this domain the concrete physical world is the startingpoint. The learners way of thinking is impulsive and she/hecan make intuitive leaps towards identifying and unifyingprinciples behind experiences. Learning activities to suitthis domain are: experimental units, simulation games, roleplays, problem-solving exercises, independent study,practical experiments and exercises which challenge thestudent to find alternative paths to a particular goal. Thefollowing chart from Bernice Mc Carthy is reproduced tohelp teachers visualize the four quadrants and becomeaware of their own characteristics for classroom purposes. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 26. 29STYLE FOUR: THE DYNAMIC LEARNER STYLE ONE: THE INNOVATIVE LEARNER- integrates experience and application - integrates experience with self- seeks hidden possibilities and excitement - seeks meaning, clarity and integrity- needs to know what can be done with things - needs to be personally involved- learns by trial and error - absorbs reality- perceives information concretely and processes it actively - perceives information concretely and processes it- adaptable to and relishes change reflectively- excels in situations calling for flexibility - interested in people and culture- tends to take risks - divergent thinkers who believe in their own experience- often reaches accurate conclusions in the absence of and excel in viewing concrete situations from manylogical evidence perspectives- functions by acting and testing experience - model themselves on those they respect- Strengths: acting and carrying out plans - learn by listening and sharing ideas- Goals: making things happen, bringing action to concepts - function through social interaction- Favorite Questions: If? What can this become? - Strengths : innovation and imagination (ideas, people) - Goals : self-involvement in important issues, bringing unity to diversity - Favorite Questions: Why? Why Not? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 27. 30STYLE THREE: THE COMMON SENSE LEARNER? STYLE TWO: THE ANALYTIC LEARNER- seeks usability, utility, results - seeks facts- needs to know how things work - needs to know what the experts think- learns by testing theories that seem sensible - learns by thinking through ideas- skill-oriented - values sequential thinking, needs details- perceives information abstractly and processes it actively - perceives information abstractly and processes it- needs hands-on experiences reflectively- enjoys problem solving -restricts judgement to concrete - less interested in people than ideasthings - critiques information and collects data-resets being given answers and limited tolerance of fuzzy - thorough and industrious, re-examining facts if situationsideas. are perplexing- needs to know how things she is asked to do will help in - enjoys traditional classroomreal life. - functions by thinking things through and adapting to- functions through inferences drawn from sensory expertsexperience - Strengths: creating concepts and models- Strengths. practical application of ideas - Goals : self-satisfaction, intellectual recognition- Goal: bringing their view of the present into line with future - Favorite Question: What ?security- Favorite Question: How does it work? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 28. 31MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES 3. Interpersonal: the aiblity to understand other people andThe theory of multiple intelligences was developed by work effectively with them and to notice who plays withHoward Gardner who introduces the concept of developing them at school, and why. How you can nurture: Givemore than one type of intelligence. Traditionally, only the children lots of opportunities to talk about one anotherlinguistic and logical mathematical intelligences were and their social interactions, and to problem-solveconsidered by teachers and educators. For more than conflilcts together, play games in which one has to figureeighty years an intelligent person was the one who had a out the knowledge or intentions of other players.high I.Q.Thomas Asmstrong in the last plenary session of TESOL’97 4. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand things aboutin Orlando Florida encouraged teachers to be careful in oneself, how one is similar to, different from others;their classroom settings when developing the different remind oneself to remember to do something; know howtypes of intelligences and to develop the other types, to soothe oneself when sad.How you can nurture: Letbesides the two mentioned previously. children express their own unique emotions,The following is a summary presented by Mary Ann preferences, and strategies; help them understan theirChristison at the National Conference for Teachers of own wishes and fears and how best to deal with them.English, in San Jose, January 1997. In this summary theyhave incorporated the naturalistic intelligence. 5. Bodily/kinesthetic: The ability to use the body or parts of the body (hands, feet, etc.) to solve problems, as inWe present Dr. Mary Ann Christison’s summary of Multiple playing a ballgame, dancing, or making things with theIntelligencies. hands.How you can nurture: Provide opportunities for physical challenges throughout the day, not just1. Musical: the ability to produce and recognize simple outdoors. songs; play with these melodies, varying speed and rhythm. How you can nurture: Incorporate music daily. 6. Linguistic. The ability to use language to express Use a tape recorder for listening, singing along, and meaning, understand others, tell a simple story; react recording songs and rhythmic and melodic instruments. appropriately to stories with different moods; learn new vocabulary or a second language that is used2. Logical / mathematical: the ability to understand the naturally.How you can nurture: Make sure your program basic properties of numbers, adding or taking away; is rich with language opportunieties and that children’s appreciate principles of cause and effect, one-to-one linguistic expression is listened to and appreacited. correspondence; ability to predict, as in which objects will float, sink, etc.How you can nurture: Provide 7. Spatial: the ability to be able to form a mental image of manipulatives to help children experiment with numbers; large ( a home) and local (a block building) spatial use simple machines to help children think about cause layouts; find one’s way around a new building.How you and effect. can nurture: Provide many opportunities for mapping of “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 29. 32 the classroom encourage children to vary the arrangementes of materials in the space.8. Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or animals in one’s environment, for example, to learn the characteristics of different birds.How you can nurture: Play games in which children recognize fine distinctions among members of a plant or animal group; explore the outdoors regularly and bring the outdoors in; provide sample books, visual, and props related to the natural world. Lately, they have named as you have noticed twoother types of intelligence: the naturalistic, and theemotional intelligence. These two inclusions give a widerange of possibilities to classroom teachers to incorporateas many experiences as possible to help students developwholly. At the same time, teachers must be aware ofreceiving new information applicable in their class toimprove the teaching and learning process. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 30. 33VI. E.F.L. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND knowledge of the language and their development of theEVALUATION SUGGESTIONS language skills. GENERAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLESAs it has been stated previously, The National EducationalPolicy, "Towards the 21 st Century", encourages teachers When teachers are planning a test, classroom assessmentto create an active and stimulating atmosphere for their or student’s self-assessment, the tasks assigned shouldstudents in the E.F.L. class and also when assessing. follow the following features:One of the main characteristics of the policy is the belief a. Tasks should provide a purpose for using thethat students should exercise their cognitive skills as well as language.their linguistic ones. The policy emphasizes learning b. Tasks should provide a context for language use ratherprocesses and sets out the cognitive operations students than just isolated items.should master before they can achieve certain learning c. Tasks should lead towards real language use, to givegoals. Students are also encouraged to work with each students the opportunities to do the sorts of thingsother and to learn from each other. native speakers do with the language. d. Tasks should promote individual and group activities,To cope with the E.F.L. approach used in teaching, the to allow the students to learn by themselves asassessing techniques used should reflect the dynamic individuals as well as from their peers.classroom procedures and should promote critical thinking e. Tasks should allow students to experience what theyamong the students in any learning activity they perform have practiced in the classroom: using activities suchsuch as: information-gap, opinion-gap, problem solving, as information gap, problem solving, etc.games and critical cultural incidents which help the learners f. Tasks should simulate learning situations to allowappreciate their own culture and the culture of the target students to re-organize and re-plan their learninglanguage. strategies.The first levels 7, 8 and 9 belong to the III Cycle of the g. Tasks should provide opportunities for critical thinking;General Basic Education and are the basic levels where they should motivate the students creative thinkingstudents are learning the main features of the English skills, so they can solve communication problems bylanguage as well as some relevant sociocultural features using the language.learned through the development of the four basic linguistic h. Tasks should be suitable for the students age, level inskills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. school and language proficiency.Higher levels, 10 and 11, have the opportunity to learnmore about the language and culture they are learning andtheir level of performance is also high. As a consequencethe assessment tasks should correspond to their “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 31. 34PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING LISTENING e. Texts length should be appropriate for the students’ level.a. The language used should be delivered at normal f. The chosen texts should be appropriate for the speed. candidates interests.b. The input should be delivered twice. g. Texts should not be too culturally bound.c. The language used should be as authentic a possible. h. Students should be tested on topics they have alreadyd. If using tapes, recordings should be of excellent read. quality. PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING WRITINGe. Recording equipment has to be in excellent conditions.f. The setting should be free of noise. a. Writing tasks should be similar to the types of writing students will do in real-life:PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING SPEAKING - they should specify an audience. - they should specify a purpose for writing.a. Give the students more than one task to judge the - they should specify a context. students speaking ability.b. Set only tasks and topics that the students should be b. Tasks should test a wide range of functions able to cope with in their own language. (describing, comparing, contrasting, expressingc. Create a pleasant atmosphere so that students will not opinions, giving reasons, asking for opinions, asking feel threatened. for information, etc).d. Teachers should avoid talking too much when c. Tasks should test different registers (formal / informal) interviewing students. d. Instructions must indicate:e. Encourage the students to speak.f. Teachers should design different instruments such as - the amount of time allowed for writing. rating scales and check-lists to recall student’s - the number of words expected. performance. - the way the writing will be marked. e. Instructions must be clear and concise.PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING READINGa. The tasks should be stated briefly and concisely.b. In the case of multiple-choice questions, alternatives should have a parallel structure.c. A variety of assessment techniques must be used.d. Skills students master in their native language must be tested first. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 32. 35VIII. OBJECTIVES OF THE ENGLISH PROGRAM IN 10. To increase the learners ability to understand the THE THIRD CYCLE OF BASIC EDUCATION IN main ideas from written texts on familiar topics and COSTA RICA recognize details in context. 11. To promote the development of written communication1. To provide a motivating learning environment where in English on known topics, by creating short and clear the students can feel self-confident to work by texts which express ideas and feelings. themselves. 12. To help the learner develop appropriate techniques to2. To motivate the students to carry out critical and use and apply information gathered from a bilingual extensive reading in English on different topics. dictionary.3. To enable the learners to communicate in the English 13. To encourage the learners appreciation of gender, language in a variety of interaction types which will cultural social and religious values of the target allow them to improve their own and their groups language and those of their own country. cultural knowledge. 14. To promote in the learners an appreciation and4. To promote situations which stimulate the use of sensitiveness of their own culture and the culture of the English as a foreign language and let the learners new language. share information about themselves, their family and 15. To promote self-awareness in the learners towards the country with responsive native speakers. their countrys economical and sustained development5. To give the students opportunities to recognize through a range of information which helps them be psycholinguistic and cultural features of the English prepared to participate in their countrys development. language, and be able to use them when 16. To develop consciousness in the students towards the communicating functions and discussing general need of inserting the country into the global economy. topics. 17. To encourage the learners develop an assertive6. To promote in the students the use of basic language attitude towards the use of technology in their every forms as means to communicate effectively with day life for self and their society improvement. others.7. To develop in the students a clear pronunciation and Dear Teachers: the use of prosodic features of the English language which will allow them to be understood by a responsive The syllabus is a very flexible guide to plan your native speaker in controlled and free situations. classroom activities. We have provided you with a8. To encourage the students develop skills in order to be new curricular structure in columns to help you confident when reacting to familiar expressions in choose and organize your teaching practice. English. However, this is not a recipe to be followed. You9. To encourage the development of listening are able to choose from other topics from the same comprehension abilities in such a way that the students syllabus, other objectives and procedures can identify specific details and understand information according to the topic you are teaching. from an oral text. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 33. 36The topics are broad and you should be able to The same happens with the language, functions, values,study the sub-topics that you want. Example: procedures and evaluation. They are there as theNatural Resources, Wetlands, National Parks, basics to start teaching. It means that you can addHuman Sex Education, Democracy, Human Rights as many language patterns, functions, values,and some other emergent cross curricular themes. procedures and evaluation activities as you want and according to each group progress. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 34. 37INTRODUCTORY UNIT FOR 7 TH GRADE By the end of the first week, you will be able to know theThis first English lesson for the students a is the great students and the knowledge of English they have. Use aopportunity to show them the importance of learning the lot of visual and aural material to keep them interested inlanguage with a high level of proficiency to interact in what you are teaching. Keep in mind that what you aredifferent learning, social and work situations. doing in class must be used in real situations. More than ever your effort, creativity and enthysiam is essential to A good idea is to come to class with information about the complete your task successfully.origin of English, some maps of countries where it isspoken as a native language, some newspaper adds from Do not forget to ask the students what they would like tolocal newspapers requesting knowledge of the language learn during the school year, relate this to theiras one of the requisites for getting and stable job. expectations about learning the language. It is time then, to make a commitment for the students, the classroom, theYou can use electronic equipmen to project a short video, community and the country. Perhaps it is time to defineor play a song, a short dialogue, turn on the radio on responsibilities among each one of the students. SomeRADIO 2, 99. 5, F.M. all of these will help you motivate may want to learn about some subjects, some may needthe students. some expressions; some others will like to learn to sing some popular music. Ask them who would like to bringAsk the students to tell you what they know in English and materials to support each one of their special requests.write it down on the board, but also keep that record Include these into your planning during the year and letbecause it tells you how much the students know. them know in which part of the trimester you will be teaching and relating their material to the topics from theIt is recommended to apply a diagnostic test. Remember syllabus.that half of the students have taken English in ElementaryEducation and what you really want to do is to take Your target is that the students perform in the language,advantage of what they know. If there is a group of demonstrating knowledge of the language skills or thestudents with some knowledge of the language, plan outcomes listed at the end of the study program.strategies to cope with the situation; for example, they canbe your helpers or monitors. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 35. 38 ENGLISH - III CYCLE – 7th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 1: EXCHANGE GREETINGS, LEAVE TAKINGS AND INTRODUCTIONS * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING - Greetings Listen carefully to Politeness when Discrimination of• Identifying sounds introductions and the material interacting sounds, words or in context. leave takings presented by the socially expressions.• Understanding - Hi / Hello instructor teacher, or Friendliness in simple familiar - Id like to introduce guide to identify social interaction phrases and short you to … specific sounds, Self-respect and Completion of statements. - How do you do? words or respect for dialogues,SPEAKING - Pleased to meet you. expressions. others. paragraphs and short Responding with - Nice meeting you. Application of Self-esteem notes. single words or short - This is … background when performing phrases to what is - My name is .../Im.. knowledge to in the new seen or heard. - Good morning understand a given language Production of simple Understanding /afternoon /evening message through CULTURE dialogues and short familiar language in /night completion of • Ways of greeting, conversations. simple sentences - See you /bye, etc. statements, introducing and spoken at near paragraphs and saying good bye by Identification of normal speed. Functions: others. boys and girls in cultural aspects. Asking and Writing items: simple Completion of English speaking responding to signs, instructions a dialogues with countries. questions in clearly set of phrases for specific information. Gestures. Social defined situations. classroom use. distance. Formal and informal language. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 36. 39 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE EXAMPLES PROCEDURES VALUES/ EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES AND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMES Substituting items of Greeting, introducing Oral interaction using Dealing with vocabulary to vary and saying good bye proper pronunciation. sexuality questions or in formal and statements. informal situations. Production of short Responding to Asking for and written dialogues. written or visual giving information. stimulus. Simulation/dramatizationREADING of short dialogues. Recognizing the script of a text. Beginning to predict meaning through the use of context.WRITING• Copying with familiar words correctly.• Writing items:simple signs, instructions and a set of phrases. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 37. 40 ENGLISH - III CYCLE – 7th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 2: IDENTIFICATION OF ONESELF TO OTHERS * LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES / EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES EXAMPLES ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Completion of a text Self-respect and Filling in charts with Understanding a by the correct respect for others information from range of familiar identification of short texts and statements and sounds, words and dialogues questions. expressions. Understanding clear speech.SPEAKING - Personal • Completion of Using appropriate information. Politeness when dialogues, forms for personal - My name is... / Im ... Use of expressions interacting with paragraphs and short address. - Whats her/his/your to complete an oral others notes. Asking and phone number? or written text. responding to - I live in.../ My address Responsibility for questions in clearly is.. . Oral interaction oneself • Identification of defined situations. - My phone number is using proper specific details in Taking part in simple ______. pronunciation. Friendliness when listening and reading. structured - Its ______. interacting with conversations of at - How do you spell • Reading of short others. least three or four his/her name? etc. texts to identify • Identification of exchanges. specific CULTURE cultural aspects Using the spelling of Functions: information. • When and how we contained in the topic familiar words in Asking for and giving give personal being studied. order to spell others personal information. • Practice of values information. that are unfamiliar. through classroom Difference in • Completion of tasks Creating and filling out routines and social names/last names. such as introducing forms. behavior. oneself orally. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 38. 41 LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES • Beginning friendship.READING • First love (when, Understanding what to do, what not simple vocabulary to do)… and expressions presented in context.WRITING Writing short phrases with understanding spelling. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 39. 42 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 3: DIRECTIONS OR INSTRUCTIONS * VALUES/ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES. ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING. Every day instructions. • Listen carefully to • Politeness • Completion of• Understanding Take the pencil. the material interacting with dialogues, simple familiar Go down to presented by the others paragraphs and phrases and short number____ instructor, teacher, • Self-respect and short notes. statements. Do it/ Dont do it. guide to identify respect for others. • Production of• Understanding May I ___________ ? specific sounds, • Use of turn-taking simple dialogues simple classroom Do it, please. words or strategies. and short commands and Will you please / could expressions. conversations. questions. you ________ ? • Application of • Understanding• Reacting towards Would you mind background CULTURE. sentences and instructions for opening _________ ? knowledge to • How people give short paragraphs. setting tasks. understand a given instructions in • Comprehension ofSPEAKING. Functions: message. English and in words and• Understanding • Understanding • Identification of Spanish (difference). expressions by familiar language in everyday sounds, words, • Differences in the completing tasks. simple sentences instructions. expressions to classroom settings in • Identifications of spoken at near • Giving and complete a text. Costa Rica and in cultural aspects. normal speed. responding to • Oral interaction some English • Recognition of• Responding with instructions. using proper speaking countries. values and single words or short • Saying numbers. pronunciation. attitudes through phrases to what is • Use of information written and oral seen or heard. in context. tasks. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 40. 43OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES. /ATTITUDESAND LEARNING CULTURE OUTCOMES• Using the target language to meet most of the routine needs for information and explanation.READING.• Understanding simple words presented in a familiar context.• Understanding short phrases presented in a familiar context.• Understanding the gist.WRITING.• Writing items: simple signs, instructions and set of phrases.• Writing short phrases from memory with understanding spelling. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 41. 44 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 4 : HOW A DICTIONARY IS ORGANIZED* OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES. AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING Functions: Identification and Neatness and Identification of • Identification of • Getting to know use of information in organization when words and the spelling of a dictionary. context. using the dictionary expressions with familiar words in • Looking up meanings through a order to spell words. series of exercises in others that are • Spelling. Use of dictionaries a short period of unfamiliar. or glossaries to find time. • Knowing the out the meanings of dictionary. new words. • Using dictionaries or glossaries to find out the meanings of new words.WRITING • Substituting items of vocabulary to vary questions or statements. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 42. 45 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 5 : CLASSROOM OBJECTS* OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Classroom objects Identification and Self-respect and Production of the• Understanding a use of information in respect for others. appropriate answer range of familiar "What" questions context. Being on time. to an oral text. statements and This is / These are questions. Personal items,etc. Oral description and Production of simpleSPEAKING That is/Those are location of objects. CULTURE dialogues and short• Naming and Yes/No questions Differences in conversations. describing people, Functions: Listening carefully to classroom settings in places and objects. • Identifying and the material Costa Rica and in Completion of oral /• Taking part in brief classifying classroom presented by the some English written sentences prepared tasks of at objects. instructor teacher, speaking countries. and short least two or three • Asking for and giving guide, etc. paragraphs. exchanges. information.READING Telling the time. Use of background Matching words and• Understanding short knowledge to expressions with phrases presented in transmit/complete a their corresponding a familiar context. given message. meaning.• Responding to written or visual stimuli. Production Identification ofWRITING /completion of tasks cultural aspects by• Making short by writing the responding to substitutions (two or appropriate word. different stimulus. three words) in a short, familiar written task. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 43. 46 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 6: LOCATION OF PEOPLE AND OBJECTS * * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Locating things Identification of Self-respect and Completion of short Understanding clear Where / Who sounds, words, respect for others. written/oral speech in a free from questions/ ___s expressions to Autonomy towards dialogues. environmental sitting next to complete a text. the tasks assigned. interference. _____?. Left-right Application of Respect for human Oral interactionSPEAKING At the bottom in-on- expressions to rights. using proper Responding with behind-in front of- complete an oral or pronunciation when single words or short next to Over there written text. CULTURE using the language phrases to what is between –across Completion of Differences in studied. seen or heard. from into out of - dialogues with classroom settings in Asking and Etc. specific details. Costa Rica and in Identification of responding to on the (left-right) Production of short some English cultural aspects questions in clearly FUNCTIONS: written dialogues. speaking countries. studied in the topic defined situations. Locating people and Oral interaction Names ofREADING objects. using proper organizations that Responding to written Asking for and giving pronunciation when locate people. (FBI, or visual stimuli. information using the language OIJ…)WRITING learned. Labeling and selecting appropriate words to complete short phrases or sentences. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 44. 47 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 7: DESCRIPTION OF SOMETHING * * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Description of Listen carefully to the Self-respect and Identification of Understanding familiar objects material presented by respect for others specific details. language in simple Size, shape, color, the instructor, sentences spoken at material: medium, teacher, guide, to Autonomy towards Filling in charts with near normal speed. oval, gray, metal … identify details. the tasks assigned information fromSPEAKING Is it ? short texts and Responding with single Application of Good working dialogues. words or short phrases What color is it/are background habits (individual to what is seen or they? knowledge to and in groups) Completion of heard. What are they? understand a given dialogues, Asking and responding What is it/are they message. Sensitivity for other paragraphs and to questions in clearly made of? people and other short notes. defined situations. Is it ?/Are they? Application of people’s tasks Taking part in simple etc. expressions to Production of simple structured conversation "Or" questions complete an oral or CULTURE dialogues and short of at least three or written text. • How things are conversations. four exchanges. Functions: described in bothREADING Describing and Completion of cultures. Production of Understanding the gist classifying objects. dialogues with sentences and short of short sentences. Asking for and giving specific details. paragraphs. information. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 45. 48 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Production of written Comparison of Writing items: simple short dialogues, detailed descriptions signs, instructions and simple signs, among cultures and set phrases. instructions and a set according to specific Using the spelling of of phrases. cases. familiar words in order Description and to spell others that are location of objects. unfamiliar. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 46. 49 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 8: USE A DICTIONARY TO SPELL WORDS * * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES Functions: Identification of Neatness and Identification ofREADING Looking up different specific details, by organization when words and Using dictionaries or meanings using a looking up the using the dictionary expressions with glossaries correctly short period of time. words, of a text in a their meanings. to find out the Stating similarities dictionary. Self-esteem when meanings of new and differences. performing individual Providing the right words. Filling in charts with and group tasks meaning of a wordWRITING information from according to the Making appropriate short texts and context. use of dictionaries dialogues. and glossaries. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 47. 50 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 9 : GOODS AND SERVICES * * EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMES Goods and services:LISTENING where and how to get Listen carefully to the Politeness when Production of simple Reacting towards them material presented by the dealing with others dialogues and short instructions for Excuse me, Where’s instructor, teacher, or guide Responsibility conversations. setting tasks. ____? to complete a task. Friendliness working Show understanding Reacting properly to Where can I buy/get Oral interaction using proper alone or in groups of sentences and petitions from others. ______? pronunciation. Honesty in every short paragraphs bySPEAKING Can I help you? Application of background action giving the Using short phrases knowledge to understand a Awareness of appropriate to express personal Here you are. Thank given message. consumerism response. responses i.e.: likes, you! Identification of sounds, Good working habits Matching words and dislikes. What can I do for you? words, expressions to Neatness and expressions with Taking part in simple complete a task. organization meanings. structured Its one block North Use of expressions to Self-esteem when Identification of conversation of at from ____. complete an oral or written performing individual cultural aspects. least three or four How can I get there ? text. and group tasks. Recognition of exchanges. Production of written short values and attitudes.READING dialogues. Demonstration of Understanding Identification and use CULTURE knowledge of explicitly stated Ways and places to language, values information. get goods and and cultural aspects Understanding public services in both when interacting with notices and signs. Costa Rica and in others in English. English speaking countries “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 48. 51 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESWRITING Functions: of information in • Using the spelling • Offering, context. of familiar words accepting and • Name, describe and in order to spell refusing goods locate things. others that are and services. unfamiliar • Locating places. • Writing short • Asking for and phrases with giving information. understanding spelling. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 49. 52 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 7Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 10 : INSTRUCTIONS * * @ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Instructions Listen carefully to the Politeness when Discrimination of Understanding material presented by interacting with sounds, words or simple classroom Take a piece of paper. the instructor teacher, others expressions. commands and Fold it in half... guide, etc. Responsibility to Identification of questions. Plug it /unplug it. Put Use of background complete tasks specific details. Understanding a water into the pitcher. knowledge to Friendliness when Filling in charts with range of familiar Insert filter in the complete a given interacting with information from statements and basket. Add coffee, etc. message. others short texts and questions. Identification of Self-respect and dialogues. Reacting towards Functions: sounds, words, respect for others Completion of instructions for • Giving and following expressions to Autonomy working dialogues, setting tasks. instructions. complete a text. alone or in groups paragraphs and shortSPEAKING Understanding and Application of Good working notes. Responding with using sequences. expressions to habits Production of simple single words or short complete an oral or Neatness and dialogues and short phrases to what is written text. organization conversations. seen or heard. Completion of Self-esteem Understanding Using appropriate dialogues with performing sentences and short forms for personal specific details. to others paragraphs. address. Production of written Generosity Matching words and Using the target short dialogues. Sensitivity towards expressions with language to ask for Oral interaction others meanings. information and using correct Honesty in every Identification of explanation. pronunciation. action taken cultural aspects. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 50. 53 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMES Taking part in simple Identification of CULTURE Recognition of values structured cultural aspects Ways of giving and attitudes. conversation of at studied in each topic. instructions in least three or four Practice of values English exchanges. through classroomREADING routines and social Understanding behavior. explicitly stated Identification and use information. of information in Understanding context. public notices, signs and procedures. Understanding the Description and gist of short location of things. Recognition of values sentences. and attitudes. • Show knowledge ofWRITING language, values Writing items: simple and cultural aspects signs, instructions when interacting in and set phrases. English Writing short phrases using correct spelling. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 51. 547Th The students can… • greet and say good bye. • introduce him/herself to others. • introduce other people. • Identify oneself to others. • understand formal and informal situations to interact • ask for directions and instructions. • use numbers. • tell time. • listen carefully in order to respond appropriately. • explain how a dictionary is organized. • identify classroom objects. • write short descriptions of the objects studied. • locate people and objects. • follow a map to get to a place. • ask for a description of something. • describe people and objects. • spell words. • accept and refuse goods and services. • give and respond to instructions. • ask for and give information. • write short descriptions. • write a set of instructions. • produce a series of oral interactions • keep a basic conversation “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 52. 55INTRODUCTORY UNIT FOR 8th LEVELThis is the first day of school after the school break. Thestudents have already taken English and they have hadenough time to recover for this new school term. Some ofthem have had some experiences with the realapplication of English because they have interacted withnative speakers of English. Remember! English is nolonger a book issue; it has become a real language,especially in those parts of the country where tourism hasincreased.It is time to apply a diagnostic test to determine howmuch students know and what little matters they haveforgotten over the vacation time. Include four parts: onefor each language skill.Take the list of linguistic competencies or outcomes fromthe previous year and plan a series of lessons to reviewcontent, functions and language skills.Present the topics object of study for this level and askthem, if within each topic they are interested in learningabout specific subtopics or other related activities. Askthe students for help in case they would like to learn asong; tell them to bring the music and if possible the lyricsfor you to study those in advance. Relate these activitiesto the values and culture of the units. Take advantage ofyour students´ interests to learn other topics.Pay attention to the list of linguistic competencies oroutcomes, keeping in mind that this is the ultimate targetyou are aiming at during the year. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 53. 56 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 1: IDENTIFICATION OF FAMILY MEMBERS AND PARTNER’S RELATIVES.* OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE EXAMPLES PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Family relationships. Listen to a Love for other people Identification of• Guessing the This - that - these - description, Tolerance towards different elements by general meaning of those - are - comparison, gender and people´s filling in charts, a short passage. -He/she works at conversation, feelings. listing, grouping or• Understanding ______? passage or other Responsabilities checking. short passages -How many do explanations to among family (instructions, you have? complete a task. members. Asking and messages -I have brothers, Participation in answering questions dialogues, etc.) sisters, aunts, uncles... brainstorming of new CULTURE in a given context. made up of familiar -My mothers sister is topics. • Nuclear and Completion of cloze language. my . Exchange of extended family in exercises.• Extracting specific -Her brother is my information with Costa Rica and in Production of short details from short _____. partners. English speaking dialogues or passages. -Is he/she your Development of cultures. passages.SPEAKING _______? reading • Importance of long- Production of• Eliciting basic -How old ? comprehension term family ties in questionnaires to information from -Who ______? activities about our country. interview people. both friends and -How many _____? familiar topics. • Differences and Demonstration of strangers. Written descriptions similarities in gender values related toREADING Functions: or comparisons. roles among both family.• Deducing the Identifying people. Participation in role- cultures. meaning and use of Asking for and talking plays. unfamiliar lexical about people and their items. families “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 54. 57 EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE EXAMPLES PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMES Showing• Understanding a Application of values understanding of range of written and cultural features cultural differences materials in different learning among familyWRITING situations. relations in both• Writing several Elicit information cultures. sentences to convey from partners. familiar factual information.• Expressing personal information, such as likes, dislikes and feelings. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 55. 58 ENGLISH – III CYCLE – 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 2: DESCRIPTION OF PEOPLE’S PHYSICAL APPEARANCE * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Description of people. Elicitation of Love for other people Completion of a short Identifying main What does he /she look information from Tolerance for other passage. points and personal like? partners. people Oral and written responses. He’s got big brown Production of Respect of others’ description of Understanding eyes. pictures according to physical features pictures. longer passages What’s he/she like? a passage you hear personality traits, and made up of familiar He’s young / old. or read opinions language. She’s got green eyes. Adaptation and Self-esteem in Production of short Interpreting extracts She/he looks like substitution of words everything done. written descriptions of spoken language ______. or phrases in familiar Self care for own or comparisons. made up of familiar Wavy (hair) straight, contexts. health and physical Fast recognition of material. blond, height, average Description of appearance terms by reading height /weight /slim, tall, pictures, places, different types ofSPEAKING chubby, etc. people or objects. CULTURE texts. Listing and Body parts, etc. Adaptation of the Expressions used in brainstorming language of short both languages to Oral reaction to a different items. Functions: texts to rewrite new describe people. situation. Talking in simple Describing physical ones. What to say / What language about appearance. Participation in role- should not be said. Showing familiar and Asking for and playing or appreciation for concrete situations of reporting what people simulations. diversity, gender and own world. look like. affiliation in Taking part in short Classifying physical classroom activities. conversations. characteristics. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 56. 59 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING Application of values Costa Rican attitudes Understanding short and cultural features towards physical texts and dialogues in different learning appearance compared made up of familiar situations. with those attitudes of language. English speaking Skimming. culture.WRITING Composing or adapting a simple dialogue. Writing sentences to convey simple familiar factual information. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 57. 60 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 3 COMPARISON OF PEOPLE’S PHYSICAL FEATURES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OBJECTIVES PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE LEARNING EXAMPLES OUTCOMESLISTENING Participation in Love for others Completion of a short Understanding Comparisons of brainstorming of new Tolerance towards passage. information when not physical features topics. others explicitly stated. and personality Imitation of teacher’s Respect of others’ Written production of Scanning to locate treats. language. physical features, questionnaires to specifically required -My mom is tall but Reflection on familiar personality traits, interview people. information. my dad is short. topics with the guide opinions and Understanding a -______ is the of your teacher. differences. Reaction to a range of written tallest/youngest in Comparison of Self-esteem when situation in spoken material. _______. people, places, dealing with every language Identifying main -______ is as actions or objects. day issues points and personal smart/intelligent as Arrangement of Punctuality in every Manifestation of good responses. . words and sentences action attitudes towardsSPEAKING -She’s taller than in logical order or Politeness interacting values and culture Responding to him. chronological with others taught. language spoken at -He/she has longer sequences. Responsibility in near normal speed in hair than _____. Participation in role- every action taken. Transference and everyday -Where is _______? plays or simulations. CULTURE organization of circumstances. _____’s close to the Application of values Costa Rican attitudes information by using Asking for and thinnest boy? and culture towards physical grids or charts. responding to _____’s near / away appearance questions in less from / farther from. compared with those Production of short predictable situations -Who’s the oldest? attitudes of English dialogues or Etc. speaking cultures. passages. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 58. 61 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING Functions: • Neatness and Understanding Comparing people. efficiency in both information when not Asking and talking cultures. explicitly stated. about peoples • Ways of comparing Scanning to locate characters. people’s own values: specifically required what to do, what to information. say. Understanding a range of written material. Identifying main points and personal responses.WRITING Composing or adapting a simple dialogue. Writing several sentences to convey simple familiar factual information with guidance “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 59. 62 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 4 : MEANINGS OF WORDS ACCORDING TO A GIVEN CONTEXT. * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Meaning of words • Adaptation and • Self-organization • Identification of• Seeking for substitution of words when using the different elements by information and Functions: or phrases in familiar dictionary filling in charts, opinions in simple Looking up words. contexts. • Responsibility to listing, grouping or terms. Inferring meaning from take care of the checking.• Deducing the context. • Development of materials used meaning and use Distinguishing dictionary skills to find • Showing of unfamiliar lexical between different meanings and comprehension of items. meanings. functions of words. text while/after• Using reference listening or reading. materials. • Adaptation of the language of short • Completion of texts to rewrite new sentences according ones. to familiar topics. • Location of the meaning and/or function of words in your dictionary. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 60. 63 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 5 : RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION ∗ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Means of Completion of a Order when using the Completion of short Understanding short transportation. listening task by public transportation passages. passages (Schedules - prices - listening to a system. (instructions, convenience). description, Respect for traffic Production of written messages -When is the next comparison, passage safety rules. questionnaires to dialogues, train to ? or other Appreciation for interview people. schedules, flyers, -What time is the explanations. public services and etc.) made up of next ? At 7:30 users. Production of oral familiar language. /1:00 p.m., etc. Elicitation of Care for public goods situations. Identifying and It leaves ________ at information from and users. noting main points . partners. Short written and personal -What’s faster/ better/ Participation in CULTURE descriptions or responses. more comfortable? brainstorming of new • Similarities / comparisons. Understanding -Which is the earliest topics. Differences of the Manifestation of good longer passages /most comfortable/ Exchange of means of attitudes towards made up of familiar cheapest, etc.? information. transportation: values and culture language. -How much does the Description of schedules, taught. Extracting specific ticket cost? pictures, places, punctuality, etc. in Transference and details from short -Are we boarding people, objects. both cultures. organization of passages. now? etc. Participation in role information by using plays or simulations. grids or charts. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 61. 64 VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES AND CULTURE LEARNING EXAMPLES OUTCOMESSPEAKING Functions: Eliciting basic Asking for and giving information from both information about friends and means of strangers. transportations and Asking for and schedules. responding to Talking about routines. questions in less Telling the time. predictable situations.READING Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items. Extracting relevant specific information from texts, simple brochures, guidelines letters and other forms of continuous writing. Skimming. Scanning to locate specifically required information. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 62. 65 VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES AND CULTURE LEARNING EXAMPLES OUTCOMESWRITING Writing short texts. Adapting language from source materials to parallel situations. Using reference materials. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 63. 66 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 6 : PERSONAL TRAVEL PLANS * EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Exchange of Respect of others’ Production of short Guessing the general Travel plans. information with physical features dialogues or meaning of a short Where are you planning partners. personality treats, passages. passage. to go _______ and opinions• Interpreting extracts (tomorrow, next Production of Order when Interpretation of of spoken language vacation etc.)? pictures according to interacting with guides or maps to made up of familiar When do you plan to a passage you hear others complete a task. material. leave? or read. Efficiency in own Responding to Who’s going with you? participation Re-arrangement of language spoken at I’d . I will . I Oral research of Respect for public words into logical near normal speed in Prefer . information. services sentences in a given everyday How often do you travel/ Responsibility when context circumstances. visit/ go to ______? Adaptation and working alone or in Listing to different How long does it take to substitution of words groups Showing good items. go to ? or phrases in familiar attitudes towardsSPEAKING Are you ? etc. contexts. CULTURE values and culture Talking in simple Traveling habits: taught. language about Functions: Description of comparing both familiar and concrete Making travel plans. pictures, places, cultures. Transference and situations of own Asking for and giving people or objects. Most frequent ways organization of world. information about of traveling. information by Using the knowledge plans. Comparison of using grids or of language to adapt people, places, charts. and substitute single actions or objects. words and phrases. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 64. 67 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMES Written descriptions Production of short Taking part in short or comparisons. essays. conversations.• Referring to recent Adaptation of the experiences future language of short plans and everyday texts to rewrite new activities. ones.READING Extracting relevant Arrangement of specific information words and from such texts as sentences in logical simple brochures, order or guidelines, letters chronological and other forms of sequences. continuous writing. Understanding a Participation in role- variety of texts that plays or simulations. include familiar language in Application of values unfamiliar context. and cultural features Using reference in different learning materials. situations. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 65. 68 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Composing or adapting a simple dialogue. Expressing personal responses, such as likes, dislikes and feelings Substituting individual words and sets of phrases. Writing short texts. Adapting language from source materials to parallel situations. Expressing personal responses, such as likes, dislikes and feelings. Choosing the appropriate form of writing for a particular task. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 66. 69 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 7: ACCEPTANCE AND REFUSAL OF GOODS AND SERVICES. ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTUR LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Goods and services: Elicitation of Tolerance towards Participation in a Using short phrases where and how to get information. others’ goods. series of information to express personal them Production of pictures Order when dealing exchanges, in responses i.e.: likes, -Excuse me, Where’s from a passage heard with goods, services different contexts. dislikes. ____? or read. and users. Completion of cloze Reacting towards -Where can I Oral research of Efficiency in every exercises. action taken. instructions, buy/get ______? information. Respect for public Production of short procedures etc, for -Can I help you? services and users. dialogues or setting tasks. -Here you are. Participation in short Quality demanding. passages.SPEAKING Thank you! discussions. Politeness and good Re-arrangement of Taking part in brief -What can I do for you? manners when words into logical prepared tasks of at -It’s one block North Description of pictures, interacting with sentences in a least two or three from ____. places, people or others. given context. exchanges. -How can I get there ? objects. CULTURE Manifestation of Taking part in simple Comparison of people, • Services and goods good attitudes and structured Functions: places or objects. you can find in manners towards conversation of at Asking for, locating and Development of countries like The public services and least three or four offering goods and procedures to seek United States: users. exchanges. services. and give directions. (Stationery stores, Transference and health, fast food, etc.) Ordering from a Development of • Importance of getting organization of catalogue. reading skilld acquainted with information by using comprehension modern ways for grids and charts. activities selecting and ordering goods and services. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 67. 70 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Adaptation of the • Advantages and Understanding language of short texts disadvantages of explicitly stated to rewrite new ones. consumerism. information. Role-plays or Understanding public simulations. notices, signs, adds, Application of values etc. and culture in differentWRITING learning situations. Using the spelling of Comprehension of familiar words in texts while/after order to spell others listening or reading. that are unfamiliar. Reaction to a situation• Writing short in spoken language. phrases with understanding spelling. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 68. 71 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 8: LIKES , DISLIKES AND PREFERENCES ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Likes, dislikes and Completion of Love for others Production of written Reacting to language preferences. diverse listening Tolerance towards questionnairs to spoken at near -I want /like /prefer to tasks trough listening others interview people. normal speed in -I don’t like . to a description, Self-esteem when everyday Action words: play, run, passage or other participating in Exchange of circumstances. jump, swim, talk, dance, explanation. individual or in group information in a given Eliciting basic etc. Participation in tasks context. information from both We always play soccer brainstorming of new Self-organization strangers and on the weekend, but we topics. Respect for personal Comprehension of friends. seldom ______. Exchange of likes, diversity, texts while/after Asking or responding (often, every day, information with gender. listening or reading. to questions in less always, never, every partners. Politeness when predictable other day, etc.) play on Reflection on familiar participating in Completion of a short situations. weekends, etc. topics. individual or in group passage. Comparing Description of tasks information in simple Functions: pictures, places, Creativity Production of short terms. • Expressing likes, people or objects. dialogues or dislikes and Comparison of CULTURE passages.SPEAKING preferences. people, places, • Compare leisure Taking part in short • Surveying actions or objects. activities people Demonstration of conversations. enjoy in both knowledge of the cultures: weather, language values and time of the year, cultural aspects clothes, etc. when interacting with others. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 69. 72 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING Expression of • Importance of Production of a short Deducing the opinions, expressing one’s essay. meaning of unfamiliar suggestions or opinion. lexical items. production of Understanding short information on texts and dialogues familiar topics in the made up of familiar written form. language. Arrangement of Extracting relevant words and sentences specific information in logical order or from such texts as chronological simple brochures, sequences. guidelines letters and Participation in role- other forms of plays or simulations. continuous writing. Understanding a • Participation in short variety of texts that discussions. include familiar language in Application of values unfamiliar context. and cultural features in different situations “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 70. 73 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESWRITING Writing several sentences to convey simple familiar factual information with guidance. Substituting individual words and sets of phrases. Writing short texts. Adapting language from source materials to parallel situations. Expressing personal responses, such as likes, dislikes and feelings. Choosing the appropriate form of writing for a particular task. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 71. 74 TARGET CONTENT N° 9: GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS OF WORDS**@ OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING/WRITING Functions of words. Order when using the Identification of Using reference Adjectives, adverbs, dictionary different elements by materials. nouns, verbs, Self-organization filling in charts, articles, intensifiers, Responsibility to listing, grouping or conjunctions, linking complete the tasks checking. words, etc. on time Functions: Identifying and classifying parts of speech. Looking at word order, functions and formation. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 72. 75 ENGLISH – III CYCLE – 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 10: GIVE AND FOLLOW DIRECTIONS ** OBJECTIVES AND LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OFLANGUAGE CONTEXT EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Exchange of Politeness interacting • Completion of Identifying and noting Directions. information with with others charts, maps and main points and Excuse me, where’s partners. Responsibility for others. personal responses. the (post office, Production of own actions taken • Exchange of Responding to drugstore, barber pictures according to information in a language spoken at shop/beauty shop, a passage heard or CULTURE given context. near normal speed in etc.)? read. Ways of giving everyday It’s in front of /next to Participation in short directions Comprehension of circumstances. /behind /between /two discussions. (addresses) in Costa text while/after Eliciting basic blocks from _____, etc. Production of Rica and in English listening or reading. information from both Walk straight ahead, expressions to seek speaking countries: strangers and friends. get to the next corner. and give directions. streets, numbers, Production of shortSPEAKING Turn left/right. Expression of points of reference, dialogues or Asking and Could you please tell opinions, etc. passages. responding to me where _______ is? suggestions or The importance of Production of short questions in less etc. information exchange learning to read a written descriptions predictable situations. Functions: on familiar topics in map. or comparisons. Comparing Asking for, following the written form. Manifestation of good information in simple and giving Production of written attitudes and terms. directions. descriptions or manners towards Understanding comparisons. values and culture addresses. Participation in role- taught. Reading maps. playing or simulations. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 73. 76 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMES Using the knowledge of Application of • Transference and language to adapt and values and cultural organization of substitute single words and features in different information by the phrases. learning situations. use of grids or Understanding short texts and Development of charts. dialogues made up of familiar reading language. comprehensionREADING activities about Deducing the meaning and familiar topics use of unfamiliar lexical items. Understanding information when not explicitly stated. Skimming/Scanning to locate specifically required information.WRITING Writing several sentences to convey simple familiar factual information with guidance. Writing short texts. Adapting language from source materials to parallel situations. Choosing the appropriate form of writing for a particular task. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 74. 77 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 8Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 11: OCCUPATIONS ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING. Occupations. Elicitation of Love for others Identification of• Understanding short There are engineers information from Tolerance towards different elements by passages /doctors _______ partners. others filling in charts, (instructions, working for in our Participation in Self-esteem when listing, grouping or messages town. brainstorming of new performing individual checking. dialogues, etc.) My ______ is a , but topics. and group tasks Comprehension of made up of familiar my ______ is a . Reflection on familiar Order everywhere text while/after language. Who wakes up early in topics. Efficiency when listening or reading.• Understanding the morning to milk the Participation in short performing actions Completion of cloze longer passages cows? The milkman. discussions. Politeness interacting exercises. made up of familiar Who takes care of Development of with others Completion of a short language. people’s health and reading Creativity towards passage.• Interpreting extracts performs surgery? comprehension the topic learned Production of written of spoken language The _________ activities about Responsibility in questionnars to made up of familiar How many teachers do familiar topics. every action interview people. material. we need? S/he has to Descriptions or Re-arrangement of• Listing different . etc. comparisons. CULTURE words into logical items. Functions: Arrangement of Opportunities to self- sentences in a givenSPEAKING. Identifying occupations. words and sentences realization in our context.• Taking part in short Describing what people in logical order or culture and in other Reaction to a conversations. do. chronological English speaking situation in spoken Finding out about jobs. sequences. countries. language. Participation in role- playing or simulations. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 75. 78 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING. Application of values Manifestation of good Deducing the and cultural features attitudes towards meaning and use of in different learning values and culture unfamiliar lexical situations. taught. items. Production of short Understanding a descriptions or Transference and range of written comparisons. organization of materials. information using• Understanding a grids or charts. variety of texts that include familiar • Production of short language. descriptions or comparisons.WRITING.• Expressing personal responses, such as likes, dislikes and feelings.• Substituting individual words and sets of phrases.• Writing short texts.• Adapting language from source materials to parallel situations. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 76. 798thThe students can … • listen to tapes and their instructor with understanding. • identify family members and partner´s relatives. • talk about family members and partner´s relatives. • describe people´s physical appearance. • write desciptions. • compare people´s features and personality traits. • understand the meaning of words through context. • infer the meaning of words through context. • complete written exercises. • name characteristics of means of transportation. • talk about routines. • write a list of characteristics. • describe personal travel plans. • write schedules and time tables. • stay own travel plans in oral and written forms. • accept and refuse good and services. • order from a catalogue. • express likes, dislikes and preferences. • write a short composition. • identify grammatical functions of words. • give and follow directions. • write a set of instructions or directions. • identify and describe occupations. • produce a written description. • ask for and give information “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 77. 80INTRODUCTORY UNIT FOR 9TH GRADE Review the linguistic competencies or outcomes from 7th and 8th levels and those they must master at the end of the year.Students now have a basic level of English and accordingto previously acquire linguistic competencies oroutcomes; they are able to perform in the language withsome limitations. They are able at least to recognizefamiliar topics in the English class that are study themesin other subject matters. This will allow them to know thecontent in their own language and be able to transferstrategies to deal with in English.A diagnostic test is necessary to be applied. Includethemes from the previous two levels to detect thestudent’s weaknesses and strengths.The topics chosen for this level are related to the widerenvironment of the students and they are very importantsince most of them belong to the cross- curricular topicsand they are of national interest.You must include different types of learning activities inyour unit plan to guarantee each of your students thepossibility to pulish their own learning preference, as ameas to stimulate their interest for English. Just mentionthat what they learn in their English class is applicableoutside the classroom. It is worthwhile to learn Englishand the benefits of learning it as a foreign or secondlanguage is highly appreciated by many of the businessestablished in the country. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 78. 81 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 1: SPORTS AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES* VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES AND CULTURE LEARNING EXAMPLES OUTCOMESLISTENING Sports and games. Understanding Do you like to...? Participation in Respect for others Listing to short narratives -Can you play...? selecting topics efforts, possibilities, drawn from a -Which sports do and information. achievements options... variety of topics. you...? interests and Understanding What kind of ____ abilities. Sequencing of, extracts that do you need? Analysis of written, Efficiency in every characteristics, include familiar -Where is ____ pictorial and oral participation taken procedures. material in played? information on unfamiliar contexts. Sports, leisure different topics to Appreciation of Oral explanation of Identifying main activities, equipment, perform actions, equal participation opinions and points and specific etc. follow procedures, for women and men reasons. details including etc. in sports. opinions. Functions: Value for friendship. Application of Transferring the Identifying, Value of women’s written and oral information heard classifying, Development of and men’s abilities language whenever to visual or written describing and procedures to to practice sports. it is necessary. form. analysing sports. solve problems. Asking for and giving information. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 79. 82 VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES AND CULTURE LEARNING EXAMPLES OUTCOMESSPEAKING • Demonstration of Role-playing someone knowledge of the CULTURE elses position/situation. language learned to Expressing ideas, read texts and apply • Leisure activities / interests, feelings, and information in a sports that young concerns. variety of ways people, adults, Using descriptive women and men narrative language to enjoy in Costa make brief passages Rica and in English about others over a speaking countries range of familiar topics encountered.READING Identifying points and some details of short stories and factual texts. Using context to deduce the meaning of unfamiliar language.WRITING Writing paragraphs, using simple descriptive language, and referring to past, present and future actions and events. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 80. 83 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 2: LIFE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF FAMOUS ATHLETES AND MUSICIANS * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMES Athletes and • Analysis of • Respect forLISTENING musicians. written, pictorial and others efforts, • Production of a Summarizing Achievements/biograp oral different topics to achievements written text aboutinformation from hies. perform actions, interests and abilities. the topic.relevant points. What does s/he play? follow procedures, • Neatness and • Oral summaries of Identifying points of ____ was born in etc. good working habits. information.view. ____. • Comparison of • Consideration • Identification of Transferring the ____started school... physical towards others. details, point ofinformation heard to Who is she? characteristics of • Tolerance to view from thevisual or written form. objects, facts, states. every one’s reading piece. Functions. • Discussion of participation. • Production of Identifying and possible solutions to short written describing people. different classroom CULTURE passages offering Asking for and giving topics. own point of view. information. • Development of Athletes / Expressing knowledge of the musicians: activities preferences. language to read texts /motivation etc., in and apply information Costa Rica and in in a variety of ways. English speaking countries. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 81. 84 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESSPEAKING Initiating anddevelopingconversations. Adapting languageto deal with someunprepared situations.READING Identifying points ofview. Deducing themeaning of unfamiliarlanguage in a varietyof texts using contextand grammaticalunderstanding. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 82. 85 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE VALUES/ATTITUDES PROCEDURES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESWRITING • Production of Identification of • Writing paragraphs, descriptive correct using simple language in a meanings to descriptive written form. complete language, and information referring to past, according to a present and future given context. actions and events. Oral and written • Performing simple explanation of familiar tasks that opinions and require some reasons. elementary linking of sentences and structuring of ideas. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 83. 86 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 3 : OPERATIONS OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Electrical Analysis of written, Efficiency when Follow oral Initiating/responding appliances. pictorial and oral dealing with electrical procedures to in familiar Do you know how to information on appliances. show exchanges ____? different topics to Consideration understanding. introducing some Would you tell me...? perform actions, towards others’ Analysis of variants. How can I...? follow procedures, goods. written, pictorial Transferring the etc. Tolerance towards and oral information heard to Turn off, plug those who are able / information on visual or written in/unplug, insert, etc. Development of not able to deal with different topics to form. procedures to electrical appliances. perform actions,SPEAKING Functions: solve problems. Electrical appliances follow Expressing Identifying and used by both sexes. procedures, etc. decisions. describing Discussion of CULTURE Development of Improvising or electrical possible solutions Inventions, places of procedures to paraphrasing. appliances. to different origin, use of solve problems. Performing simple Making classroom topics. electrical appliances Discussion of familiar tasks that suggestions. Explanation of the in Costa Rica and in possible require some Giving instructions. steps to operate an English speaking solutions to elementary linking Asking for electrical countries. different of sentences and information. appliance. classroom topics. structuring of ideas. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 84. 87 OBJECTIVES PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESREADING • Production of sets of • Demonstration of Identifying important instructions to operate knowledge of the themes, including ideas, an electrical appliance language learned in opinions and emotions as or other electronic order to read texts and expressed. devices. apply information in a Identifying and noting main variety of ways points and specific details (written, pictorial, etc. in texts with familiar • Presentation of written language in contexts. work with illustrations and sets ofWRITING operational Writing creative instructions. paragraphs of about three or four simple sentences. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 85. 88 ENGLISH – III CYCLE – 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 4 : ROOTS, SUFFIXES, AFFIXES AND PREFIXES *OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES OF LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESReading Root words and Using context to grammatical Completion of Personal, home and Identification of deduce the meaning structures that sentences / community correct of unfamiliar modify meaning: paragraphs with the cleanliness meanings to language. affixes, prefixes, right form of a word Neatness when completeWriting suffixes. using affixes using the dictionary information Using reference suffixes and according to a materials to extend Functions: prefixes. given context. their range of Analyzing and forming language and words. Identification of the improve accuracy. meaning of a word in context through the use of affixes. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 86. 89 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N°5: TRANSPORTATION, QUALITY, AND USE * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES/ATTITUDES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES AND CULTURE LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Means of Participation in List of possibilities,• Understanding transportation. selection of topics • Personal, home options... short narratives Is there a bus to...? and information. and community Prediction of drawn from a cleanliness. content in a text. variety of topics. How can I go to...? Comparison of the Oral explanation of Understanding How are ____ physical • Respect for public opinions and extracts that transported? characteristics of transportation. reasons. include familiar Buses are cheaper objects, facts, Application of material in than... states. • Tolerance towards written and oral unfamiliar contexts. The most expensive Development of the services language Identifying points of is...? procedures to offered whenever it is view. What time does the solve problems. necessary to ____ to ____ leave? Discussion of • Demonstration of transfer informationSPEAKING possible solutions courtesy when from oral to written Role-playing Functions: to different using public and from written to someone elses Identifying, classroom topics. transportation. spoken forms. position/situation. classifying, describing Demonstration of Use of language, Initiating and and comparing knowledge of the CULTURE functions, values developing means of language learned Means of and cultural conversations. transportation. to read texts and transportation / aspects in the Expressing Asking for and giving apply information in importance etc. in different topics and decisions. information about a variety of ways Costa Rica and in according to Improvising or means of (written, pictorial, English speaking specific contexts to paraphrasing. transportation. etc.) countries. interact orally or in a written form. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 87. 90 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING • Written Drawing • Follow a production conclusions from procedure to conveying extended texts. write a information Identifying points composition to and opinion. and some details of convey short stories and information factual texts. and opinion Identifying points of view.WRITING Producing short pieces of writing to convey information and opinion. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 88. 91 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 6: COMPUTERS AND TECHNOLOGY TODAY IN OUR LIVES ** VALUES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUANGE PROCEDURES /ATTITUDES LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Advantages and Prediction of content. Efficiency when Summary of the Summarizing disadvantages of Analysis of written, dealing with information heard. information from computers. pictorial and oral computers. Development of relevant points. A computer information on Neatness and procedures to Identifying specific helps me if I want different topics to good working sequence events, details including to… The perform actions, habits. characteristics, etc. opinions. hard disk… follow procedures, Personal, home Transferring the The sequence of and community Oral explanation of information heard to advantages to events… cleanliness. opinions and reasons. visual or written have a computer Comparison of Tolerance. forms. are… physical Uses of technology Application of writtenSPEAKING I think… I characteristics of Avoidance of using and oral language Role-playing believe… In my objects, facts, states. technology for whenever it is someone elses opinion… Development of phornography or necessary to transfer position/situation. Functions: procedures to solve for destructive and information from oral Expressing ideas, Identifying. problems. violent games. to written and from interests, feelings, Comparing the Discussion of CULTURE written to spoken concerns. past, present and possible solutions to How cumputers forms.READING future. different classroom and technology Drawing conclusions Expressing topics. change human life Application of from extended texts. opinions. Selection of the right in Costa Rica and language, functions, Identifying and Expressing words to complete, in English speaking values and cultural noting main points advantages and meanings, countries. aspects in the different and some details of disadvantages. sentences and Dealing with the topics and according short stories and paragraphs. use of computers to specific contexts. factual texts. and technology. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 89. 92 OBJECTIVES LANGUANGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMES• Identifying Demonstration of Uses of computers • Presentation of important themes, knowledge of the ( on line services, written works including ideas, language learned internet, etc.) dealing with the opinions and to read texts and topic. emotions as apply information in expressed. a variety of ways (written, pictorial,WRITING. etc.) Writing paragraphs, using simple Production of descriptive pieces of writing. language, and referring to past, present and future actions and events.. Applying basic elements of grammar in new contexts, with 80% accuracy. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 90. 93 ENGLISH – III CYCLE – 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 7: NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE PROMOTIONS OF CONSERVATION ** OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES /ATTITUDES EVALUATION EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OF LEARNING OUTCOMESLISTENING Natural resources, Extraction of Respect for others Summary of Summarizing conservation, relevant information efforts, achievements the information from regulations Participation in the interests and abilities. information relevant points. sustainability, etc. selection of topics Efficiency. heard. Transferring the What / who / when / and information. Neatness and good Completion information heard to where / how often, Analysis of written, working habits. of charts, visual or written etc. pictorial and oral Personal commitment conceptual forms. Do you think...? I information on to conservation of maps, etc. Identifying points of must... They different topics to natural resources and Analysis of view. ought to... perform actions, care of the written,SPEAKING I think that... I follow procedures, environment. pictorial and Initiating /developing believe that we etc. Love for our land and oral conversations. should... Comparison of planet. information Initiating/responding We ought to… It physical Tolerance. on different in familiar exchanges should be done … characteristics of CULTURE topics to introducing some Functions: objects, facts, Policies to preserve the perform variants. Asking for and giving states. environment in Costa actions, Drawing conclusions information. Development of Rica and in English follow from extended texts. Expressing opinions. procedures to solve speaking countries procedures, Giving suggestions. problems. etc. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 91. 94 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Discussion of Comparison of Identifying main possible solutions physical points and some to different characteristics of details of short classroom and objects, facts, stories and factual general topics. states. texts. Selection of the Development of• Identifying right words to procedures to important themes, complete, solve problems. including ideas, meanings, Discussion of opinions and sentences and possible solutions emotions as paragraphs. to different expressed. Demonstration of classroom topics.WRITING knowledge of the • Selection of the Producing short language learned right words to pieces of writing in to read texts and complete, which they seek apply information in meanings, and convey a variety of ways sentences and information and (written, pictorial, paragraphs. opinion. etc.) • Demonstration of knowledge of the • Production of language learned written essays. to read texts and apply information in a variety of ways (written, pictorial) “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 92. 95 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESWRITING Showing Producing short understanding of pieces of writing in cultural differences which they seek when dealing with the and convey environment in oral information and and written work. opinion. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 93. 96 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADETARGET CONTENT N° 8: SPECIFIC INFORMATION OF WORDS IN A GIVEN CONTEXT (REGISTERS...) @ * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Expressions to state Selection of the Neatness and good Completion of Using reference or request right words to working habits. procedures and materials to extend possibility. complete, Tolerance when information. their range of Is this correct? meanings, working individually language and Whats the meaning sentences and and in groups. improve accuracy. of...? paragraphs. Whats the difference between ____ and ____? meaning of words, etc. Functions: Understanding style and register. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 94. 97 ENGLISH - III CYCLE - 9Th GRADE TARGET CONTENT N° 9 : CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND PREVENTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION * OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES VALUES EVALUATION OF EXAMPLES /ATTITUDES LEARNING AND CULTURE OUTCOMESLISTENING Pollution. Listen with Efficiency when Lists of Understanding Causes, effects and understanding to dealing with the possibilities, short narratives prevention. complete tasks. environment options to complete drawn from a ____ was Participation in Neatness and good charts. variety of topics. caused by ____ selection of topics working habits Prediction of the Understanding is produced by... and information. Commitment to content of a text. extracts which ____ is polluting Analysis of written, conservation of Development of include familiar ___. pictorial and oral natural resources sequence of material in I think that... information on and care of events, contexts. In my opinion... different topics to environment characteristics, Transferring the ____ a different perform actions, Personal, home procedures. information heard point of view. follow procedures, and community Description of to visual or written Functions: etc. cleanliness procedures related form. Identifying and Comparison of Love for our land to tasks andSPEAKING analyzing physical and planet assignments. Adapting language environmental characteristics of CULTURE Oral explanation of to deal with some issues. objects, facts, states. Policies to preserve opinions and unprepared Expressing Development of the environment in reasons. situations. opinions. procedures to solve Costa Rica and in Drawing Asking for problems. English speaking conclusions from information. Giving countries extended texts. advice. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 95. 98 VALUES EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES LANGUAGE PROCEDURES /ATTITUDES LEARNING EXAMPLES AND CULTURE OUTCOMESREADING Discussion of Compare garbage Application of Identifying main points possible solutions to management in written and oral and some details of different classroom Costa Rica (homes language short stories and topics including and public whenever it is factual texts. women and men buildings) with that necessary to Identifying important participation in in English speaking transfer information themes, including polluting the countries from oral to written ideas, opinions and environment. and from written to emotions as Selection of the right spoken forms. expressed. words to complete, Using context to meanings, sentences Identification of deduce the meaning and paragraphs. correct meanings of unfamiliar Demonstration of to complete language. knowledge of the informationWRITING language learned to according to a Writing paragraphs, read texts and apply given context. using simple information in a Use of language, descriptive language, variety of ways functions, values and referring to past, (written, pictorial, etc. and cultural present and future Production of essays aspects present in actions and events. dealing with cause the different topics. Applying basic and effect. Presentation of elements of grammar written outcomes. in new contexts, with 80% accuracy. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 96. 999THThe students can… • listen to tapes and native speakers of the language. • talk about sports and leisure activities. • produce a written composition. • talk about life and achievements of famous athletes and musicians. • write a short descriptive paragraph. • understand instructions to operate electrical appliances. • write a set of instructions to operate a machine. • extract information from a text ( roots, suffixes and prefixes). • complete information with roots, suffixes and prefixes). • discuss about transportation , quality, rent and use. • write a text. • express opinions about the use of computers and technology in everyday life. • produce a written description of the situation. • discuss about natural resources and the promotion of conservation. • write a letter to the editor , letter of complain , etc. • identify registers in a given context. • complete texts with information from a given context. • talk about causes, effects and prevention of environmental pollution. • produce written texts dealing with causes , effects and prevention of environmental pollution. • express opinions, emotions and points of view. • understand style and register. • analyze environmental issues. • use present, past and future when interacting and writing about different issues. • make suggestions. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 97. 100 GLOSSARY AUTHENTIC MATERIALS Texts which are taken from newspapers, magazines, etc, andThis includes brief, simple definitions of terms which have tapes of natural speech taken frombeen used in this syllabus and which may be unfamiliar radio or television programs. AWARENESS Acquaintance, appreciation,ACTIVITY Situation in which a lot of things consciousness with knowledge. are being done, usually in order to BELIEF An acceptance of a thing, fact, achieve a particular purpose. statement, etc.PRE-ACTIVITY Those actions performed to COMMUNICATION Activity or process of giving introduce the topic to, prepare their information to other people or cognitive knowledge the learners other living things, using signals with the topic and motivate them such as speech, body movement for the forecoming activity. or radio signals.WHILE-ACTIVITY The actions performed during the COMMUNICATIVE development of an activity in order COMPETENCE The ability not only to apply the to achieve the learning goal. grammatical rules of a language inPOST-ACTIVITY The actions related with the activity order to form grammatically correct and performed after the "while sentences but also to know when activity" stage in order to let the and where to use these sentences students reinforce and apply the and to whom. It includes knowledge acquired. knowledge of the grammar andASSESSMENT The measurement of the ability of vocabulary of the language. a person or the quality or success Knowledge of rules of speaking. of the teaching course, etc. (knowing how to begin and endATTITUDES Expressions of positive or negative conversations, what topics may feelings towards the learning of a be talked about in different types new language. of speech events, knowing whichAUTHENTICITY The degree to which language address forms should be used teaching materials have the with different persons. Knowing qualities of natural speech or how to use and respond to writing. different types of speech acts. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 98. 101 Knowing how to use language DIAGRAMMATIC (adj.) The representation of an object appropriately. and its parts by a drawing whichCURRICULUM The knowledge, skills, materials, shows its general scheme or learning activities, and terminal outline. behavior required in the teaching DECODE Convert into intelligible language. of any subject. /see syllabus. DEDUCTIVE Use to describe a method ofCONVEY Communicate (an idea, meaning, reasoning where conclusions are etc). deduced logically from other thingsCULTURAL that are already known.COMPONENT The part of the language which ELICIT To get learners to actively produce includes the total set of beliefs, speech or writing. To obtain attitudes, customs, behavior, social information about how someone habits, etc, of the members of a uses a particular language item. particular society. EPISTEMOLOGY The theory of knowledge, esp. theCULTURE Ideas, customs, arts, etc, that are critical study of its validity, produced or shared by a particular methods, and scope. society. ENVIRONMENT Conditions, circumstances, etc.CROSS-CURRICULAR Curricular activities that are affecting peoples lives. correlated. EVALUATION The whole process of determiningCURRICULUM the effectiveness of teaching-/ SYLLABUS An educational program which which may be by means of formal states: tests and examinations, or by informal or subjective feedback a- The educational purpose of from students and teachers./ see the program (the ends). assessment. c- Some means for assessing EXTENSIVE READING Extensive reading means reading whether or not the educational in quantity and in order to gain a ends have been achieved. general understanding of what isDIAGNOSTIC A test which enables the tester to read. It is intended to develop diagnose the strengths and good reading habits, to build up weaknesses of a candidate. knowledge of vocabulary and “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 99. 102 structure, and to encourage a GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT The insertion of liking for reading. individual and national workingFEEDBACK Monitoring and adapting ones forces into the world development. actions on the basis of the GROUP WORK Work in which the class is broken perceived effect on the into small groups of from three to environment. In language work, eight people. They may work response to the reactions of simultaneously on the same task, listeners and readers. or be given different tasks of variedFORMAL COMPONENT The part of the language which types or levels. includes the patterns or "forms" of GUIDELINES Principles or criterion guiding or the language. directing action.FORMATIVE IMPLEMENTATION The process of carrying out a plan,EVALUATION A learning activity through which a system, a law, etc, you carry the students learn from their own them out in order to change or mistakes. control the situation.FLUENCY Language work in which the INDUCTIVE A way of reasoning in which you learner is acting naturally, I In the use individual ideas or facts to give same way as when using the you a general rule or conclusion. mother tongue. INFERENCE The process of arriving at aFUNCTION The communicative purpose of a hypothesis, idea or judgement on piece of language. the basis of other knowledge, ideas or judgements.FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION GAP A situation where information isCOMPONENT The part of the language which known by only of those present. In refers to it as an instrument of communicative language teaching social interaction rather than a it is said that in order to promote system that is viewed in isolation. real communication between Language is often described as students, there must be having three main functions: information gap between them or descriptive, expressive and social. between them and the teacher. Without that gap the classroom “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 100. 103 activities and exercises will be language, for example by the use mechanical and artificial. of generalization and inferencing.INPUT Oral, written or visual stimuli from LEARNING STYLE The particular way in which a the formal or informal learning learner tries to learn something. In setting. second or foreign languageINSTRUMENT A person, system or organization learning, different learners may that is a "tool or device" for prefer different solutions to achieving a particular aim used by learning problems. For example, people as a way of achieving that some may feel writing down words aim. or sentences that may help themINTEGRATION OF SKILLS The teaching of the to remember them. Others may language skills of reading, writing, find they remember things better if listening, and speaking, in they associate them with pictures. conjunction with each other, as MATERIALS (authentic) Used in the classroom, but not when a lesson involves activities specifically designed for teaching, that relate listening and speaking c.g. newspaper articles. to reading and writing. MEDIATION The action of changing events,INTENSIVE READING Is generally done at a slower experiences or sets of speed, and requires a higher circumstances. degree of understanding than METHODOLOGY The study of the whole process of extensive reading. language teaching with the aim ofINTERACTION Communication between two improving its efficiency. people. MONITORING Both language learners and nativeLEARNER A person who is learning a subject speakers typically try to correct or skill. any errors in what they have justLEARNING The process by which a person said. acquires a language. This is referred to as "monitoring".LEARNING STRATEGY A way in which a learner The learner can monitor attempts to work out the meanings vocabulary, grammar, phonology, and uses of words, grammatical or discourse. (The learner uses rules, and other aspects of "learned" knowledge to improve “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 101. 104 utterances generated by means of PROCEDURE Action or series of actions to be "acquired" knowledge. completed in order to carry out aMOTIVATION To stimulate the interest of a process. person in an activity in learning, to PROCESS A series of actions which are stimulate students to comprehend carried out in order to achieve a and learn. particular result.OUT PUT Amount of language learned by PROSODIC FEATURES Sound characteristics which the students. affect whole sequences ofPAIR-WORK Work in which students operate syllables. simultaneously in pairs on a task, REGISTER The varied styles of language or on different tasks. which are used for differentPEER TEACHING Classroom teaching in which one purposes, varying according to student teaches another; such dimensions as setting, role of particularly within an individualized speakers, topic, mode (speaking approach to teaching. For or writing), and so on. example, when students have RHETORICAL Concerned with effect or style learned something, they may rather than content or meaning. teach it to other students, or test ROLE-PLAY Drama-like classroom activities in other students on it. which students take the roles ofPOLICITY A general set of ideas or plans that different participants in a situation has been officially agreed on by an act out what might typically people in authority and which is happen in that situation. used as a basis for making decisions.PRINCIPLE A general rule that you try to obey in the way that you behave or in SIMULATION A learning experience that the way that you try to achieve "simulates" a real language something. application situation.PROBLEM-SOLVING A learning strategy which involves SkILL Knowledge and ability that enables selecting from several alternatives you to do something well. in order to reach a desired goal. STUDENT/LEARNER In a communicative approach, a learner is the person on whom the “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 102. 105 learning process is centered. command may be referred to as Sources, materials, methodology tasks. are chosen to suit his/her learning TRANSCODE Convert from one form of coded needs. representation to another.SUBSKILLS A division of the skills, such as TEACHER A guide, facilitator of learning, on discriminating sounds in whom the responsibility of quality connected speech, understanding of education lays. relations within a sentence or TEXT A piece of spoken or written identifying the purpose and scope language. of the lecture.SUMMATIVEEVALUATION An action carried out to measure students knowledge. It normally takes place at the end of a learning process.SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT A growth scheme which promotes the rational use of resources in order to make the growing permanent.SYLLABUS-CURRICULUM A description of the contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught.TASKS An activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language (i.e. as a response). For example drawing a map while listening to a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 103. 106 SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO DEVELOP THE Asignatura Inglés de XII, VIII y IX año. San José: SYLLABUS PROMESA, Inédito, 1995. - Ministerio de Educación Pública. Programas de Brown ,G. Editor. Performance and Competence in Estudios de Inglés - III Ciclo Educación General Second Básica. San José: Departamento de Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Publicaciones, 2001. University Press, 1996. Ministerio de Educación Pública. Programas de Celce-Murcia, M. and E. Olshtian. DiscourseContext in Estudios de Language Teaching. A Guide for Language Programas de Estudio de Inglés. EducaciónTeachers. Diversificada. San José: Departamento de Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Publicaciones, 2001. Flowerdew, J.and M. Peacock. Editors. Research Minns, H Language Literacy and Gender. Great Britain: Perspectives on English for Hodder and Stoughton Lta, 2001. Academic Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge Munby, J. Communicative Syllabus Design. Univerisity Press, 2001. Cambridge :- House, Elizabeth. Modern Foreign Language for Ages - Cambridge University Press, 1978. 11 to - Oxford, R. Language Learning Strategies - What 16. London: Department of Education and every teacher should know. The United States ofScience, America: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1990. 1991. - Pike, G. and Selby, D. Global Teacher, Global- Krashen, S.D. and Terrell, T.D. The Natural Approach Learner. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, 1988. Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Great Teeler,D and P. Gray. Use the Internet in ELT. Britain: Prentice Hall, 1988. England:- Ministerio de Educación Pública. Política Educativa Longman, 2000. Hacia el Siglo XXI. San José: Despacho del Ministro, 1994. METHODOLOGY- Ministerio de Educación Pública. Perfil de Contenidos Carter,R. and D. Nunan. Editors. The Cambridge Programáticos Aceptados y Priorizados para la Guide to Teaching of English to Speakers of Asignatura Inglés de X y XI año. San José: Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge PROMESA, Inédito, 1995. University Press. 2001.- Ministerio de Educación Pública. Perfil de Contenidos Programáticos Aceptados y Priorizados para la “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 104. 107- Brumfit, C. Communicative Methodology in Language of America: Addison- Wesley Publishing Teaching-The Roles of Fluency and Acccuracy. Company, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 1994.- Cross, D. A Practical Handbook of Language Ur, P. Editor.The Standby Book. Cambridge: Teaching. Great Britain: Prentice-Hall Cambridge International, 1992. Handbooks for Language Teachers,1997.- Edge, J. Essentials of English Language. The United - Rivers, W.M. and Temperley, M.S. Practical Guide to Kingdom: Longman, 1993. the Teaching of English - As a Second or Foreign- Finochiaro, M. & Brumfit, C. The Functional National Language. The United States: Oxford University Approach From Theory to Practice. Oxford: Press, 1978. Oxford University Press, 1983. - Terroux G. & Woods, H. Teaching English in a World- Haycraft, J. An Introduction to English Language at Peace - Professional Handbook. Canada: Teaching. The United Kingdom: Longman, 1978. Canadian International Development Agency,- Littlewood,W. Communicative Language Teaching. 1991. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1981. - Yalden, J. The Communicative Syllabus - Evolution,- Nunan, D. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Design, and Implementation. Great Britain: Classsroom. Great Britain, 1989. Prentice Hall International, 1987. Richards, J.C. and T. Rogers. Approaches and - __________. Principles of Course Design forMethods Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge in Language Teaching. Second Edition. University Press. 1987. Cambridge: - Willis, D. The Lexical Syllabus - A New Approach to Cambridge University Press, 2001. Language Teaching. Great Britain: Collins ELT, Richards, J. Curriculum Development in Language 1990. Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge Language Education, 2001. ACTIVITIES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING Robison, P. ESP TODAY: A Practicioner´s Guide . Great Britain: Prentice Hall International English - Davis, D & Rinvolucri, M. The Confidence Book. Language Teaching,1991. England: Longman, 1990. Uhl Chamot, A and J. M. O´Malley. The CALLA - Hadfield, J. Classroom Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford Handbook. Implementing the Cognitive Academic University Press, 1992. Language Learning Approach. The United States - Hardisty, D. & Woods, S. CALL. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 105. 108- Hess, N. Headstarts - One Hundred Original Pre- - Sion, C. More Recipes for Tired Teachers. The activities. 1991. United States of America: Addison - Wesley- Hynes, M & Brichman, M. Breaking the Ice - Basic Publishing, Company, 1991. Communication Strategies. England. Longman, - Ur, P. Discussion that Works - Task - Centered 1990. Fluency Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge- Jones, L. Ideas - Speaking and Listening Activities for University Press, 1981. Upper - Intermediate Students. Cambridge: - Ur, P & Wright, A. Five-Minute Activities - A Resource Cambridge University Press, 1984. Book of Short Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge- Klippel, F. Keep Talking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. University Press, 1983. - Wright, A.; Betteridge D. & Buckby. Games for- Lindstrombery, S. The Recipe Book - Practical Ideas Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge for the Language Classroom. England: Longman University Press, 1983. Group UK limited, 1990.- Lee, W.R. Language Teaching Games and Contests. GRAMMAR Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.- Morgan, J & Rinvolucri, M. Vocabulary. Oxford: Celce-Murcia, M. and D. Larsen-Freeman The Oxford University Press, 1986. Grammar- Moskowits, G. Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Book. The Unites States of America. Language Class. The United States of America: Heinle and Heinle & Heinle, 1978. Heinle, 1999.- Puchta, H & Scrwtz, M. Teaching Teenagers. - Leech, G, & Startvik, J. A Communicative Grammar of England: Longman, 1984. English. England: Longman. 1975.- Pattison, P. Developing Communication Skills. Parrott, M. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.- Taylor, L. Vocabulary in Action. Great Britain: Ur, P. Grammar Practice Activities - A Practical Guide Prentice Hall, 1992. for Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University- Read, C. Tandem Plus - Pair Work Activities for Press, 1988. Begginers, Elementary and Low, Intermediate - Werner, P.K. Compact I - A Communicative Based Students. Edinburg: Thomas Nelson & Son Ltd. Grammar. The United States of America: McGraw- Rixon, S. How to Use Games in Language Teaching. Hill, 1990. Great Britain: Modern of English Publications, 1991. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 106. 109LITERATURE - Blundell, L. & Stokes J. Task Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.- Duff, A. & Manby, A. Literature. Oxford: Oxford - Burgess, S & ONeill, R. English Works - Workbook 1. University Press, 1990. The United Kingdom: Longman, 1993.- Maccarone, S. Building Dreams. The United States: - Davis, D. & Rinvolucri, M. Dictation - New Methods, D.C. Heath and Company, 1983. New Possibilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.READING - McDowell, J. & Hart, C. Listening Plus. Authentic Recordings with Tasks to Develop Listening Skills- Cairney, T.V. Teaching Reading Comprehension. and Learner Training. Great Britain: Thomas Great Britain: Bidddles limited, 1990. Nelson & Sons Ltd. 1987.- Davis, E.; Whitney, N.; Pike Baky, M.; & Blass, L. - Rost, M. Listening in Action. Great Britain: Prentice Task Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Hall International, 1991. Press, 1990. - Schimpff, J. W. Intermediate Workbook - The New- Green, J. Class Readers. Oxford: Oxford University Oxford Picture Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford Press, 1988. University Press, 1988.- Grellet, F. Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. SPEAKING- Holme, R. Talking Texts - Innactive Recipes for Intensive Reading. England: Longman, 1991. - Bobson, J.M. Effective Techniques for English- Walter, C. Authentic Reading. Cambridge: Conversation Groups. The United States of Cambridge University Press, 1982. America: USIA, 1974. Wiliams, E. Reading in the Language Classroom. - Kirby, S. & Key, P. Speaking Skills - Students Book. London: Great Britain: Pinguin Books, 1989. ELTS, 1984. - Kirby, S. & Key, P. Speaking Skills - Teachers Book. Great Britain: Pinguin Books, 1989.LISTENING - Morgan, J & Rinvolucri, M. Once Upon a Time - Using Stories in the Language Classroom. Cambridge:- Adelson - Goldstain; Goldman, J.R., Shapiro R. Weiss. Cambridge University Press, 1983. Listening and Speaking Activity Book - The New - Nolasco, R. & Arthur, L. Conversation. Oxford: Oxford Picture Dictionary - Activity Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Oxford University Press, 1993. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 107. 110WRITING O´Malley, J.M. and L. Valdez Pierce. Authentic Assessment for English Language Learner. The- Byrne, D. Teaching Writing Skills. England: United States of America: Addison-Wesley Longman, 1988. Publishing Company, 1996. Leki, I. Academic Writing. Second Edition- Exploring Richards, J. and J.A. Upshur. Classroom-Based Processes and Strategies. Cambridge:Cambridge Evaluation in Second Language Education. University Press, 1998. Cambridge: Cambridge Language- Tom, A. & McKay, H. Writing Warm Ups - 20 Activities Education,1996. for Prewriting. The United States of America: Rogers, B. Complete Guide to the TOEFL Test. The Alemany Press, 1989. United States of America: Heinle and Heinle, Turkenik, C. Choices-Writing Projects for Students of 2001. ESL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. DICTIONARIESASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Bilingual dictionaries S/E - Esp. Diccionarios Bilingües Español-Inglés / Inglés- Alderson, J. C. , C. Clapham and D. Wall. Language Español por escoger: Test Construction and Evaluation. Cambridge: - Applenton-Cuyas. Applenton-Cuyas - Nuevo Cambridge Diccionario Revisado. Editorial Prentice Hall Univesity Press, 1995. Hispanoamérica, S.A. Alderson, J. C. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: - Cortina M.Graw Hill. Spanish-English / Inglés- Cambridge Language Assessment Series, 2000. Español. Edición Especial. Editorial McGraw Hill. Buck, G. Assessing Listening. Cambridge: - Larousse - Diccionario Práctico Inglés-Español / Cambridge Language Assessment Series, 2001. Español-Inglés. Ediciones Larousse. Cohen, A.D. Assessing Language Ability in the - Universidad de Chicago. Diccionario Inglés-Español / Classroom. Second Edition. The United States of Español- Inglés. University of Chicago. America: Heile and Heile, 1994. Cushing Weigle, S. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Diccionarios en Inglés para años superiores por Cambridge Language Assessment Series,2002. escoger: Read, J. Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge Language Assessment Series,2000. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 108. 111- Collins Cobuild-Essential English Dictionary - Collins - NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES Collins Pocket - English Usage-New. Collins.- Longman Handy Learners Dictionary of American - The Tico Times. The Central American English English. Longman. Newspapers - Editorial semanal.- Longman Picture Workbbook. 7th level. Longman. - Magazines, newspapers and books on specific topics- Oxford - Learners Dictionary of English Idioms. published in English etc. McCaig and Manser.- Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary with Illustrations - Oxford Websters II - New Riverside Dictionary. WEB RELATED RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHER Houghton Miffin. http://www.ntlf.com/BASIC RECOMMENDED LEARNING MATERIALS Site includes an overview of the National Teaching and Learning Forum, likns to information on the web, current- Bonilla, R.M.; Sibaja, A. & Villegas, M.T. Have Fun 1, publications on the web, and a library of published -Learning English in Costa Rica. San José: material, both print and web published. Farben Norma, 2003. Second edition.- Bonilla, R.M.; Quirós, O.; Ureña, E. & Villegas, M.T. http://www.nea.org/ Have Fun 3, -Learning English in Costa Rica. San This site has a searchable database for educational José: Farben Norma, 2001. Second edition material, which is broken down by grade and subject. It- Villegas, M.T. & Bonilla, R. Have Fun 2, Learning also has information regardingon how to effectively run a English in Costa Rica. San José: Farben Norma, classroom. This huge site has numerous web-based 2001. Second edition articles pertaining to education and technology. http:www.wam.umd.edu/∼mlhall/ “ The World Wide Web sites collected on this page reflect the considerable variety of uses for comouting and related forms of electronic technology in teaching.” This site serves to help implement net based resources into the classroom, with links to online courses and online teaching demonstrations. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 109. 112http://www.nara.gov/ reciprocal link back to this site under ESL_Home on allThe National Archives and Records Administration has these pages, courtesy of Craig McLaughlan, webmaster.information that helps teachers of students ar all levels in (viewed January 2003)using archival documets in the classroom. The DigitalCalssroom provides materials from NARA, metods for Internet TESL Journalteaching with primary sources, and sample lesson plans. The Internet TESL Journals extensive and regularlyhttp://www.splusnet.com/∼evilcow/tutorial maintained site organizes and links many aspects of ESLThis site offers simple insturctionin how to produce a web such as: •Professional Life: Associations, Conferences,site for educational purposes. The site has templates, Journals, Newsgroups, Teacher Training, Web-Basedclip-art graphocs and a tutorial to allow anyone to Discussions & Bulletin Boards •Teaching English:produce quick and instructional web-site. Bilingual Education, CALL, English for Science & Technology, Literacy •Articles, Lessons, Linguistics,http://ericir.sunsite.syr.edu/ Phonetics & Pronunciation, Reference Materials •RawThis huge site offers the educator acces to a variety of Materials for Lessons: Culture, Reading Materials, Poetryservices and productos on a broad range of ecuaton- & Song Lyrics, Travel, Vocabulary •Teachersrelates issues. Homepages •Projects by ESL Students •Schools (ESL/EFL) •Education in General: Journals, Links tohttp://www.nwre.org/sky/ Teaching Resources, Using the Internet •Jobs - Where toThis site contains more than 6,000 links to educatonal Find Themmaterals for students, teachers,counselors and librarians. Under For Students As Well As Teachers, there are:The A-Z of useful resources for the TEFL/TESL sector •Games - Quizzes - Puzzles •Grammar & English Usageis on the TEFL Europe web site at •Listening •Penpals & Communicating With Othershttp://www.tefleurope.com/links.html; also the Academy •Reading •Tests: TOEFL •Vocabulary - Idioms - Wordsof Windsor Institute in Barcelonas homepage: •Writing •Commercially Available ESL Materials &http://www.windsorinstitute.com/links.html; and Services:http://www.windsorschools.co.uk/links.html,http://www.eviews.net/references.shtml, These pages were all active in March, 2001http://www.windsorenglish.com/links.html, and finallyhttp://www.windsorlanguages.com/links.html. There is a “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 110. 113• The Internet TESL Journals Activities for ESL • Commonly-used American Slang at Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/s/ http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/slang/ (Slang is• Selected ESL/EFL Links for Students, at informal, often entertaining, language.) http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/ESL.html • Fun with Randomly-Generated Sentences:• Self-study Quizzes for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/rs/ (These http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/ JavaScript pages will make sentences for you• Crossword Puzzles for ESL Students: which you can study.) http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/cw/ • Everyday Vocabulary Anagrams at• Interactive Javascript Quizzes for ESL Students: http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/anagrams/ {These http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/js/ are words made by using letters of another word in• Daily Page for ESL Students: a different order.) http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/daily/ (has such things as "Proverb of the Day", "Quiz of the Day") The Internet TESL Journal, ESL links page at• Easy Vocabulary Quizzes with Pictures at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/ESL3.html displays http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/vq/ (Interactive the following search engine and at last count 3,000 JavaScript quizzes. Good for beginners.) links. You can search it from here:• Commonly used Proverbs at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~itesls/proverbs/ (Well- TESL/TEFL/TESOL/ESL/EFL/ESOL Links known short sayings presented in a quiz-like fashion.) “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 111. 114ANNEX I 9. It is valid to use as much learning material as possible.GUIDELINES TO DEVELOP THE SYLLABUS 10. Evaluation activities must reflect those types already practiced in class. 11. Teachers should use all sources of materials and 1. The English syllabus for language teaching and devices; realia, authentic print and audio material learning is the official document that organizes (books, newspapers, tourist information, manuals, teaching aspects in the Secondary Education in brochures, specific software, computer games, Costa Rica. internet software, other games, scenarios, discussion, round tables, critical thinking exercises, and other 2. Teachers should read the syllabus before planning procedures that help improve the students their lessons. The introductory pages help competence and performance of the language they teachers to set their teaching practice in the learn. communicative approach. 12. Native speakers of English are good resources for 3. The language use to carry out the planning for teachers and students. They should be invited to visit teaching must be English. the school and provide real practice on the language 4. Teachers must take into consideration the learned to discuss topics on different fields. teaching phases: Introduction, Practice, Production 13. Both teachers and students should devote time to and Consolidation. do some research to keep updated sources. 5. Classroom and evaluation activities must follow 14. Language teaching and learning must be in the objectives. context. 6. The teaching practice should reflect the principles 15. The English class must be dynamic and a unique of the communicative approach and should opportunity for the students to learn the language. provide opportunities to develop the four basic skills and to provide (pre,while and post activities). 7. The language use in the classroom to give instructions and other teaching tasks has to be English. 8. Teachers should provide the students opportunities to learn the language to communicate orally and in written form. “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 112. 115ANNEXO 2 MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PÚBLICA EDUCACIÓN ACADÉMICA ASESORÍA NACIONAL DE INGLÉS III CICLO Y EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA FUNDAMENTACIÓN DE LA ELABORACIÓN DE LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO DE LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge Asesora Nacional de Inglés sin embargo, lo más importante es la función Para la elaboración de los programas de comunicativa o el propósito por el cual se lleva a cabo el estudio de inglés general (GE) para la acto comunicativo. Educación Académica y para los cursos de inglés especializado, para la De igual manera, en la descripción del objeto de estudio Educación Técnica, se ha tomado como de la asignatura, éste se divide en tres componentes: 1) base filosófica los postulados del enfoque Formal, que se debe estudiar como un medio para llegar comunicativo para la enseñanza de las a una comunicación eficiente. 2) Funcional, que se lenguas extranjeras, los principios para refiere al propósito comunicativo por el cual se usa la escribir programas de estudio de John lengua. 3) Cultural, debe estar presente en l estudio de Munby (1978), en su libro Communicative los otros dos componentes. La lengua es una Syllabys Design y las funciones del manifestación cultural de un grupo lingüístico. El uso lenguaje, que hacen posible los actos de pertinente de los tres componentes garantiza el habla. desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa requerida.El enfoque comunicativo centra su atención en el alumno En este enfoque, se requiere que el estudiante aprendaque aprende, cuyo interés en el aprendizaje permite diferentes formas para cumplir con una función. Paraorganizar el currículo de acuerdo con las necesidades pedir un lapicero, el estudiante puede utilizar:de aprendizaje específicas. Este ordenamiento, permiteentonces, que la lengua que se aprende tenga un A) Excuse me, do you have an extra pen Ipropósito en especial. Importante sigue siendo dentro del can use?enfoque comunicativo, el estudio del componente formal; B) Can I borrow your pen? “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 113. 116 C) Is there a pen I can use ? Los programas de inglés de III Ciclo y Educación D) May I borrow your pen? Diversificada, están organizados por destrezas o habilidades, “skills”, Listening, Speaking, Reading andLa función del lenguaje es: Asking for and giving Wrting. El abordaje de la lengua se hace por medio delinformation (Pedir y solicitar información). desarrollo de micro habilidades, o destrezas individuales que en conjunto completan una actividad como sería “escuchar una clase magistral.”ORGANIZACIÓN DEL DISEÑO CURRICULAR DE LOSPROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO Algunos ejemplos que Richards nos proporciona, tomados de Munby son:Al organizar un curso o programa de lengua extranjera,dentro del enfoque comunicativo, se puede hacer WRTING “creating a topic sentence”utilizando diferentes marcos referenciales como son: LISTENING “recognizing key information” SPEAKING “recognizing turn-taking signals”Por temas (gira alrededor de temas o unidades de la READING “reading for a gist”lengua y contenido que están íntimamente relacionadas.)Por competencias (énfasis en el dominio de ciertas En cada uno de los casos anteriores, los microscompetencias ( situaciones o actividades específicas.) habilidades son pasos básicos en el proceso de alcanzarPor destrezas o habilidades ( enfatiza el desarrollo de el desarrollo de cada habilidad.habilidades y micro habilidades.)Por tareas (según las tareas o actividades que se Cada una de las unidades del programa de estudios,realizan.) está escrita alrededor de una meta o unidad dePor funciones (de acuerdo con las funciones significación que es la que hace posible que seespecíficas o actos de habla) materialice el componente formal de la lengua; en otrasSituacional (según las situaciones específicas, palabras, es el contexto en el cual se promueve elgeneralmente orales) desarrollo de todos los actos de habla de esa unidad.Integrado (características de todos los programas , puesdeben concordar la organización de los elementos Los grandes objetivos generales se plantean en términoslingüísticos con los funcionales y el tipo de tarea por de objetivos de ciclo, o perfiles de salida, que se llegan arealizar) (Richards : 2001). alcanzar mediante la ejercitación de las habilidades y micro habilidades lingüísticas en cada nivel, que están redactadas en términos de objetivos, que tienen que ver “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 114. 117con asuntos especiales y muy particulares de la lengua La siguiente columna es la de Language Examples, enque se aprende y del producto deseado. Además incluye la que se presentan ejemplos de las formas lingüísticasestrategias de aprendizaje válidas para el propósito de que se utilizarán en la unidad y las funciones ocada una de las unidades de significación. propósitos comunicativos. Se incluye esta columna para dar uniformidad al formato diseñado para los programas,La estructura curricular tiene cinco columnas: sin que sean los ejemplos de lengua, el objeto de aprendizaje, que genere horinzontalidad entre lasObjectives escritos en términos de habilidades y micro columnas, como lo garantizaba un enfoquehabilidades por desarrollar y según la taxonomía de estructuralista.Munby (1978). La columna de Procedures, que precisamente RichardsRichards(2000) define el skill syullabus o programa por y Rogers (1986), en su libro Approaches in Languagehabilidades, de la siguiente manera “ el que es Teaching – A Description and Análisis, definen Aorganizado alrededor de las habilidades más Procedure como “Técnicas de clase, prácticas ysobresalientes que comprende el uso de la lengua por comportamientos observados cuando se usa un método.”medio de las habilidades; se basa en la creencia de que Mi traducción.el aprendizaje es una actividad compleja como esescuchar una ponencia, que requiere del dominio de una El contenido de las columnas de Objetives, más la deserie de habilidades o micro habilidades, que en conjunto Values /Attitudes and Culture, se concretan alhace o componen la actividad mayor.” Mi traducción. desarrollar los procedimientos o acciones mediatizadoras que conjugan el contexto general y los contenidosEn esta línea, los objetivos se escriben de la siguiente funcional, lingüístico y cultural que se materializanmanera: mediante el desarrollo de las habilidades y micro habilidades de la lengua como el insumo del procesoUnderstanding the use of graphic presentation, namely, enseñanza y aprendizaje.headings, boldprints, footnotes.Skimming to obtain the gist of the text. La columna de Values/Attitudes que también incluyeScanning to locate specifically required information on a Culture, por tratarse de una lengua extranjera, sesingle point. relaciona con la cultura del grupo social que la habla,Tanscoding information presented in diagrammatic como una manifestación inmediata de esa cultura. Es dedisplay, involving completing a diagram/table/graph. vital importancia, para llegar al menos el comportamientoCompleting note-frames. de los hablantes de un determinado grupo lingüístico, “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”
  • 115. 118incluir el estudio de la cultura. Las comparaciones entre todos aquellos que resaltan el logro de una sub habilidad.aspectos de ambas culturas, la de la lengua materna y la Si en el objetivo se promueve el desarrollo de la escuchade la lengua meta, representan un momento de reflexión, para completar un cuadro/tabla/gráfico, en esta columnade respeto, de admiración , con el objeto de apreciar lo se espera que el estudiante complete esenuestro y reforzar nuestros valores. El contenido de esta cuadro/tabla/gráfica después de haber escuchado lacolumna se escribe en término de frases preposicionales cinta, persona o situación.con el objetivo de llegar a un análisis a un análisis, a unejecutar dentro de los procesos de aprendizaje, que Al inicio de cada nivel educativo, se presenta unacompletan la acción mediatizadora. recomendación para llevar a cabo la unidad introductoria, de diagnóstico y de motivación para el inicio del cursoFinalmente, la cuarta columna se dedica a lo que se ha lectivo. También se adjunta al final de cada nivel, unadenominado en español Aprendizajes por evaluar, cuya lista de competencias lingüísticas o perfil de salida, queequivalencia más cercana en lengua inglesa es el alumno adquirirá mediante el estudio de cada unidad oEvaluation of Language Outcomes, en ella se evalúa el Target Content.producto de la acción mediatizadora, derivada del En otras palabras, lo que el estudiante puede hacer conobjetivo y de las estrategias desarrolladas durante el la lengua que aprende en cada una de las habilidadesproceso. En esta línea los productos deseados, son lingüísticas. VERSIFICADA. San José: MEP. Bibliografía Munby, J. (1978). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.Brown, H.D. (1980). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. The United States of America: Prentice Richards, J.C. and S. Rodgers. (1986). Approaches Hall-Hall. and Methods in Language Teaching. A Descriptive and analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityFinocchiaro, M. and C. Brumfit.(1983). The Functional- Press. Notional Approach From Theory to Practice. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Richards, J. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CambridgeMinisterio de Educación Pública.(2001). Programas de University Language Education. Estudio de Inglés III CICLO Y EDUCACIÓN DI- “RELANZAMIENTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN COSTARRICENSE”