Career Handout 2002

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  • 3. Transition and Change 1. MANAGING TRANSITIONS A. WHAT IT TAKES TO SUCCEED A positive outlook will do more than carry you through the transition. It will be the bedrock of your actions and, ultimately, the reason you succeed. • Take Personal Inventory Identify past successes, current strengths, overall work style and personal preferences. • Refine Your Career Objective It must be clear, focused and realistic – based firmly on your greatest strengths. • Make A Dynamic presentation Your resume and self-presentation must show you at your highest level of effectiveness. • A Marketing Strategy A sound strategy will enable you to use your time most efficiently, and will be essential to the successful outcome of your market campaign. • Build A Career Contact Network Business relationships are vital campaign resources. • Polish Your Interviewing and Negotiating Skills Effective verbal skills can convert opportunities into job offers. • Be Thorough and Persistent Write effective letters, conduct productive meetings, and follow up on opportunities. B. WHAT DOES CHANGE MEAN FOR YOU? What dangers and opportunities does change represent for you at this point in your life and career? Dangers Opportunities Loss of structure and security Creating a new structure and security Loss of self-confidence Reestablishing confidence based on personal strengths Not know the future Defining a new future No place to go regularly Having freedom and flexibility in the use of time Financial concerns Finding new possibilities for income Family stress Developing new family closeness Being rejected Creating conditions for being accepted Loss of professional / personal contacts Finding new ways to meet people Feeling bitter about the past Focusing on a better future Feeling outdated Learning something new Loss of purpose Renewing a sense of purpose Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 3
  • 4. Transition and Change C. COPING WITH A CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT If you are like most people, you are going to change jobs every 3 to 5 years and work for perhaps 10 different organizations during your career. Yet, when it comes time to face a change in employment, these statistics take on a whole new meaning. The emotions you will experience are normal. Although no two people react the same way, most of us go through several stages. Shock / Denial Bargaining Anger Frustration Despair / Depression Acceptance Control 2. THE ZEROING-IN PROCESS A. PREPARATION PHASE (Understanding Self) • Develop a focused career objective, based upon your greatest strengths. • Prepare oral and written presentations of your objective. • Learn contact development and interview management. • Develop communication skills (letter, telephone techniques). B. MARKET RESEARCH PHASE (Understanding Others) • Explore 5 to 7 industries or sectors (job and career options) that are relevant to your career objective. • Develop a career contact network. • Prepare written research summaries for each sector or option explored. • Refine the list of target companies. C. FOCUS PHASE • Obtain feedback from at least three key contacts. • Narrow down the sectors to the one (or two) that will provide the best opportunity for you to achieve your objective. D. CLOSURE PHASE • Complete the list of target companies that meet your geographic, size, and industry requirements. • Approach the decision makers in each company on your target list. Begin with those already in your network. • Complete the job interview process. • Negotiate the details of a job offer and compensation. • Acceptance of a job offer. Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 4
  • 5. Transition and Change 3. PREPARATION PHASE A. BEGIN AT THE BEGINNING The aim of this session and handout is to assist you in finding the right position – not just another job. The right position will use your greatest strengths and will motivate you with the challenge, recognition, or opportunity for growth that you are seeking. You may find such a position through blind luck. However, your odds are much better if you truly know yourself, know your strengths, know what factors motivate you and know what makes you valuable to others. The first step in your job search is to develop a career objective that clearly and accurately describes the kind of position that is best for you. To be effective, that objective must reflect your abilities, interests, and temperament, as well as your experience. Your job search really begins with an honest self-evaluation. B. REVIEWING YOUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS By taking a close look at the things, which you have achieved during your life and career, you can begin to get an idea of the kinds of things you might want to do in the future. Knowing and expressing what you can do well will help you: • Build self-confidence, a key to success • Locate the position that fits you best • Communicate effectively in interviews and meetings An accomplishment is an activity that gives you pleasure, fulfillment, and a feeling of pride and success. It can be large or small in scope, routine or extraordinary, frequent or once only, work-related or personal. These accomplishments represent you functioning at your best, sometimes overcoming difficulties, and believing in yourself and your ideas. A Check List to Help Jog Your Memory About Your Accomplishments Have You: Accomplished more with the same or fewer resources? (How? Results?) Received award(s), special recognition, etc. (What? Why?) Increased efficiency? (How? Results?) Solved difficult problem(s)? (How? Results?) Accomplished something for the first time? (What? Result?) Developed, created, designed, or invented something? (What? Why important?) Prepared original papers, reports, or articles? (What? Why important?) Managed work group or department? (Who? How many? Results?) Saved the company money? (How? How much?) Supervised, managed, or trained employees? (Where? How many? Results?) Increased sales? (How? By how much?) Been promoted or upgraded? (When? Why important?) Increased production? (How? Results?) Identified problem(s) others did not see? (What? Result?) Developed new system or procedure? (What? Benefit?) Reduced downtime? (How? How much? Result?) Established safety record? (What? Result?) Managed budget? (How much? Result?) Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 5
  • 6. Transition and Change Repaired equipment? (Which? Result?) C. DEFINING YOUR ABILITIES CATEGORY DESCRIPTORS 1 2 3 4 5 T Research Research, observe, investigate, study, perceive, sense, measure, test, inspect, examine Analysis Analyze, compare, extract, correlate, derive, evaluate, differentiate, identify Interpretation Interpret, explain, understand, portray, advise Problem-solving Solve, troubleshoot, improve, critique, redirect, redesign, restructure Systematizing Systematize, coordinate, organize, develop procedures Planning Plan long-term, plan short-term, forecast, strategize, set goals Management Manage, supervise, control direct, administer, delegate, budget Leadership Lead, show the way, govern, inspire, motivate Decision-making Decide, judge, select, decide under pressure, arbitrate Follow-through Persist, persevere, show tenacity, tie up all loose ends Mentoring Mentor, teach, coach, counsel constructively, help others to grow professionally and personally Innovation Innovate, invent, change, develop, devise, break with convention Imagination Imagine, visualize, conceptualize Vision Ask “what if?” or “why not?”, then act to find the answer, “see” the future clearly Synthesis Synthesize, adapt, bring together with imagination Artistry Write creatively, draw, sketch, sculpt, paint Sympathy Console, help others in need, be friendly and attentive Empathy Empathize, understand needs/feelings of others, relate to issues/concerns of others Listening Listen actively, understand the message others are delivering Written Presentation Write clearly, concisely and effectively, use the written word to get results Verbal Presentation Speak clearly, concisely and effectively, use the spoken word to get results Persuasion Persuade, convince, influence, overcome opposition, sell Negotiation Negotiate, mediate, intervene, resolve differences Initiative Take the initiative, be among the first to do or try Flexibility Be flexible, adapt easily to change, be “politically” aware Team Player Work well with a team, be a team player when necessary Assembly Assemble, build, prepare, fabricate, rebuild Installing Install, fit, tailor, customize, test Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 6
  • 7. Transition and Change Operating Operate, run, maintain, fix, set-up D. WHAT IS A STRENGTH? Ability is defined as something you do well, a competence, a talent, and a capacity. Not every ability, however, is supported by an interest. Some of the things you do well you may do for survival reasons, or simply because “you have to.” These abilities might include balancing a checkbook, fixing your child’s bicycle, cleaning the garage, or drawing up the budget. An interest is something that intrigues you or motivates you positively. Not every interest is supported by talent or ability. For example, you may wish you could play the piano or windsurf, but lack the talent to do so. Like everyone else, you have some abilities that match your areas of interest. These are your strengths. By determining your greatest strengths, confirmed by your accomplishments, you can define the functions you will perform best and most happily in your next position. You will want to define your career objective in terms of these strengths rather in terms of a specific job title. There may be many jobs that can use your strengths to good advantage, so it would be unwise to limit your prospects to a single job title. You will want to be sure that you can not only list your strengths, but also give examples of those strengths in action. It will be up to you to explain to those you meet just how your strengths can relate to their business requirements. E. TAKING YOUR STRENGTHS TO MARKET Once you have identified your areas of strength, you must discover where they intersect the realities of the job market. Those areas of intersection are where you will focus your search. OPTION 1 – Same Job / Same Industry OPTION 2 – Same Job / Different Industry OPTION 3 – Different Job / Same Industry OPTION 4 – Different Job / Different Industry OPTION 5 – Still Need More Information Three Aids to Selecting a Career Direction and Objective • Specific Area of Interest • Specific Job • Specific Industry Four Reasons It Is Essential to Select a Career Direction and Develop a Specific Career Objective • The “Jack of all trades” approach – “Here I am, where can you use me?” • Your competition will be focused. • Employers do not have time to figure out where you belong. If you don’t seem to know what you want, you will make a negative impression. • Resume content is determined by your career objective. Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 7
  • 8. Transition and Change F. ELEMENTS OF A CAREER OBJECTIVE Now that you have reviewed your strengths and seen some possible applications for them, formulate a statement of your career objective. The career objective statement should have three elements: 1. The Kind Of Job You Expect To Do • State the level • State the functional area • State the industry 2. Your Greatest Strengths 3. Results You Expect To Produce • Indicate your intended contribution to your next employer • How will your next organization, company, division, or department be better off as a result of your bringing those strengths to that kind of job? 4. YOUR RESUME A. WHAT IS A RESUME? A resume is a short, professional account of your career and qualifications. It is important to your market campaign for a number of reasons: 1. Writing a resume helps you organize your thinking and show how your past experience supports your objectives. It also helps you express yourself more effectively during interviews. 2. Some of the people you will be meeting may be uncomfortable without a written introduction or guide. 3. It can occasionally open doors for you a s you build a network on contacts. 4. It provides documentation for a third-party spokesperson. A search firm or employment agency, can forward it to a prospective employer for review. 5. It provides a good document to leave behind or attach to a follow-up note. It can reinforce the impression you made at an interview. It can be passed around to others in the company who might be looking for someone with your qualifications. B. KEY ELEMENTS OF A RESUME Heading Objective Background Summary (aka Summary of Qualifications or Career Summary) Accomplishments Professional Experience Education Personal Interests / Memberships / Affiliations Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 8
  • 9. Transition and Change WHEN YOUR RESUME IS 1 OUT OF 300 or “Surviving the 30-Second Scan” • You may spend hours writing it, but you are naïve if you believe that each and every word of your resume will be read. • Your resume will likely be granted the “30-Second Scan” – and have to survive this snap decision: “Keep for further review” or “Toss it out.” • Your resume must not bore the reader. Avoid using long paragraphs, long sentences or large blocks of text. • Always use wide margins, bold headings, indentations or bullets to guide the reader’s eye to the important points. • All statements on your resume should support your objective. • Do not confuse the reader by including irrelevant accomplishments. • Do not speak in generalities. Emphasize past achievements and accomplishments by using quantifiable and measurable information. • Include a career summary of your work experience that tells why you are qualified for the job you seek today. • Avoid personal pronouns. Your document will have a crisper, more professional flow. • Avoid weak verbs. Instead, use strong action verbs and focus on results. • When drafting your resume, anticipate the questions the reader may have and answer them. • Always remember: “ It is the resume reader’s perception, not your intention, that controls your fate.” • Your resume is a sales tool. It should be written to illustrate what you can do. C. CHOOSING A RESUME FORMAT The chronological resume is usually the right choice for a person seeking a similar or more senior position of the same type and in the same or closely related industry. The functional resume can be used to showcase your ability to perform a somewhat different job or to handle the requirements of a position in a different industry. Chronological Sequence Functional Sequence 1. Name / Address / Telephone 1. Name / Address / Telephone 2. Objective 2. Objective 3. Background Summary 3. Background Summary 4. Professional Experience (including 4. Selected Accomplishments (under selected accomplishments) specific functional areas of expertise) 5. Education / Professional Training 5. Professional Experience 6. Military service (optional) 6. Education / Professional Training 7. Personal Interests / Memberships 7. Military Service (optional) (optional) 8. Personal Interests / Memberships (optional) Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 9
  • 10. Transition and Change Use a Chronological Format When: Use a Functional Format When: 1. You are continuing in the same 1. You are making a significant career / job occupation and/or industry. change. 2. Your career shows steady growth with 2. You have been employed by the same progressive responsibilities. company for a very long time. 3. You have an unbroken (no gaps) 3. You have a history of many jobs or gaps employment record. in your employment record. 4. Professional Experience (including 4. You have had unrelated jobs or jobs very selected accomplishments) similar in nature. A chronological format calls the reader’s A functional format directs the reader to attention to your recent job history. your functional strengths. 5. MARKET RESEARCH PHASE A. OVERVIEW During this stage of your campaign your activities will be focused on achieving two primary objectives: 1. Exploring and collecting information on a number of options or industry segments that might fit your objective. 2. Developing ongoing relationships with a network of people who can give you valid information about most of the companies and activities within the industry segments you are exploring. You will want to keep track of all the information you are gathering. Keep a record of each meeting. Develop informal summaries of each industry segment or company. Identify gaps in your information, and the steps you can take to fill in the gaps. B. THE JOB MARKET To be most successful in your campaign, you will need to determine which industry sectors look likely to offer the most appropriate targets and a satisfying job environment for you. There are two different arenas within which you can discover and develop potential employment opportunities: Formal (Passive / Reactive) Job Market This market is made up of positions that a company or organization has taken some active measure to publicize, usually through an add, an employment agency, or a search firm. As soon as a position is placed on this open market any number of applicants can respond, and the selection process for it becomes competitive. Informal (Proactive) Job Market This unadvertised market includes all positions in varying stages of conceptualization that have not yet been communicated to the open market. In order to gain access to this unadvertised market, you must locate and approach the appropriate decision makers. Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 10
  • 11. Transition and Change Existing Jobs • Incumbent still on the job • Impending vacancy • Vacancy Created Jobs • Something new • Adding a slot • Modifying a job C. FORMAL MARKET APPROACHES Answering Ads Most advertisements for desirable positions draw many responses. Realistically, just to survive the first screening, you must meet most of the qualifications mentioned and be able to demonstrate how well you meet them. General Rules For Answering Ads: 1. Respond 4 to 5 days after the ad appears, rather than immediately. You will have a better chance of being noticed. 2. Always send a letter that outlines both the defined and implied qualifications in the advertisement, showing how you meet or surpass the qualifications. 3. Do not send salary history, even if requested. Simply state your salary requirements are flexible, depending upon the nature and scope of the position. 4. Keep the initiative. If the advertisement identifies the employer, your letter should say you will call, at a time you mention, to set up an appointment. 5. If you know or can identify the functional manager responsible for the ad, write to that manager in addition to responding to the person / department mentioned in the ad. Indicate that you have already responded to the ad as instructed, and are taking this opportunity to introduce yourself in a more personal way. How Search Firms and Employment Agencies Work • Retained Search Firms Hired by companies to identify, and sometimes assess, highly qualified candidates on an exclusive basis. • Contingency Search Firms Not hired by the company and paid only if their candidate is hired. • Employment Agencies • Contract Employment Agencies • Placement Agencies D. INFORMAL (PROACTIVE) MARKET APPROACHES Approaches in the informal market will be more productive than in the formal market in most circumstances. Proactive approaches: • Uncover opportunities you would never discover in any other way Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 11
  • 12. Transition and Change • Provide you with better interviews • Enhance your credibility • Put you in less competitive circumstances Networking: What It Is and What It Is Not Networking is requesting information. It is not a straight-out request for employment. Networking is asking for a small favor – some time, some information, and some advice. • Build Rapport with a person who is relevant to your career search. • “Decompress the Meeting” by stating that you are not expecting the person to know of a current opportunity. • Present a clear, concise picture of your chosen career objective as well as a brief description of the options or industry segments you are currently exploring. • Ask Relevant Questions – Proceed in an orderly sequence, from general information to very specific information. • Before you begin, suggest ending the meeting at a previously agreed time limit. When this time approaches, summarize some of the more important information you received. Express your thanks, and mention the follow-up action you plan to take. Agenda of an Information / Referral Meeting • Build Rapport – warm-up conversation emphasizing connection with referral source • Self-Presentation – objective; background summary; options currently exploring • Focusing-In Technique – industry or sector; business issues; challenges; critical issues; problems; solutions; who else (referrals) • Other Questions • Thank You – summary; show appreciation • Next Steps – agree on follow-up actions Building A Contact Network Everybody has contacts. Life would be impossible without them. Your existing contact network may not contain decision-makers in your career field. A few carefully selected people from this list will be useful as starting contacts on which to build your own contact network. Former Employers Past Associates Professional Associations Friends / Relatives Neighbors Business Owners Salespeople Consultants Bankers Lawyers / Accountants College Associates Doctors / Dentists Insurance / Real Estate Clergy Civic Leaders / Politicians Club Members Common Interest Associates Met While Traveling The contacts you develop may: • Introduce you to leaders in your field • Introduce you to other contacts Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 12
  • 13. Transition and Change • Suggest companies you should target • Recommend successful recruiters or employment agencies • Provide guidance on your job-search strategy • Know of specific job openings • Continue to act as your eyes and ears “A” Contacts • Already know to you • Instant rapport • Can provide non-threatening feedback on your presentation • Referrals to “B” contacts “B” Contacts • Bridge people • Information resources on activities, people and events in the field • Referrals to other “B” and “C” contacts “C” Contacts • Can make hiring decisions • Can receive proposals • Can create jobs • Can refer you to other “C” contacts E. APPROACH COURTESIES AND COMMUNICATIONS You will see a number of people for information / referral meetings. Courtesy and consideration will position you as a person with whom it is a pleasant to deal and for whom extra efforts will be made. On the other hand, lack of professionalism and consideration will close many doors to you, regardless of your competence. Approach Letter for an Information / Referral Meeting The appearance of a letter reflects your professionalism as well as your respect for the person to whom you are writing. Write a warm, friendly letter, like one you would enjoy receiving. Letters should also be clear and brief, seldom extending beyond one page. Making the Appointment for an Information / Referral meeting When you are telephoning for an appointment, remember that the secretary who answers controls the “drawbridge to the castle.” A friendly manner will be appreciated. Identify yourself and make a polite inquiry. Write down the secretary’s name so you remember it for future contacts. How to ask for an Information / Referral Meeting The “John Doe Suggested I Call You” Approach (with a referral) The “Changing Career Directions” Approach (without a referral) The “Advice On My Job Search Strategy” Approach (without a referral) Sample Questions to Ask in Information / Referral Meetings • How did you get into this field? • What kind of training / background do you have? Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 13
  • 14. Transition and Change • What does it take, in your view, to attain success in this field? • What do you like best about your work? • What kind of person seems to do best in this sort of work? • Would you mind looking at my list of target companies? • Do you have any suggestions on my job search strategy? • In your opinion, how realistic are my goals? • Do you mind if I stay in touch with you regarding my career campaign? • What are the challenges facing this industry today? • Who do you consider to be leaders in this industry? • Do you believe the industry is on the upswing today? • Who do you know in this field that I might talk with for additional information? • Can you suggest any other individuals I might speak to? F. IDENTIFYING TARGET INDUSTRY SEGMENTS AND COMPANIES Identify the major companies or organizations in each industry segment that fit your geographic and other requirements. Whenever possible, list the decision makers by name and title. G. MARKET RESEARCH SUMMARIES A research summary is a simple informal way of organizing your information. Take a plain sheet of paper and write the name of the industry segment or career option at the top. Draw a line down the center of it. Note all of the positive information on the left side. Then fill in the right half with all the negative factors, such as problems, obstacles, reasons why you might not fit, etc. You should have a clear sense of which industry segments have the kinds of needs that your skills and experiences can effectively address. You should also have some idea of the extent to which each segment offers a good fit for your own interests, values, and preferences. Based upon the information you have gathered, determine whether you want, at this time, to eliminate some of the segments from further consideration – because of lack of opportunities, lack of fit, or lack of qualifications. 6. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS A. LETTERS Letters and telephone calls are designed to stir interest, arrange meetings, and ensure you are well remembered. Excellent letters, interwoven with effective telephone calls, provide the basic structure of a successful job change. Letters serve a variety of purpose. Use them. Every interview, and nearly every telephone call, gives you the opportunity to follow up with a letter. Take advantage of such opportunities, because a good letter sets you apart from almost everyone else. • Connect yourself • Develop interest • Decompress any fear • Take responsibility for follow-up Letter Writing Pointers When you are job hunting, the form of a good business letter is as important as the content. Letter Examples Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 14
  • 15. Transition and Change To be effective, letters must flow naturally, suiting your situation and style. Avoid copying sample letters. Use them only to generate new ideas that fit your situation, style, and personality. Develop letters to be used as an appropriate follow-up to job interviews, job offers, and job turndowns. • Letter of Approach for Information Meeting • Letter to Search Firm • Letter to Agency • Response to Ad • Thank You Letter for Information Meeting • Thank You Letter for Job Interview • Response to Turndown B. TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONS Effective letters establish communications and build good relationships. Telephone calls can do the same more quickly and more effectively. Good telephone techniques are skills learned through preparation and practice. Pre-call planning • Make a list • Establish purpose • Prepare an opening statement • Clarify interest and intent • Prepare questions • Confirm next steps and thank the listener Practical Considerations • Preparation • Tone • Pronunciation • Good notes • Readiness C. PRESENTING THE RIGHT IMAGE It is crucial that you make your physical appearance an important part of your marketing strategy. Your appearance is the first thing a prospective employer will notice about you, regardless of your talents. Research shows us that 55% of what we believe about each other is based upon our observation and interpretation of nonverbal signals. People who are well dressed and well groomed are often found to be better liked, and thought to be more intelligent, successful, and competent. It is often that critical first impression that makes the difference. For Men Always dress as well as you can. A suit that fits well and looks good makes you feel good and further enhances overall appearance. Shirt color preferences are white or blue. A good silk tie can totally upgrade a man’s suit and show his own sense of style. Ideally, your tie should contrast with your suit. Jewelry should be kept simple. Your grooming must be impeccable. The clean-shaven look is safest for a businessman. Your hairstyle should be kept neat and up-to-date. A fragrance may be offensive to an interviewer and should be avoided. For Women Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 15
  • 16. Transition and Change Wear a conservative suit in a style that is complimentary to your figure. Neutral colors are safer than pastels. Blouses can be worn in almost any color that is flattering to your skin tone. Express your own sense of style in blouses. A moderate heel height is always a good bet. Jewelry should be kept simple. Hosiery colors should be limited to neutral colors. Hair should be neatly styled. Makeup should definitely be worn and carefully applied for a natural look. Select cosmetic colors that best suit your skin tone. A fragrance may be offensive to an interviewer and should be avoided. A Final Word on Dressing Be prepared. Your clothes should be clean and pressed. Your shoes should be polished. Your interviewing outfit should be comfortable. Arrive 15 minutes early at your interview to give yourself a final check. Body Language Like your clothing, your body language can convey a stronger message than the words you are saying. Your entrance, handshake, and eye contact all make an impression. Remember, your attitude is the key to establishing rapport with people. Without a constructive, positive attitude, your words and image will appear false. 7. CLOSURE PHASE A. STEPS TO CLOSURE List all companies, organizations in your selected industry segment that fit your geographic, size, and other requirements. You are now ready to approach decision makers in these companies. B. JOB INTERVIEW PROCESS Every good interview consists of mutual sharing of information: • Questions you are asked by the interviewer • Questions you ask the interviewer Interviewing Principles • Know yourself and review your accomplishments • Dress appropriately, neatly, and conservatively • Be polite and personable • Let the person you came to see indicate where you should sit • Be careful to avoid showing signs of nervousness • Be alert to body language • Focus on your accomplishments • Demonstrate enthusiasm, interest, and confidence • Project optimism • Take the positive view of things • Never talk to an interviewer about personal problems • Avoid premature salary discussions • Be an interested listener and observer • Concentrate on the idea of making a contribution in a team environment • Follow the interviewer’s pace • Maintain confidence of past employers • Ask for or exchange business cards • Be yourself, and not what you think someone else expects you to be Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 16
  • 17. Transition and Change C. THREE TYPES OF INTERVIEWS 1. Screening Interviews Screening interviews are used to narrow the field of people who may have responded to an ad, have been sent by agencies, or have resumes on file when a position becomes known. 2. Employment Interviews Once you pass the screening, an interviewer’s goal will be to get to know you better. Your objective is to learn more about the position you are discussing. Ask for as much of an in-depth idea of the position as the interviewer can comfortably give, in order to help you answer questions effectively. Do not inquire about salary, benefits, or anything for yourself. Illustrate your relevant strengths and capabilities by citing accomplishments. Confirm your confidence in your ability to fill the position. Express a desire to return to see about reaching an agreement. 3. Approval Interviews If you are invited back to meet with a superior, associate, human resources representative, consultant, or anyone else, you have clearly generated interest. Your goal is to confirm an already good impression, or to resolve concerns that may be present but unexpressed. Speak positively about your potential contributions. Talk about how well qualified you are for the position. Refer to your accomplishments, modestly but confidently. D. PREPARING A “REASON FOR LEAVING’ STATEMENT You can expect to be asked in every phase of your career transition process, up to and including job interviews, why you are no longer employed or why you are seeking to change jobs. You need a ready answer. Prepare a response. No interviewer will choose an individual who projects a negative or critical attitude. When describing the reasons why you are no longer employed or want to change jobs, you need to frame them in as positive a light as you can, consistent with the truth. Praise the company. This makes you sound positive, upbeat, and proud in what you have done in the past. Explain why you left or are planning to leave your job. Was it Involuntary or Voluntary? Explain the situation in an unemotional, matter-of-fact manner. Be realistic about your feelings. Express confidence in your skills and ability to better yourself. E. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS By asking a few questions a good interviewer can gain a clear sense of whether or not you are a suitable candidate. Know yourself – your past achievements, your present strengths, your desires for future contribution. Your appearance, manners, social grace, and articulation count. Listen to the interviewer’s questions and take your time in answering. Do not talk constantly. • Tell me about yourself • Why did you leave company X or why do you want to leave company X? • Which of your jobs did you like best? • Which of your jobs did you like the least? • How did you get your past jobs? • Why are you interested in our company? • What are your long-range and short-range plans? • If you had complete freedom, what job would you choose? • What are your major assets? • What are your weaknesses? Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 17
  • 18. Transition and Change • What did you like most / least in your last job? • Can you work under pressure and meet deadlines? • What is your management philosophy / style? • What kind of salary are you looking for? • What business references can you give us? • How long would it take you to become productive in this position? • If you are hired, what do you see in your future? • How do you rate yourself as a professional? • What new goals have you established recently? • What position do you expect to have in five years? • What do you think of your last company? • What does success mean to you? • Do you think you are overqualified for this position? • Tell me about the worst / best boss you ever had. • Why do you feel that you have management potential? • What is your leadership style? • What else should I know about you? • How would you describe yourself? • How would others describe you? • Why should we hire you? F. QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD ASK THE INTERVIEWER The questions you ask regarding a position tell as much about your attitude as the answers you give to the interviewer’s questions. Your questions build respect for you. • What are the main responsibilities of the position? • Who would be my key associates? • To whom would I report? • Whom would I supervise? • What would be the extent of my authority in carrying out these responsibilities? • What objects / goals would I be expected to meet? • What can this position lead to? • What are the main problem areas that need attention in this position? • What are you personally looking for in the successful candidate? • What are the resources available to me to get my job done? • What is the evaluation process? How often does it take place? • What are the next steps? Shall I expect to hear from you or would you prefer that I contact you? Additional Interviewing Guidelines for Discussion Avoid These Three Common Interviewing Mistakes 1. Lack of Preparation 2. Being Uninformed About The Company 3. Lack of Practice • Positive Questions • Negative Questions • Neutral Questions Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 18
  • 19. Transition and Change G. SALARY DISCUSSIONS / NEGOTIATIONS Handling Salary Questions You may be asked to disclose your salary history, your most recent salary, or your expected salary. Try Hard to avoid such disclosures, as they rob you of any opportunity for successful negotiation. If the salary question is raised EARLY in the discussions, you can say that: • You would prefer to discuss the position more completely before getting into salary considerations. • You would like to come back to that after providing a better picture of what you have to offer. If the salary question is raised LATER, you can say: • Are you considering making me an offer? If so, perhaps you can give me some idea of the range you have in mind for this position. • I think salary should not be a problem. Your organization has a reputation for fair compensation. If the questions become more pointed, and the interviewer asks what you are now earning or earned on your last job, you can say: • Actually the responsibilities are quite different, so things are not really comparable. I would prefer to fit into your salary structure. • I can see so many possibilities for contribution here that I prefer to go according to your scale. Could you give me some idea of the range you have in mind? The Offer This is what you have been waiting for. Now what do you do? Express appreciation and interest! Access the offer. Does it line up realistically with your career goals and objectives? • Good Match • Responsibilities • Reporting relationships • Culture • Location • Career track • Financially sound (the employer) • Salary and benefits Assessing The Match Between Your Skills, Interests, Values, and The Job Requirements 1. Doing what you do best brings greatest opportunity to succeed / excel. 2. A truly rewarding job or career uses a combination of your greatest skills in a company or organization that: • Needs them • Recognizes them • Appreciates them 3. Is the work important to you? 4. Is it consistent with your values? 5. Do you look forward to starting? 6. Does it meet your financial needs? Comparison Forms (at the end) • Company Focus • Job Focus • Compensation • Personal Focus • Community Focus Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 19
  • 20. Transition and Change Negotiations Once a salary range is quoted or an offer is made, a good tactic is QUIT CONTEMPLATION for thirty seconds or so, breaking eye contact and looking away from the interviewer. What is offered is most often the lowest the organization dares to offer. By staying silent, you put the person under pressure to mention a higher amount or some area of flexibility. Then you can start to negotiate. DO NOT immediately comment on the offer. Discuss the position, the responsibilities, whom you would supervise, what you can contribute, where you might be in five years, etc. Whatever the offer – do not accept on the spot. Ask for some reasonable amount of time to think it over, but do express your sincere interest. The day gives them time to seek approval of an improved offer. Get agreement on the starting salary first. Then negotiate non-salary considerations, in addition to normal fringe benefits. (see the Comparison Forms at the end) Guidelines For Effective Negotiations – A Summary • Always begin by being very positive. • Do not enter into negotiations if you do not want the job. • Most offers are negotiable; some are not. • Negotiate only after a job has been offered. • Research and consider fully before negotiating. • Know your bottom line before negotiating. • Never say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ until you are ready to do so. • Always express appreciation over the job offer first, before you begin to negotiate. • Negotiate after assessing and strategizing. • Conduct negotiations face-to-face whenever possible. If you have another job offer pending, you may choose to ask for additional time to assess and compare the offer. H. REFERENCES Sooner or later you will be asked to provide references. There is no need to do so before you are asked. Reference checks are made to: • Assure that you told the truth about yourself. • Get a feeling for how you work with others. • Pick up otherwise undisclosed information, plus or minus. How to Help Your References Help You First – always ask permission as soon as you think you might want this person to act as a reference for you. Second – provide him or her with a copy of your resume. Third – always advise your references immediately after you have given their names to anyone. Fourth – when you are advising them, provide details about the prospective position. Ask them to call you after they have been contacted and share information about the reference check. Questions Your References May Be Asked About You • Key accomplishments Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 20
  • 21. Transition and Change • Experience • Management style • People skills • Communication skills • Intellectual ability • Work habits • Health • Life style • Family Who Are Your Best References People who know you in a work setting – bosses, peers, even subordinates – are your best references. Anyone you use as a reference, however, should know you well enough to speak objectively about your skills, abilities, strengths, and/or your personal characteristics. Well-prepared job seekers have a good idea of what their references will say about them. Prepare A List Prepare a list of your references and put it on the same kind of paper you used for your resume and stationery. Describe how they know you and what they can tell a potential employer about you. 1. Name and Title 2. Company 3. Address 4. Telephone 5. Relationship 8. ACTION PLAN A. KEEPING TRACK A good record keeping system will help you track your progress. Develop a system to meet your individual needs and purposes. The list below will help you evaluate your administrative needs. Daily activity plan Answering machine / voice mail Notebook Stationery, envelopes, stamps File folders Completed job application form List of references List of networking contacts Resumes Appointment calendar Three hole punch Monthly calendar Pocket calendar Log mileage / travel expenses Use Your Computer to: • Keep a database of your contacts. • Keep your appointment schedule. • Draft letters and other correspondence. • Keep track of your expenses. • Keep your resume. • Tap into the Internet and the databases there. Establish Your Own Personal Minimum Standards of Success – Be Specific! 1. Initiate contact and follow up in a timely manner. Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 21
  • 22. Transition and Change 2. Keep a record of every letter, phone call, and meeting. 3. Evaluate and improve your approach as your job search progresses. 4. Be professional in all you do. You can develop your own forms and check lists for your job search. Such as: PERSONAL MARKETING PLAN WEEKLY CAMPAIGN PLAN INTERACTION RECORD FOLLOW-UP ACTION TO BE TAKEN MEETING / INTERVIEW REPORT B. STRUCTURING YOUR CAMPAIGN Managing your own campaign will give you confidence. Document your activities from the very start. Manage Your Time • Take time every day to plan your activities. • Use your Weekly Campaign Plan. • Set aside blocks of time for specific activities. • Use planning time to prepare thoroughly for the next day’s activities. • Use time outside of the office / home wisely. • Use the entire business day for your job search. • Make a written plan for each day and work your plan. C. STOP PROCRASTINATING You are responsible for managing your own time. You must be self disciplined and focused in order to meet your own goals. Take the time to write out and think through your actions. Conducting a job search may be the hardest job you have ever had! 9. RESOURCES A. DIRECTORIES • Best’s Directory • Business Periodicals Index • Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory • Directory of Corporate Affiliates • Dun and Bradstreet Million Dollar Directory • Guide to American Directories • National Directory of Addresses and Telephone Numbers • National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States and Canada and Labor Unions • Polk’s Directory • Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors and Executives • Who’s Who in Business • Chamber of Commerce • Encyclopedia of Associations • Thomas’ Register of American manufacturers • Directory of Executive Search Recruiters • The American Almanac of Jobs and Salaries Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 22
  • 23. Transition and Change B. THE INTERNET A quick look at the Internet yields some of the following general topics / areas of interest to job seekers: • Academic Jobs • Career Books • Career Events • Classifieds • Company Web Sites • Contract labor • Education Related Jobs • Employee Search • Employer Profiles • Employment Help • Federal Jobs • Professional Career Organizations • Research EMPLOYMENT SITES ON THE INTERNET CLASSIFIEDS/JOBS Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 23
  • 24. Transition and Change FEDERAL JOBS telnet:// EMPLOYMENT HELP RESEARCH SEARCH ENGINES FOR COMPANY WEB SITES and economy/companies USENET Company Company Company Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 24
  • 25. Transition and Change RANK COMPANY FOCUS Size of Company Sales Volume Number of Employees Public/Privately Held Profit/Nonprofit National/Multinational Academia Product/Service Central/Decentralized Division/Subdivision Management Depth Financial Condition Political Climate Growth History Profitability Future growth Turnaround Options Stability Reputation Market Dependency Vulnerability to Takeover Company Company Company Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 25
  • 26. Transition and Change RANK JOB FOCUS Meets Your Objectives Duties/Responsibilities Authority Independence Challenge High/Low Risk Job Visibility Reporting Relationships Direct Line Dotted Line Travel Status (Title) History Previous Incumbent Goals / Objectives Staff Development Office Politics Company Culture Other Company Company Company Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 26
  • 27. Transition and Change RANK COMPENSATION Base Salary Bonus (Guaranteed) Bonus (Potential) Incentive Signup Bonus Benefits – Basic Health - Major Medical - Dental - Life Insurance - Disability - Eye Care Perks – Car - Club Memberships - Credit Cards - Financial Planning - Tax Assistance - Expense Accounts - Airline VIP Cards - Travel w/spouse Election to Board (Exec) Committee(s) Private Secretary Moving Expenses Temporary Living Costs Mortgage Differential Housing Subsidy Company Company Company Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 27
  • 28. Transition and Change RANK COMPENSATION Severance Package Outplacement Assistance Performance Evaluations Additional Vacation Time Retirement/Pension Plan Separation Agreement Employment Agreement Salary Increases Training Development Education Seminars Industry Memberships Annual Industry Conferences Extra Overtime Compensation Time Dress Code Pager / Cell Phone 401K Plan Holidays Personal Days Sick Days Profit Sharing Deferred Compensation Compensation for Change of Job Content Other Company Company Company Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 28
  • 29. Transition and Change RANK PERSONAL FOCUS Interpersonal Chemistry Management Style Step in Career Path Promotion Potential Work Hours Commute Compatibility w/Life Style Other COMMUNITY FOCUS Location/Relocation City/County Living Schools Religious Affiliations Cultural Activities Recreational Areas Local Taxes Other Copyright © 2003 William L. Ware MAILCOM 2003 29