National Postal Forum 2011 - Career Transition


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National Postal Forum 2011 - Career Transition

  1. 1. National Postal Forum May 1 – 4, 2011 San Diego, CA Title: Career TransitionScheduled For: Tuesday, Period 12, 11:15 am – 12:15 pm Presented By: William L. Ware, CMDSM Oce Business Services James P. Mullan, CMDSM Oce Business Services
  4. 4. Career Transition1. MANAGING TRANSITIONSA. WHAT IT TAKES TO SUCCEEDA positive outlook will do more than carry you through the transition. It will be the bedrock of youractions and, ultimately, the reason you succeed. • Take Personal Inventory Identify past successes, current strengths, overall work style and personal preferences. • Refine Your Career Objective It must be clear, focused and realistic – based firmly on your greatest strengths. • Make A Dynamic presentation Your resume and self-presentation must show you at your highest level of effectiveness. • A Marketing Strategy A sound strategy will enable you to use your time most efficiently, and will be essential to the successful outcome of your market campaign. • Build A Career Contact Network Business relationships are vital campaign resources. • Polish Your Interviewing and Negotiating Skills Effective verbal skills can convert opportunities into job offers. • Be Thorough and Persistent Write effective letters, conduct productive meetings, and follow up on opportunities.B. WHAT DOES CHANGE MEAN FOR YOU?What dangers and opportunities does change represent for you at this point in your life and career? Dangers Opportunities Loss of structure and security Creating a new structure and security Loss of self-confidence Reestablishing confidence based on personal strengths Not know the future Defining a new future No place to go regularly Having freedom and flexibility in the use of time Financial concerns Finding new possibilities for income Family stress Developing new family closeness Being rejected Creating conditions for being accepted Loss of professional / personal contacts Finding new ways to meet people Feeling bitter about the past Focusing on a better future Feeling outdated Learning something new Loss of purpose Renewing a sense of purposeCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 4
  5. 5. Career TransitionC. COPING WITH A CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENTIf you are like most people, you are going to change jobs every 3 to 5 years and work for perhaps 10different organizations during your career. Yet, when it comes time to face a change in employment,these statistics take on a whole new meaning.The emotions you will experience are normal. Although no two people react the same way, most of usgo through several stages. Shock / Denial Bargaining Anger Frustration Despair / Depression Acceptance Control2. THE ZEROING-IN PROCESSA. PREPARATION PHASE (Understanding Self) • Develop a focused career objective, based upon your greatest strengths. • Prepare oral and written presentations of your objective. • Learn contact development and interview management. • Develop communication skills (letter, telephone techniques).B. MARKET RESEARCH PHASE (Understanding Others) • Explore 5 to 7 industries or sectors (job and career options) that are relevant to your career objective. • Develop a career contact network. • Prepare written research summaries for each sector or option explored. • Refine the list of target companies.C. FOCUS PHASE • Obtain feedback from at least three key contacts. • Narrow down the sectors to the one (or two) that will provide the best opportunity for you to achieve your objective.D. CLOSURE PHASE • Complete the list of target companies that meet your geographic, size, and industry requirements. • Approach the decision makers in each company on your target list. Begin with those already in your network. • Complete the job interview process. • Negotiate the details of a job offer and compensation. • Acceptance of a job offer.Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 5
  6. 6. Career Transition3. PREPARATION PHASEA. BEGIN AT THE BEGINNINGThe aim of this session and handout is to assist you in finding the right position – not just another job.The right position will use your greatest strengths and will motivate you with the challenge, recognition,or opportunity for growth that you are seeking.You may find such a position through blind luck. However, your odds are much better if you truly knowyourself, know your strengths, know what factors motivate you and know what makes you valuable toothers.The first step in your job search is to develop a career objective that clearly and accurately describesthe kind of position that is best for you.To be effective, that objective must reflect your abilities, interests, and temperament, as well as yourexperience. Your job search really begins with an honest self-evaluation.B. REVIEWING YOUR ACCOMPLISHMENTSBy taking a close look at the things, which you have achieved during your life and career, you canbegin to get an idea of the kinds of things you might want to do in the future. Knowing and expressingwhat you can do well will help you: • Build self-confidence, a key to success • Locate the position that fits you best • Communicate effectively in interviews and meetingsAn accomplishment is an activity that gives you pleasure, fulfillment, and a feeling of pride andsuccess. It can be large or small in scope, routine or extraordinary, frequent or once only, work-relatedor personal. These accomplishments represent you functioning at your best, sometimes overcomingdifficulties, and believing in yourself and your ideas.A Check List to Help Jog Your Memory About Your AccomplishmentsHave You: Accomplished more with the same or fewer resources? (How? Results?) Received award(s), special recognition, etc. (What? Why?) Increased efficiency? (How? Results?) Solved difficult problem(s)? (How? Results?) Accomplished something for the first time? (What? Result?) Developed, created, designed, or invented something? (What? Why important?) Prepared original papers, reports, or articles? (What? Why important?) Managed work group or department? (Who? How many? Results?) Saved the company money? (How? How much?) Supervised, managed, or trained employees? (Where? How many? Results?) Increased sales? (How? By how much?) Been promoted or upgraded? (When? Why important?) Increased production? (How? Results?) Identified problem(s) others did not see? (What? Result?) Developed new system or procedure? (What? Benefit?) Reduced downtime? (How? How much? Result?) Established safety record? (What? Result?) Managed budget? (How much? Result?)Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 6
  7. 7. Career Transition Repaired equipment? (Which? Result?)C. DEFINING YOUR ABILITIES CATEGORY DESCRIPTORS 1 2 3 4 5 TResearch Research, observe, investigate, study, perceive, sense, measure, test, inspect, examineAnalysis Analyze, compare, extract, correlate, derive, evaluate, differentiate, identifyInterpretation Interpret, explain, understand, portray, adviseProblem-solving Solve, troubleshoot, improve, critique, redirect, redesign, restructureSystematizing Systematize, coordinate, organize, develop proceduresPlanning Plan long-term, plan short-term, forecast, strategize, set goalsManagement Manage, supervise, control direct, administer, delegate, budgetLeadership Lead, show the way, govern, inspire, motivateDecision-making Decide, judge, select, decide under pressure, arbitrateFollow-through Persist, persevere, show tenacity, tie up all loose endsMentoring Mentor, teach, coach, counsel constructively, help others to grow professionally and personallyInnovation Innovate, invent, change, develop, devise, break with conventionImagination Imagine, visualize, conceptualizeVision Ask “what if?” or “why not?”, then act to find the answer, “see” the future clearlySynthesis Synthesize, adapt, bring together with imaginationArtistry Write creatively, draw, sketch, sculpt, paintSympathy Console, help others in need, be friendly and attentiveEmpathy Empathize, understand needs/feelings of others, relate to issues/concerns of othersListening Listen actively, understand the message others are deliveringWritten Presentation Write clearly, concisely and effectively, use the written word to get resultsVerbal Presentation Speak clearly, concisely and effectively, use the spoken word to get resultsPersuasion Persuade, convince, influence, overcome opposition, sellNegotiation Negotiate, mediate, intervene, resolve differencesInitiative Take the initiative, be among the first to do or tryFlexibility Be flexible, adapt easily to change, be “politically” awareTeam Player Work well with a team, be a team player when necessaryAssembly Assemble, build, prepare, fabricate, rebuildInstalling Install, fit, tailor, customize, testCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 7
  8. 8. Career TransitionOperating Operate, run, maintain, fix, set-upD. WHAT IS A STRENGTH?Ability is defined as something you do well, a competence, a talent, and a capacity. Not every ability,however, is supported by an interest. Some of the things you do well you may do for survival reasons,or simply because “you have to.” These abilities might include balancing a checkbook, fixing yourchild’s bicycle, cleaning the garage, or drawing up the budget.An interest is something that intrigues you or motivates you positively. Not every interest is supportedby talent or ability. For example, you may wish you could play the piano or windsurf, but lack the talentto do so.Like everyone else, you have some abilities that match your areas of interest. These are yourstrengths. By determining your greatest strengths, confirmed by your accomplishments, you candefine the functions you will perform best and most happily in your next position.You will want to define your career objective in terms of these strengths rather in terms of a specificjob title. There may be many jobs that can use your strengths to good advantage, so it would beunwise to limit your prospects to a single job title.You will want to be sure that you can not only list your strengths, but also give examples of thosestrengths in action. It will be up to you to explain to those you meet just how your strengths can relateto their business requirements.E. TAKING YOUR STRENGTHS TO MARKETOnce you have identified your areas of strength, you must discover where they intersect the realities ofthe job market. Those areas of intersection are where you will focus your search. OPTION 1 – Same Job / Same Industry OPTION 2 – Same Job / Different Industry OPTION 3 – Different Job / Same Industry OPTION 4 – Different Job / Different Industry OPTION 5 – Still Need More InformationThree Aids to Selecting a Career Direction and Objective • Specific Area of Interest • Specific Job • Specific IndustryFour Reasons It Is Essential to Select a Career Direction and Develop a Specific Career Objective • The “Jack of all trades” approach – “Here I am, where can you use me?” • Your competition will be focused. • Employers do not have time to figure out where you belong. If you don’t seem to know what you want, you will make a negative impression. • Resume content is determined by your career objective.Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 8
  9. 9. Career TransitionF. ELEMENTS OF A CAREER OBJECTIVENow that you have reviewed your strengths and seen some possible applications for them, formulate astatement of your career objective.The career objective statement should have three elements:1. The Kind Of Job You Expect To Do • State the level • State the functional area • State the industry2. Your Greatest Strengths3. Results You Expect To Produce • Indicate your intended contribution to your next employer • How will your next organization, company, division, or department be better off as a result of your bringing those strengths to that kind of job?4. YOUR RESUMEA. WHAT IS A RESUME?A resume is a short, professional account of your career and qualifications. It is important to yourmarket campaign for a number of reasons: 1. Writing a resume helps you organize your thinking and show how your past experience supports your objectives. It also helps you express yourself more effectively during interviews. 2. Some of the people you will be meeting may be uncomfortable without a written introduction or guide. 3. It can occasionally open doors for you a s you build a network on contacts. 4. It provides documentation for a third-party spokesperson. A search firm or employment agency, can forward it to a prospective employer for review. 5. It provides a good document to leave behind or attach to a follow-up note. It can reinforce the impression you made at an interview. It can be passed around to others in the company who might be looking for someone with your qualifications.B. KEY ELEMENTS OF A RESUME Heading Objective Background Summary (aka Summary of Qualifications or Career Summary) Accomplishments Professional Experience Education Personal Interests / Memberships / AffiliationsCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 9
  10. 10. Career TransitionWHEN YOUR RESUME IS 1 OUT OF 300 or “Surviving the 30-Second Scan” • You may spend hours writing it, but you are naïve if you believe that each and every word of your resume will be read. • Your resume will likely be granted the “30-Second Scan” – and have to survive this snap decision: “Keep for further review” or “Toss it out.” • Your resume must not bore the reader. Avoid using long paragraphs, long sentences or large blocks of text. • Always use wide margins, bold headings, indentations or bullets to guide the reader’s eye to the important points. • All statements on your resume should support your objective. • Do not confuse the reader by including irrelevant accomplishments. • Do not speak in generalities. Emphasize past achievements and accomplishments by using quantifiable and measurable information. • Include a career summary of your work experience that tells why you are qualified for the job you seek today. • Avoid personal pronouns. Your document will have a crisper, more professional flow. • Avoid weak verbs. Instead, use strong action verbs and focus on results. • When drafting your resume, anticipate the questions the reader may have and answer them. • Always remember: “ It is the resume reader’s perception, not your intention, that controls your fate.” • Your resume is a sales tool. It should be written to illustrate what you can do.C. CHOOSING A RESUME FORMATThe chronological resume is usually the right choice for a person seeking a similar or more seniorposition of the same type and in the same or closely related industry.The functional resume can be used to showcase your ability to perform a somewhat different job or tohandle the requirements of a position in a different industry. Chronological Sequence Functional Sequence1. Name / Address / Telephone 1. Name / Address / Telephone2. Objective 2. Objective3. Background Summary 3. Background Summary4. Professional Experience (including 4. Selected Accomplishments (underselected accomplishments) specific functional areas of expertise)5. Education / Professional Training 5. Professional Experience6. Military service (optional) 6. Education / Professional Training7. Personal Interests / Memberships 7. Military Service (optional)(optional) 8. Personal Interests / Memberships (optional)Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 10
  11. 11. Career Transition Use a Chronological Format When: Use a Functional Format When:1. You are continuing in the same 1. You are making a significant career / joboccupation and/or industry. change.2. Your career shows steady growth with 2. You have been employed by the sameprogressive responsibilities. company for a very long time.3. You have an unbroken (no gaps) 3. You have a history of many jobs or gapsemployment record. in your employment record.4. Professional Experience (including 4. You have had unrelated jobs or jobs veryselected accomplishments) similar in nature.A chronological format calls the reader’s A functional format directs the reader toattention to your recent job history. your functional strengths.5. MARKET RESEARCH PHASEA. OVERVIEWDuring this stage of your campaign your activities will be focused on achieving two primary objectives: 1. Exploring and collecting information on a number of options or industry segments that might fit your objective. 2. Developing ongoing relationships with a network of people who can give you valid information about most of the companies and activities within the industry segments you are exploring.You will want to keep track of all the information you are gathering. Keep a record of each meeting.Develop informal summaries of each industry segment or company. Identify gaps in your information,and the steps you can take to fill in the gaps.B. THE JOB MARKETTo be most successful in your campaign, you will need to determine which industry sectors look likelyto offer the most appropriate targets and a satisfying job environment for you.There are two different arenas within which you can discover and develop potential employmentopportunities:Formal (Passive / Reactive) Job MarketThis market is made up of positions that a company or organization has taken some active measure topublicize, usually through an add, an employment agency, or a search firm. As soon as a position isplaced on this open market any number of applicants can respond, and the selection process for itbecomes competitive.Informal (Proactive) Job MarketThis unadvertised market includes all positions in varying stages of conceptualization that have not yetbeen communicated to the open market. In order to gain access to this unadvertised market, you mustlocate and approach the appropriate decision makers.Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 11
  12. 12. Career TransitionExisting Jobs • Incumbent still on the job • Impending vacancy • VacancyCreated Jobs • Something new • Adding a slot • Modifying a jobC. FORMAL MARKET APPROACHESAnswering AdsMost advertisements for desirable positions draw many responses. Realistically, just to survive the firstscreening, you must meet most of the qualifications mentioned and be able to demonstrate how wellyou meet them.General Rules For Answering Ads: 1. Respond 4 to 5 days after the ad appears, rather than immediately. You will have a better chance of being noticed. 2. Always send a letter that outlines both the defined and implied qualifications in the advertisement, showing how you meet or surpass the qualifications. 3. Do not send salary history, even if requested. Simply state your salary requirements are flexible, depending upon the nature and scope of the position. 4. Keep the initiative. If the advertisement identifies the employer, your letter should say you will call, at a time you mention, to set up an appointment. 5. If you know or can identify the functional manager responsible for the ad, write to that manager in addition to responding to the person / department mentioned in the ad. Indicate that you have already responded to the ad as instructed, and are taking this opportunity to introduce yourself in a more personal way.How Search Firms and Employment Agencies Work • Retained Search FirmsHired by companies to identify, and sometimes assess, highly qualified candidates on an exclusivebasis. • Contingency Search FirmsNot hired by the company and paid only if their candidate is hired. • Employment Agencies • Contract Employment Agencies • Placement AgenciesD. INFORMAL (PROACTIVE) MARKET APPROACHESApproaches in the informal market will be more productive than in the formal market in mostcircumstances. Proactive approaches: • Uncover opportunities you would never discover in any other wayCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 12
  13. 13. Career Transition • Provide you with better interviews • Enhance your credibility • Put you in less competitive circumstancesNetworking: What It Is and What It Is NotNetworking is requesting information. It is not a straight-out request for employment.Networking is asking for a small favor – some time, some information, and some advice. • Build Rapport with a person who is relevant to your career search. • “Decompress the Meeting” by stating that you are not expecting the person to know of a current opportunity. • Present a clear, concise picture of your chosen career objective as well as a brief description of the options or industry segments you are currently exploring. • Ask Relevant Questions – Proceed in an orderly sequence, from general information to very specific information. • Before you begin, suggest ending the meeting at a previously agreed time limit. When this time approaches, summarize some of the more important information you received. Express your thanks, and mention the follow-up action you plan to take.Agenda of an Information / Referral Meeting • Build Rapport – warm-up conversation emphasizing connection with referral source • Self-Presentation – objective; background summary; options currently exploring • Focusing-In Technique – industry or sector; business issues; challenges; critical issues; problems; solutions; who else (referrals) • Other Questions • Thank You – summary; show appreciation • Next Steps – agree on follow-up actionsBuilding A Contact NetworkEverybody has contacts. Life would be impossible without them. Your existing contact network maynot contain decision-makers in your career field. A few carefully selected people from this list will beuseful as starting contacts on which to build your own contact network. Former Employers Past Associates Professional Associations Friends / Relatives Neighbors Business Owners Salespeople Consultants Bankers Lawyers / Accountants College Associates Doctors / Dentists Insurance / Real Estate Clergy Civic Leaders / Politicians Club Members Common Interest Associates Met While TravelingThe contacts you develop may: • Introduce you to leaders in your field • Introduce you to other contactsCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 13
  14. 14. Career Transition • Suggest companies you should target • Recommend successful recruiters or employment agencies • Provide guidance on your job-search strategy • Know of specific job openings • Continue to act as your eyes and ears“A” Contacts • Already know to you • Instant rapport • Can provide non-threatening feedback on your presentation • Referrals to “B” contacts“B” Contacts • Bridge people • Information resources on activities, people and events in the field • Referrals to other “B” and “C” contacts“C” Contacts • Can make hiring decisions • Can receive proposals • Can create jobs • Can refer you to other “C” contactsE. APPROACH COURTESIES AND COMMUNICATIONSYou will see a number of people for information / referral meetings. Courtesy and consideration willposition you as a person with whom it is a pleasant to deal and for whom extra efforts will be made.On the other hand, lack of professionalism and consideration will close many doors to you, regardlessof your competence.Approach Letter for an Information / Referral MeetingThe appearance of a letter reflects your professionalism as well as your respect for the person towhom you are writing. Write a warm, friendly letter, like one you would enjoy receiving. Letters shouldalso be clear and brief, seldom extending beyond one page.Making the Appointment for an Information / Referral meetingWhen you are telephoning for an appointment, remember that the secretary who answers controls the“drawbridge to the castle.” A friendly manner will be appreciated. Identify yourself and make a politeinquiry. Write down the secretary’s name so you remember it for future contacts.How to ask for an Information / Referral Meeting The “John Doe Suggested I Call You” Approach (with a referral) The “Changing Career Directions” Approach (without a referral) The “Advice On My Job Search Strategy” Approach (without a referral)Sample Questions to Ask in Information / Referral Meetings • How did you get into this field? • What kind of training / background do you have?Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 14
  15. 15. Career Transition • What does it take, in your view, to attain success in this field? • What do you like best about your work? • What kind of person seems to do best in this sort of work? • Would you mind looking at my list of target companies? • Do you have any suggestions on my job search strategy? • In your opinion, how realistic are my goals? • Do you mind if I stay in touch with you regarding my career campaign? • What are the challenges facing this industry today? • Who do you consider to be leaders in this industry? • Do you believe the industry is on the upswing today? • Who do you know in this field that I might talk with for additional information? • Can you suggest any other individuals I might speak to?F. IDENTIFYING TARGET INDUSTRY SEGMENTS AND COMPANIESIdentify the major companies or organizations in each industry segment that fit your geographic andother requirements. Whenever possible, list the decision makers by name and title.G. MARKET RESEARCH SUMMARIESA research summary is a simple informal way of organizing your information. Take a plain sheet ofpaper and write the name of the industry segment or career option at the top. Draw a line down thecenter of it. Note all of the positive information on the left side. Then fill in the right half with all thenegative factors, such as problems, obstacles, reasons why you might not fit, etc.You should have a clear sense of which industry segments have the kinds of needs that your skillsand experiences can effectively address. You should also have some idea of the extent to which eachsegment offers a good fit for your own interests, values, and preferences.Based upon the information you have gathered, determine whether you want, at this time, to eliminatesome of the segments from further consideration – because of lack of opportunities, lack of fit, or lackof qualifications.6. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONSA. LETTERSLetters and telephone calls are designed to stir interest, arrange meetings, and ensure you are wellremembered. Excellent letters, interwoven with effective telephone calls, provide the basic structure ofa successful job change. Letters serve a variety of purpose. Use them.Every interview, and nearly every telephone call, gives you the opportunity to follow up with a letter.Take advantage of such opportunities, because a good letter sets you apart from almost everyoneelse. • Connect yourself • Develop interest • Decompress any fear • Take responsibility for follow-upLetter Writing PointersWhen you are job hunting, the form of a good business letter is as important as the content.Letter ExamplesCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 15
  16. 16. Career TransitionTo be effective, letters must flow naturally, suiting your situation and style. Avoid copying sampleletters. Use them only to generate new ideas that fit your situation, style, and personality. Developletters to be used as an appropriate follow-up to job interviews, job offers, and job turndowns. • Letter of Approach for Information Meeting • Letter to Search Firm • Letter to Agency • Response to Ad • Thank You Letter for Information Meeting • Thank You Letter for Job Interview • Response to TurndownB. TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONSEffective letters establish communications and build good relationships. Telephone calls can do thesame more quickly and more effectively. Good telephone techniques are skills learned throughpreparation and practice.Pre-call planning • Make a list • Establish purpose • Prepare an opening statement • Clarify interest and intent • Prepare questions • Confirm next steps and thank the listenerPractical Considerations • Preparation • Tone • Pronunciation • Good notes • ReadinessC. PRESENTING THE RIGHT IMAGEIt is crucial that you make your physical appearance an important part of your marketing strategy. Yourappearance is the first thing a prospective employer will notice about you, regardless of your talents.Research shows us that 55% of what we believe about each other is based upon our observation andinterpretation of nonverbal signals. People who are well dressed and well groomed are often found tobe better liked, and thought to be more intelligent, successful, and competent. It is often that criticalfirst impression that makes the difference.For MenAlways dress as well as you can. A suit that fits well and looks good makes you feel good and furtherenhances overall appearance.Shirt color preferences are white or blue.A good silk tie can totally upgrade a man’s suit and show his own sense of style. Ideally, your tieshould contrast with your suit.Jewelry should be kept simple.Your grooming must be impeccable. The clean-shaven look is safest for a businessman.Your hairstyle should be kept neat and up-to-date.A fragrance may be offensive to an interviewer and should be avoided.For WomenCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 16
  17. 17. Career TransitionWear a conservative suit in a style that is complimentary to your figure. Neutral colors are safer thanpastels. Blouses can be worn in almost any color that is flattering to your skin tone. Express your ownsense of style in blouses.A moderate heel height is always a good bet.Jewelry should be kept simple.Hosiery colors should be limited to neutral colors.Hair should be neatly styled. Makeup should definitely be worn and carefully applied for a natural look.Select cosmetic colors that best suit your skin tone.A fragrance may be offensive to an interviewer and should be avoided.A Final Word on DressingBe prepared. Your clothes should be clean and pressed. Your shoes should be polished. Yourinterviewing outfit should be comfortable. Arrive 15 minutes early at your interview to give yourself afinal check.Body LanguageLike your clothing, your body language can convey a stronger message than the words you aresaying. Your entrance, handshake, and eye contact all make an impression.Remember, your attitude is the key to establishing rapport with people. Without a constructive, positiveattitude, your words and image will appear false.7. CLOSURE PHASEA. STEPS TO CLOSUREList all companies, organizations in your selected industry segment that fit your geographic, size, andother requirements. You are now ready to approach decision makers in these companies.B. JOB INTERVIEW PROCESSEvery good interview consists of mutual sharing of information: • Questions you are asked by the interviewer • Questions you ask the interviewerInterviewing Principles • Know yourself and review your accomplishments • Dress appropriately, neatly, and conservatively • Be polite and personable • Let the person you came to see indicate where you should sit • Be careful to avoid showing signs of nervousness • Be alert to body language • Focus on your accomplishments • Demonstrate enthusiasm, interest, and confidence • Project optimism • Take the positive view of things • Never talk to an interviewer about personal problems • Avoid premature salary discussions • Be an interested listener and observer • Concentrate on the idea of making a contribution in a team environment • Follow the interviewer’s pace • Maintain confidence of past employers • Ask for or exchange business cards • Be yourself, and not what you think someone else expects you to beCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 17
  18. 18. Career TransitionC. THREE TYPES OF INTERVIEWS1. Screening InterviewsScreening interviews are used to narrow the field of people who may have responded to an ad, havebeen sent by agencies, or have resumes on file when a position becomes known.2. Employment InterviewsOnce you pass the screening, an interviewer’s goal will be to get to know you better. Your objective isto learn more about the position you are discussing. Ask for as much of an in-depth idea of theposition as the interviewer can comfortably give, in order to help you answer questions effectively. Donot inquire about salary, benefits, or anything for yourself. Illustrate your relevant strengths andcapabilities by citing accomplishments. Confirm your confidence in your ability to fill the position.Express a desire to return to see about reaching an agreement.3. Approval InterviewsIf you are invited back to meet with a superior, associate, human resources representative, consultant,or anyone else, you have clearly generated interest. Your goal is to confirm an already goodimpression, or to resolve concerns that may be present but unexpressed. Speak positively about yourpotential contributions. Talk about how well qualified you are for the position. Refer to youraccomplishments, modestly but confidently.D. PREPARING A “REASON FOR LEAVING’ STATEMENTYou can expect to be asked in every phase of your career transition process, up to and including jobinterviews, why you are no longer employed or why you are seeking to change jobs. You need a readyanswer. Prepare a response.No interviewer will choose an individual who projects a negative or critical attitude. When describingthe reasons why you are no longer employed or want to change jobs, you need to frame them in aspositive a light as you can, consistent with the truth.Praise the company. This makes you sound positive, upbeat, and proud in what you have done in thepast. Explain why you left or are planning to leave your job. Was it Involuntary or Voluntary? Explainthe situation in an unemotional, matter-of-fact manner. Be realistic about your feelings. Expressconfidence in your skills and ability to better yourself.E. INTERVIEW QUESTIONSBy asking a few questions a good interviewer can gain a clear sense of whether or not you are asuitable candidate. Know yourself – your past achievements, your present strengths, your desires forfuture contribution. Your appearance, manners, social grace, and articulation count. Listen to theinterviewer’s questions and take your time in answering. Do not talk constantly. • Tell me about yourself • Why did you leave company X or why do you want to leave company X? • Which of your jobs did you like best? • Which of your jobs did you like the least? • How did you get your past jobs? • Why are you interested in our company? • What are your long-range and short-range plans? • If you had complete freedom, what job would you choose? • What are your major assets? • What are your weaknesses?Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 18
  19. 19. Career Transition • What did you like most / least in your last job? • Can you work under pressure and meet deadlines? • What is your management philosophy / style? • What kind of salary are you looking for? • What business references can you give us? • How long would it take you to become productive in this position? • If you are hired, what do you see in your future? • How do you rate yourself as a professional? • What new goals have you established recently? • What position do you expect to have in five years? • What do you think of your last company? • What does success mean to you? • Do you think you are overqualified for this position? • Tell me about the worst / best boss you ever had. • Why do you feel that you have management potential? • What is your leadership style? • What else should I know about you? • How would you describe yourself? • How would others describe you? • Why should we hire you?F. QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD ASK THE INTERVIEWERThe questions you ask regarding a position tell as much about your attitude as the answers you give tothe interviewer’s questions. Your questions build respect for you. • What are the main responsibilities of the position? • Who would be my key associates? • To whom would I report? • Whom would I supervise? • What would be the extent of my authority in carrying out these responsibilities? • What objects / goals would I be expected to meet? • What can this position lead to? • What are the main problem areas that need attention in this position? • What are you personally looking for in the successful candidate? • What are the resources available to me to get my job done? • What is the evaluation process? How often does it take place? • What are the next steps? Shall I expect to hear from you or would you prefer that I contact you?Additional Interviewing Guidelines for DiscussionAvoid These Three Common Interviewing Mistakes1. Lack of Preparation2. Being Uninformed About The Company3. Lack of Practice • Positive Questions • Negative Questions • Neutral QuestionsCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 19
  20. 20. Career TransitionG. SALARY DISCUSSIONS / NEGOTIATIONSHandling Salary QuestionsYou may be asked to disclose your salary history, your most recent salary, or your expected salary.Try Hard to avoid such disclosures, as they rob you of any opportunity for successful negotiation.If the salary question is raised EARLY in the discussions, you can say that: • You would prefer to discuss the position more completely before getting into salary considerations. • You would like to come back to that after providing a better picture of what you have to offer.If the salary question is raised LATER, you can say: • Are you considering making me an offer? If so, perhaps you can give me some idea of the range you have in mind for this position. • I think salary should not be a problem. Your organization has a reputation for fair compensation.If the questions become more pointed, and the interviewer asks what you are now earning or earnedon your last job, you can say: • Actually the responsibilities are quite different, so things are not really comparable. I would prefer to fit into your salary structure. • I can see so many possibilities for contribution here that I prefer to go according to your scale. Could you give me some idea of the range you have in mind?The OfferThis is what you have been waiting for. Now what do you do?Express appreciation and interest!Access the offer. Does it line up realistically with your career goals and objectives? • Good Match • Responsibilities • Reporting relationships • Culture • Location • Career track • Financially sound (the employer) • Salary and benefitsAssessing The Match Between Your Skills, Interests, Values, and The Job Requirements1. Doing what you do best brings greatest opportunity to succeed / excel.2. A truly rewarding job or career uses a combination of your greatest skills in a company ororganization that: • Needs them • Recognizes them • Appreciates them3. Is the work important to you?4. Is it consistent with your values?5. Do you look forward to starting?6. Does it meet your financial needs?Comparison Forms (at the end) • Company Focus • Job Focus • Compensation • Personal FocusCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 20
  21. 21. Career Transition • Community FocusNegotiationsOnce a salary range is quoted or an offer is made, a good tactic is QUIT CONTEMPLATION for thirtyseconds or so, breaking eye contact and looking away from the interviewer. What is offered is mostoften the lowest the organization dares to offer. By staying silent, you put the person under pressure tomention a higher amount or some area of flexibility. Then you can start to negotiate.DO NOT immediately comment on the offer. Discuss the position, the responsibilities, whom youwould supervise, what you can contribute, where you might be in five years, etc.Whatever the offer – do not accept on the spot. Ask for some reasonable amount of time to think itover, but do express your sincere interest. The day gives them time to seek approval of an improvedoffer.Get agreement on the starting salary first. Then negotiate non-salary considerations, in addition tonormal fringe benefits. (see the Comparison Forms at the end)Guidelines For Effective Negotiations – A Summary • Always begin by being very positive. • Do not enter into negotiations if you do not want the job. • Most offers are negotiable; some are not. • Negotiate only after a job has been offered. • Research and consider fully before negotiating. • Know your bottom line before negotiating. • Never say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ until you are ready to do so. • Always express appreciation over the job offer first, before you begin to negotiate. • Negotiate after assessing and strategizing. • Conduct negotiations face-to-face whenever possible.If you have another job offer pending, you may choose to ask for additional time to assess andcompare the offer.H. REFERENCESSooner or later you will be asked to provide references. There is no need to do so before you areasked.Reference checks are made to: • Assure that you told the truth about yourself. • Get a feeling for how you work with others. • Pick up otherwise undisclosed information, plus or minus.How to Help Your References Help YouFirst – always ask permission as soon as you think you might want this person to act as a referencefor you.Second – provide him or her with a copy of your resume.Third – always advise your references immediately after you have given their names to anyone.Fourth – when you are advising them, provide details about the prospective position. Ask them to callyou after they have been contacted and share information about the reference check.Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 21
  22. 22. Career TransitionQuestions Your References May Be Asked About You • Key accomplishments • Experience • Management style • People skills • Communication skills • Intellectual ability • Work habits • Health • Life style • FamilyWho Are Your Best ReferencesPeople who know you in a work setting – bosses, peers, even subordinates – are your bestreferences. Anyone you use as a reference, however, should know you well enough to speakobjectively about your skills, abilities, strengths, and/or your personal characteristics. Well-preparedjob seekers have a good idea of what their references will say about them.Prepare A ListPrepare a list of your references and put it on the same kind of paper you used for your resume andstationery. Describe how they know you and what they can tell a potential employer about you. 1. Name and Title 2. Company 3. Address 4. Telephone 5. Relationship8. ACTION PLANA. KEEPING TRACKA good record keeping system will help you track your progress. Develop a system to meet yourindividual needs and purposes. The list below will help you evaluate your administrative needs. Daily activity plan Answering machine / voice mail Notebook Stationery, envelopes, stamps File folders Completed job application form List of references List of networking contacts Resumes Appointment calendar Three hole punch Monthly calendar Pocket calendar Log mileage / travel expensesUse Your Computer to: • Keep a database of your contacts. • Keep your appointment schedule. • Draft letters and other correspondence. • Keep track of your expenses. • Keep your resume. • Tap into the Internet and the databases there.Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 22
  23. 23. Career TransitionEstablish Your Own Personal Minimum Standards of Success – Be Specific! 1. Initiate contact and follow up in a timely manner. 2. Keep a record of every letter, phone call, and meeting. 3. Evaluate and improve your approach as your job search progresses. 4. Be professional in all you do.You can develop your own forms and check lists for your job search. Such as: PERSONAL MARKETING PLAN WEEKLY CAMPAIGN PLAN INTERACTION RECORD FOLLOW-UP ACTION TO BE TAKEN MEETING / INTERVIEW REPORTB. STRUCTURING YOUR CAMPAIGNManaging your own campaign will give you confidence. Document your activities from the very start.Manage Your Time • Take time every day to plan your activities. • Use your Weekly Campaign Plan. • Set aside blocks of time for specific activities. • Use planning time to prepare thoroughly for the next day’s activities. • Use time outside of the office / home wisely. • Use the entire business day for your job search. • Make a written plan for each day and work your plan.C. STOP PROCRASTINATINGYou are responsible for managing your own time. You must be self disciplined and focused in order tomeet your own goals. Take the time to write out and think through your actions. Conducting a jobsearch may be the hardest job you have ever had!9. RESOURCESA. DIRECTORIES • Best’s Directory • Business Periodicals Index • Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory • Directory of Corporate Affiliates • Dun and Bradstreet Million Dollar Directory • Guide to American Directories • National Directory of Addresses and Telephone Numbers • National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States and Canada and Labor Unions • Polk’s Directory • Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors and Executives • Who’s Who in Business • Chamber of Commerce • Encyclopedia of Associations • Thomas’ Register of American manufacturers • Directory of Executive Search RecruitersCopyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 23
  24. 24. Career Transition • The American Almanac of Jobs and SalariesB. THE INTERNETA quick look at the Internet yields some of the following general topics / areas of interest to jobseekers: • Academic Jobs • Career Books • Career Events • Classifieds • Company Web Sites • Contract labor • Education Related Jobs • Employee Search • Employer Profiles • Employment Help • Federal Jobs • Professional Career Organizations • Research EMPLOYMENT SITES ON THE INTERNETCLASSIFIEDS/JOBS http://www.ajb.dni.us http://www.bestjobsusa.com http://www.distinctiveweb.com http://www.fwux.fedworld.gov © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 24
  25. 25. Career Transitionhttp://www.jobEngine.comFEDERAL JOBS telnet://fjob.mail.opm.govEMPLOYMENT HELP http://www.snelling.com http://www.areferral.com http://www.netshare.com ENGINES FOR COMPANY WEB SITES and economy/companies © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 25
  26. 26. Career Transition Company Company CompanyCOMPANY FOCUS RANKSize of CompanySales VolumeNumber of EmployeesPublic/Privately HeldProfit/NonprofitNational/MultinationalAcademiaProduct/ServiceCentral/DecentralizedDivision/SubdivisionManagement DepthFinancial ConditionPolitical ClimateGrowth HistoryProfitabilityFuture growthTurnaround OptionsStabilityReputationMarket DependencyVulnerability to Takeover Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 26
  27. 27. Career Transition Company Company CompanyJOB FOCUS RANKMeets Your ObjectivesDuties/ResponsibilitiesAuthorityIndependenceChallengeHigh/Low RiskJob VisibilityReporting Relationships Direct Line Dotted LineTravelStatus (Title)HistoryPrevious IncumbentGoals / ObjectivesStaff DevelopmentOffice PoliticsCompany CultureOther Company Company Company Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 27
  28. 28. Career TransitionCOMPENSATION RANKBase SalaryBonus (Guaranteed)Bonus (Potential)IncentiveSignup BonusBenefits – Basic Health - Major Medical - Dental - Life Insurance - Disability - Eye CarePerks – Car - Club Memberships - Credit Cards - Financial Planning - Tax Assistance - Expense Accounts - Airline VIP Cards - Travel w/spouseElection to Board(Exec) Committee(s)Private SecretaryMoving ExpensesTemporary Living CostsMortgage DifferentialHousing Subsidy Company Company Company Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 28
  29. 29. Career TransitionCOMPENSATION RANKSeverance PackageOutplacement AssistancePerformance EvaluationsAdditional Vacation TimeRetirement/Pension PlanSeparation AgreementEmployment AgreementSalary IncreasesTrainingDevelopmentEducationSeminarsIndustry MembershipsAnnual IndustryConferencesExtra OvertimeCompensation TimeDress CodePager / Cell Phone401K PlanHolidaysPersonal DaysSick DaysProfit SharingDeferred CompensationCompensation for Changeof Job ContentOther Company Company Company Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 29
  30. 30. Career TransitionPERSONAL FOCUS RANKInterpersonal ChemistryManagement StyleStep in Career PathPromotion PotentialWork HoursCommuteCompatibility w/Life StyleOtherCOMMUNITY FOCUSLocation/RelocationCity/County LivingSchoolsReligious AffiliationsCultural ActivitiesRecreational AreasLocal TaxesOther Copyright © 2011 William L. Ware NPF 2011 30