Australian Lacelid (Nyctimistes dayi) – Tully Gorge, North Queensland, Australia
--“About 15 yrs ago, herpetologists began noticing that there were rapid… --1/3 as compared to 12% of birds and 23% of mammals. --Before last sentence: what is disturbing is that…
For instance perhaps a certain pesticide won’t kill a frog, and perhaps a certain disease won’t but maybe the pesticide reduces the amphibian immune response to the point that the disease can kill the frog. We know very little about the ways in which these causative agents interact with each other.
Eastern Sedge Frog (Litoria fallax) – Green Mountains, Southeast Queensland, Australia
Stony Creek Frog – (Litoria jungguy) Mossman Gorge, North Queensland, Australia
Emerald-spotted Treefrog (Litoria peronii) – Springbrook NP, Southeast Queensland, Australia
Osteocephalus , Reserva Florestal Adolfo Ducke, Amazonas Brazil
1. Global Amphibian CrisisCan we stop the disappearance of frogs ? Assoc. Professor Jean-Marc Hero
4. The first frog in the world to go extinct in recent times. MISSING since Jan. 1979 Photo by Owen KellyTaudactylus diurnus Southern Day Frog
5. The second frog in the world to go extinct in recent times. MISSING since Sept. 1981 Photo by Owen Kelly Southern Gastric Brooding Frog Rheobatrachus silus
6. Golden Toad Bufo periglenes Costa Rica MISSING since 1989
7. DISAPPEARED DECLINED Mountain Mist-frog Waterfall Frog Armoured Mist-frog Australian Lace-lid Sharp-snouted Day-frog Common Mist-frog Northern Tinker-frog Northern Gastric- Eungella Day-frog brooding Frog 5 species Kroombit TinkerfrogEXTINCT and Southern Gastric- Giant Barred-frog brooding Frog Fleay’s Barred-frog 6 species on Southern Day-frog Brisbane Cascade Tree-frog the brink in Eastern Peppered Tree-frog Stuttering Frog Green & Golden Bell-frog Australia Booroolong Frog Corroboree Frog Northern Corroboree Frog Yellow-spotted Tree-frog Philoria frosti Alpine Whistling Treefrog Spotted Treefrog
8. In Australia, at least 5amphibian species are now considered EXTINCT !Declines arecontinuing ...Extinction is forever.
9. Global Amphibian DeclinesRapid, unexplained population declines have occurred worldwide Richards et al. 1993, Pounds et al. 1997 Globally:• 32.5% of 6,092 species threatened• 122 species have almost, or completely disappeared since 1980 (Stuart et al. 2004) Australia:• 50 threatened species / 320 Hero et al. 2005 5 extinctions since 1979, many declines• Many threatened frogs live in relatively pristine, protected areas: high altitude stream-dwellers
10. Possible causes of amphibian declines: Invasive species + Over-harvesting + Habitat alteration + Contaminants + Global change + 2009 Emerging Infectious Disease = Synergistic effects !
11. ? Increased UV radiation ?Species specific Herbicides & Pesticides resistance to pathogens ? Global Warming ? High ? IMMUNODEPRESSION ? Altitude ? FUNGAL PATHOGEN ? Aquatic LifeHistory StageSmall clutch Size Restricted Geographic
12. Frogs have been around 250 million years
13. Frogs are an integral part of the food web Humans use frogs in medicinal research Frogs are bio-indicators
14. Frogs are cool!
15. Frog Research at Griffithproviding information neededto support socio-political action• Habitat restoration projects in Numinbah Valley.• Identify threatened frogs and their habitats.• Ecology of the frog disease Chytridiomycosis
16. Conservation Physiology Frogs infected with chytridridiomycosis have significantly higher stress hormone levels than non-infected frogs.Stress Level Chytrid Kindermann, Narayan & Hero 2012 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
17. Frog Research at Griffithproviding information needed to save frogs• Examining the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on threatened amphibians.• Initiate captive husbandry for threatened species.• Establish long-term ecological research sites to monitor the impacts of disturbance and climate change.
18. Conservation PhysiologyFrogs at higher elevation have significantly higherstress hormone levels than frogs at low elevation. Stress Level Altitude
19. Frog Research at Griffithproviding information needed to save frogsInitiate captive husbandry for threatened species.
20. Griffith University – Wildlife Currumbin Sanctuary Husbandry ProjectSix Taudactylus species in Eastern AustraliaT. diurnus EXTINCTT. acutirostris disappeared (last seen in 1994, Critically Endangered)T. rheophilus is on the brink of extinction (last heard 2005, Critically Endangered)T. eungellensis and T. pleione are Critically EndangeredT. Liemi is the only species found easily listed as Near Threatened
21. Griffith University – Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Husbandry ProjectGriffith University and Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary (with start up funding from Dreamworld) have teamed up to initiate a captive husbandry program for the Taudactylus genus.
22. Captive Husbandry
23. It’s up to you toSAVE THE FROGS! We are but one brief generation in the long march of time; the future is not ours to erase David Suzuki 1993 Osteocephalus spp, Reserva Florestal Adolfo Ducke, Amazonas Brazil
24. Global Amphibian Declines What can we do to stop them?• Stop habitat destruction• Stop fish-stocking• Mitigate global warming.• Prevent future panzootics by curbing the importation and movement of amphibians (both within and among continents)• Support research to inform you and politicians
25. HOW YOU CAN HELP protect local wetlandsStop the destruction of wetland and stream habitatsFlood mitigation destroys habitat = Restore stream habitatsAdopt a pond/stream in your area and monitor the frog activity
26. HOW YOU CAN HELP Create local wetlandsLEARN ABOUT THE HABITATS OF LOCALFROGS IN YOUR AREA and RECREATE ITCreate ephemeral ponds: to attract Green tree frogs Permanent ponds needsmall native fish for mosquito controlBeware: Cane Toads are a big fanof permanent ponds and they love fish!
27. HOW YOU CAN HELP Reduce the use of chemicalsLEARN aboutHerbicides & pesticides,and their impacts on frogs
28. Spread the word about theamphibian extinction crisis!
29. HOW YOU CAN HELP lobby politicians Be ActiveSolutions are socio-political, not scientific !Ask politicians and wildlife departmentswhat they are doing to solve the problem.Lobby all levels of government to:- fund research- mitigate threats to amphibians
30. Vote for the environment
31. What will happen if the frogs disappear ?
32. Healthy Frogs, Healthy Humans"You must be the change you wish to see in the world."
33. When the frogs stop singing the planet will die ! “ When the singing stops ” by Di Morrissey
34. Keep Frogging !Thanks for listening Any Questions ?