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Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval
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Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval

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Talk given at CLEF 2007, …

Talk given at CLEF 2007,
Budapest, Hungary

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  • 1. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Intelligent Information and Communication Systems (IICS) University of Hagen (FernUniversität in Hagen) 58084 Hagen, Germany firstname.lastname@fernuni-hagen.de CLEF 2007 Workshop, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Outline Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven 1 Introduction Hartrumpf Introduction 2 Location Indicators Location Indicators Location 3 Location Indicator Normalization Indicator Normalization Semantic 4 Semantic Analysis for GIR Analysis for GIR GeoCLEF 5 GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook 6 Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 2 / 17
  • 3. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Introduction Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf • Traditional information retrieval (IR): stemming is applied to all words in a text Introduction Location • Geographical information retrieval (GIR): Indicators use named entity recognition and classification; Location Indicator avoid stemming location names (typically, proper nouns Normalization only); employ geographic knowledge Semantic Analysis for • GIRSA (Geographic Information Retrieval by Semantic GIR GeoCLEF Annotation): 2007 aims at a broader GIR approach not solely based on Experiments Conclusion location names, but on location indicators and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 3 / 17
  • 4. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location Indicator Normalization Semantic Analysis for GIR GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 5. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Adjectives corresponding to a location. Indicator Normalization Example: Semantic Analysis for tunesisch →Tunesien GIR (Tunisian →Tunisia) GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 6. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Demonyms, e.g. the name for inhabitants originating Indicator Normalization from a location. Semantic Analysis for Example: GIR Franzose, Französin →Frankreich GeoCLEF 2007 (Frenchman, Frenchwoman →France) Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 7. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Codes for a location name. Indicator Normalization Example: Semantic Analysis for HU21 →Tolna County, Hungary (FIPS region code) GIR GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 8. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Abbreviations and acronyms for a location name, Indicator Normalization including adjectives. Semantic Analysis for GIR Example: GeoCLEF franz. →französisch →Frankreich 2007 Experiments (French →France) Conclusion TX →Texas and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 9. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Orthographic variants, exonyms, historic names. Indicator Normalization Semantic Example: Analysis for GIR Lower Saxony →Niedersachsen GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 10. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • Unique entities associated with a geographic Indicator Normalization location, e.g. headquarters of an organization, Semantic persons, buildings. Analysis for GIR GeoCLEF Example: 2007 Experiments Eiffel Tower →Paris Conclusion Moliére →France (?) and Outlook VW →Wolfsburg (?) References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 11. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicators Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Definition Hartrumpf Location indicators are text segments from which the Introduction geographic scope of a document can be inferred. Location Indicators Location • The location names itself (full names and short Indicator Normalization forms). Semantic Analysis for GIR Example: GeoCLEF Republik Korea →Südkorea 2007 Experiments (Republic of Korea →South Korea) Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 4 / 17
  • 12. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicator Normalization Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Normalization on surface (character), morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and lexical level. Introduction Location Indicators Character level Location Indicator • Diacritical marks replaced with non-accented Normalization characters Semantic Analysis for • Orthographic variants normalized by selecting a GIR GeoCLEF representative 2007 Experiments Example: Conclusion and Outlook Québec →Quebec References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 5 / 17
  • 13. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicator Normalization Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Normalization on surface (character), morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and lexical level. Introduction Location Indicators Morphologic level Location Indicator • Inflectional endings are identified and removed Normalization Semantic • Morphologic variations of location names are reduced Analysis for GIR to their base form GeoCLEF • Derivational morphology: adjective →location name 2007 Experiments Conclusion Examples: and Outlook des Roten Meer(e)s →Rote Meer References bayrisch →Bayern dänisch →Dänemark Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 5 / 17
  • 14. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicator Normalization Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Normalization on surface (character), morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and lexical level. Introduction Location Indicators Semantic level Location Indicator • Prefixes are separated from the name Normalization Semantic • Location indicators are mapped to location names Analysis for GIR Examples: GeoCLEF 2007 Norddeutschland →Nord-Deutschland Experiments exception: Conclusion and Outlook Südafrika →Südafrika References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 5 / 17
  • 15. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Location Indicator Normalization Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Normalization on surface (character), morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and lexical level. Introduction Location Indicators Lexical level Location Indicator • Name variations are normalized using synset Normalization representatives Semantic Analysis for GIR Example: GeoCLEF Burma →Myanmar 2007 Experiments Birma →Myanmar Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 5 / 17
  • 16. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Semantic Analysis for GIR Retrieval Johannes Leveling and • Extension of semantic network matching approach, Sven Hartrumpf GIR-InSicht (Leveling et al. (2006)), Introduction derived from the deep question answering (QA) system Location InSicht (Hartrumpf and Leveling (2007)) Indicators • Query semantic network was allowed to be split in Location Indicator parts at specific semantic relations, e.g. at a Normalization LOC ( ATION ) relation Semantic Analysis for GIR • Query decomposition: GeoCLEF a query can be decomposed into two dependent 2007 Experiments queries, the subquery and the main query Conclusion • The subquery is answered by the QA system InSicht; and Outlook References answers are integrated into the main query Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 6 / 17
  • 17. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Semantic Analysis Example Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Topic 10.2452/57-GC Hartrumpf Whiskyherstellung auf den schottischen Inseln/ Introduction “Whiskey production on the Scottish Islands” Location Indicators Location Indicator Inferential query expansion followed by query Normalization decomposition Semantic Analysis for →Subquery Nenne schottische Inseln/ GIR GeoCLEF “Name Scottish islands” 2007 Experiments Subquery Nenne Inseln in Schottland/ Conclusion “Name islands in Scotland” (inferences) and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 7 / 17
  • 18. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Semantic Analysis Example Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Topic 10.2452/57-GC Hartrumpf Whiskyherstellung auf den schottischen Inseln/ Introduction “Whiskey production on the Scottish Islands” Location Indicators Location Indicator Answering the subqueries on the GeoCLEF corpus Normalization and the German Wikipedia Semantic Analysis for →Partial answers Iona and Islay GIR GeoCLEF →Better gazetteer entry points 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 7 / 17
  • 19. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Semantic Analysis Example Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Topic 10.2452/57-GC Hartrumpf Whiskyherstellung auf den schottischen Inseln/ Introduction “Whiskey production on the Scottish Islands” Location Indicators Location Indicator New queries (paraphrased) Normalization →New queries Whiskyherstellung auf Iona/ Semantic Analysis for “Whiskey production on Iona” GIR GeoCLEF and Whiskyherstellung auf Islay / 2007 Experiments “Whiskey production on Islay” Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 7 / 17
  • 20. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Semantic Analysis Example Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Topic 10.2452/57-GC Hartrumpf Whiskyherstellung auf den schottischen Inseln/ Introduction “Whiskey production on the Scottish Islands” Location Indicators Location Indicator Normalization →In total, 80 different subqueries were produced for the 25 Semantic topics Analysis for GIR GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 7 / 17
  • 21. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Experimental Setup Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf • GeoCLEF 2007 documents: 275,000 German Introduction newspaper articles from Frankfurter Rundschau, Location Indicators Schweizerische Depeschenagentur, and Der Spiegel Location from the years 1994 and 1995 Indicator Normalization • GIRSA evaluated on 25 GeoCLEF topics with a title (T), Semantic Analysis for a short description (D), and a narrative part (N) GIR • Setup similar to previous GIR experiments on GeoCLEF 2007 GeoCLEF data Leveling et al. (2006); Leveling (2007) Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 8 / 17
  • 22. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (1/3) Retrieval Johannes Leveling PoS-Tagger/NERC (TnT, Lingpipe etc.): and Sven • Andogah, Bouma et al. (U. Groningen) Hartrumpf • Buscaldi, Rosso (U. Valencia) Introduction • Ferrés, Rodríguez (U. Catalunya) Location Indicators • Kölle, Heuwing et al. (U. Hildesheim) Location Indicator • Lana-Serrano, Villena-Román et al. (U. Madrid) Normalization Semantic • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) Analysis for GIR • Perea-Ortega, García-Cumbreras et al. (U. Jaén) GeoCLEF 2007 List lookup: Experiments • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) Conclusion and Outlook • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) References →Only part of the solution, but GIRSA needs this, too! Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 9 / 17
  • 23. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (1/3) Retrieval Johannes Leveling PoS-Tagger/NERC (TnT, Lingpipe etc.): and Sven • Andogah, Bouma et al. (U. Groningen) Hartrumpf • Buscaldi, Rosso (U. Valencia) Introduction • Ferrés, Rodríguez (U. Catalunya) Location Indicators • Kölle, Heuwing et al. (U. Hildesheim) Location Indicator • Lana-Serrano, Villena-Román et al. (U. Madrid) Normalization Semantic • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) Analysis for GIR • Perea-Ortega, García-Cumbreras et al. (U. Jaén) GeoCLEF 2007 List lookup: Experiments • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) Conclusion and Outlook • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) References →Only part of the solution, but GIRSA needs this, too! Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 9 / 17
  • 24. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (2/3) Retrieval Johannes Gazetteers/GKB (GNS, WordNet etc.): Leveling and • Andogah, Bouma et al. (U. Groningen) Sven Hartrumpf • Buscaldi, Rosso (U. Valencia) Introduction • Cardoso, Cruz et al. (U. Lisbon) Location • Ferrés, Rodríguez (U. Catalunya) Indicators • Guillén (CSU) Location Indicator Normalization • Lana-Serrano, Villena-Román et al. (U. Madrid) Semantic • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) Analysis for GIR • Li, Wang et al. (Microsoft Asia) GeoCLEF 2007 • Nasikhin, Adriani (U. Indonesia) Experiments • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) Conclusion and Outlook Small name lists (about 250,000 entries): References • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) →GIRSA does not use geographic knowledge, yet. Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 10 / 17
  • 25. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (2/3) Retrieval Johannes Gazetteers/GKB (GNS, WordNet etc.): Leveling and • Andogah, Bouma et al. (U. Groningen) Sven Hartrumpf • Buscaldi, Rosso (U. Valencia) Introduction • Cardoso, Cruz et al. (U. Lisbon) Location • Ferrés, Rodríguez (U. Catalunya) Indicators • Guillén (CSU) Location Indicator Normalization • Lana-Serrano, Villena-Román et al. (U. Madrid) Semantic • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) Analysis for GIR • Li, Wang et al. (Microsoft Asia) GeoCLEF 2007 • Nasikhin, Adriani (U. Indonesia) Experiments • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) Conclusion and Outlook Small name lists (about 250,000 entries): References • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) →GIRSA does not use geographic knowledge, yet. Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 10 / 17
  • 26. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (3/3) Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Blind Feedback: Sven Hartrumpf • Cardoso, Cruz et al. (U. Lisbon) Introduction • Ferrés, Rodríguez (TALP) – Relevance Feedback Location • Guillén (CSU) Indicators Location • Kölle, Heuwing et al. (Hildesheim) Indicator Normalization • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) Semantic Analysis for • Nasikhin, Adriani (U. Indonesia) GIR GeoCLEF • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) 2007 Experiments No Blind Feedback: Conclusion • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) and Outlook References →GIRSA will not utilize ad-hoc blind feedback! Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 11 / 17
  • 27. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Methods for GIR (3/3) Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Blind Feedback: Sven Hartrumpf • Cardoso, Cruz et al. (U. Lisbon) Introduction • Ferrés, Rodríguez (TALP) – Relevance Feedback Location • Guillén (CSU) Indicators Location • Kölle, Heuwing et al. (Hildesheim) Indicator Normalization • Larson (U. C. Berkeley) Semantic Analysis for • Nasikhin, Adriani (U. Indonesia) GIR GeoCLEF • Overell, Magalhães et al. (IC London) 2007 Experiments No Blind Feedback: Conclusion • Leveling, Hartrumpf (U. Hagen) and Outlook References →GIRSA will not utilize ad-hoc blind feedback! Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 11 / 17
  • 28. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Experimental Setup Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Different indexes: Introduction S: All words in the document text are stemmed Location Indicators SL: Location indicators are identified and normalized to a Location base form of a location name Indicator Normalization SLD: In addition, decompounding is applied to the words in Semantic Analysis for the text GIR GeoCLEF O: Documents and queries are represented as semantic 2007 networks and GIR is seen as (a form of) QA Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 12 / 17
  • 29. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Results and Discussion Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Run Parameters Results Introduction index fields rel_ret MAP P@5 Location Indicators FUHtd1de S TD 597 0.119 0.280 Location FUHtd2de SL TD 707 0.191 0.288 Indicator Normalization FUHtd3de SLD TD 677 0.190 0.272 Semantic FUHtdn4de SL TDN 722 0.236 0.328 Analysis for FUHtdn5de SLD TDN 717 0.258 0.336 GIR FUHtd6de SLD/O TD 680 0.196 0.280 GeoCLEF 2007 GIR-InSicht O TD 52 0.067 0.104 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 13 / 17
  • 30. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Results for Monolingual German Retrieval Precision Johannes Leveling 0.60 and ♦ FUHtd1de: 0.119 MAP Sven FUHtd3de: 0.190 MAP Hartrumpf 0.50 FUHtd6de: 0.196 MAP × GIR-InSicht: 0.067 MAP Introduction Location 0.40 ♦ Indicators Location 0.30 ♦ Indicator Normalization ♦ Semantic 0.20 Analysis for ♦ GIR × × GeoCLEF 0.10 × × ♦ 2007 × ♦ ♦ ♦ Experiments × × × × ♦ × × ♦ Conclusion 0.00 ♦ and Outlook 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 References Recall Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 14 / 17
  • 31. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Conclusion Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Introduction • Baseline run (FUHtd1de) is clearly outperformed Location Indicators • Adding selected location names (from the narrative) Location notably improves performance Indicator Normalization • Hybrid approach (with GIR-InSicht) for GIR proved Semantic Analysis for interesting: GIR even a few additional relevant documents were found GeoCLEF 2007 Experiments Conclusion and Outlook References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 15 / 17
  • 32. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Outlook Retrieval Johannes Leveling and Sven Planned improvements for GIRSA: Hartrumpf • Estimate the importance (weight) of different location Introduction indicators, possibly depending on the context: Location Danish coast →Denmark, but Indicators German shepherd → Germany Location Indicator Normalization • Apply part-of-speech tagger and named entity Semantic recognizer to identify location names Analysis for GIR • Investigate the combination of means to increase GeoCLEF 2007 precision (metonymic uses of location names) Experiments with means to increase recall (normalizing location Conclusion and Outlook indicators) References Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 16 / 17
  • 33. Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Selected References Retrieval Johannes Leveling Hartrumpf, Sven and Johannes Leveling (2007). Interpretation and and Sven normalization of temporal expressions for question answering. In Hartrumpf Evaluation of Multilingual and Multi-modal Information Retrieval: 7th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2006 Introduction (edited by et al., Carol Peters), volume 4730 of LNCS, pp. 432–439. Location Indicators Berlin: Springer. Location Leveling, Johannes (2007). Experiments on the exclusion of metonymic Indicator Normalization location names from GIR. In Evaluation of Multilingual and Multi-modal Information Retrieval: 7th Workshop of the Semantic Analysis for Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2006 (edited by et al., GIR Carol Peters), volume 4730 of LNCS, pp. 901–904. Berlin: Springer. GeoCLEF 2007 Leveling, Johannes; Sven Hartrumpf; and Dirk Veiel (2006). Using Experiments semantic networks for geographic information retrieval. In Accessing Conclusion Multilingual Information Repositories: 6th Workshop of the and Outlook Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2005 (edited by et al., References Carol Peters), volume 4022 of LNCS, pp. 977–986. Berlin: Springer. Johannes Leveling and Sven Hartrumpf Exploring Location Indicators for Geographic Information Retrieval 17 / 17

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