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Kin191 A. Osteokinematics. Fall 2007
 

Kin191 A. Osteokinematics. Fall 2007

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    Kin191 A. Osteokinematics. Fall 2007 Kin191 A. Osteokinematics. Fall 2007 Presentation Transcript

    • Osteokinematics KIN 191A Advanced Assessment of Lower Extremity Injuries
    • What is It?
      • Kinesiology: The scientific study of human movement (anatomical, physiological, & mechanical)
      • Biomechanics: The study of the body motion and the forces acting on the musculoskeletal system to effect motion
    • Kinematics Vs Kinetics
      • Kinematics: The branch of biomechanics concerned with description of the movements of segments of the body w/o regard to the forces that caused the movement to occur
      • The study of motion
      • Kinetics: The forces acting on the body during movement and the interactions of sequence of motion with respect to time and forces present
      • The study of the forces that effect motion
    •  
    •  
    • Kinematics
      • Movement: A change in the position of a bone or segment (i.e., forearm flexion); or a change in the relationship of two adjacent bones or segments (i.e., elbow flexion)
      • In describing joint movement in the extremities, the distal segment is compared to the proximal segment
      • In describing joint movement in the spine, the cranial segment is compared to the caudal segment
    • Kinematics cont.
      • Osteokinematics: Description of movement with reference to the bones
      • Arthorkinematics: Description of movement with reference to the joint surfaces
    • Planes of the Body
      • 1. Sagittal plane
      • 2. Frontal (coronal) plane
      • 3. Transverse (horizontal) plane
    • Axes Z X Y
    • Sagittal plane Transverse plane Frontal plane Y Z X
    • Axes of Rotation
      • Sagittal Plane
        • Motion occurs about a mediolateral axis
      • Frontal Plane
        • Motion occurs about an anterior-posterior axis
      • Transverse Plane
        • Motion occurs about a longitudinal axis
    • Types of Osteokinematic Motion
      • Rotary (angular): 3 degree of freedom, around a certain axis (X,Y, & Z) in a certain plane (sagittal, frontal, or transverse). The axis and plane are always orthogonal
      • Translatory (linear): motion through space in a straight line w/o rotation. It is usually described as forward/back, up/down, side to side, or some combination of the three
      • Curvilinear: a combination of rotary and translatory
    • Degrees of Freedom
      • Refers to the type and amount of motion structurally allowed by joint anatomy
        • 1 df: has a single axis of rotation
          • Example - elbow
        • 2 df: dual axes of rotation
          • Example - wrist
        • 3 df: three axes of rotation
          • Example - shoulder
    • Movement Terminology 1
      • Flexion: Movement in the Sagittal plane, from the anatomical position
        • An exception is the thumb (motion occurs in the frontal plane)
      • Extension: Movement in the Sagittal plane, back to the anatomical position
      • Hyperextension: Movement in the Sagittal plane from the anatomical position, but in the opposite direction of flexion (toward the direction of the least available motion)
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    • Movement Terminology 2
      • Abduction: Movement in the Frontal plane, away from the midline of the body or segment
      • Horizontal Abduction: Movement in the Transverse plane, away from the midline of the body or segment (used for the hip and shoulder)
      • Adduction: Movement in the Frontal plane, toward the midline of the body or segment
      • Horizontal Adduction: Movement in the Transverse plan, toward the midline of the body or segment (used for the hip and shoulder)
    • Movement Terminology 2 cont. (Abduction & Adduction)
      • Exceptions
        • Thumb (motion occurs in the sagittal plane)
        • Foot (motion occurs in the transverse plane)
      • Finger (the midline of the hand: 3rd finger)
      • Toe (the midline of the foot: 2nd toe)
    •  
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    • Movement Terminology 3
      • External Rotation: Movement in the transverse plane along the long axis of the segments so that the reference point turns out ( away from the midline of the body)
      • Internal Rotation: Movement in the transverse plane along the long axis of the segments so that the reference point turns in ( toward the midline of the body)
    •  
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    • Movement Terminology 4
      • Inversion: Foot movement, so that the reference segment (bottom of foot) moves toward the midline of the body ( Frontal plane)
      • Eversion: … moves away from the midline of the body ( Frontal plane)
      • Pronation (foot): Triplan a r movement which combines the movements of ev ersion, abd uction, & d orsi f lexion in one movement
      • Supination (foot): … the movement of in version, add uction, & p lantar f lexion in one movement
    • Movement Terminology 5
      • Pronation (forearm): Movement turning the palm of the hand down
      • Supination (forearm): Movement turning the palm of the hand up
      • Ulnar Deviation: Wrist _adduction__
      • Radial deviation: Wrist abduction
    •  
    • Movement Terminology 6
      • Dorsi Flexion: Foot movement towards the dorsal surface
      • Plantar Flexion: Foot movement towards the plantar surface
    •  
    • Movement Terminology 7
      • Lateral Flexion: Movement from midline in the frontal plane (occur in neck and trunk)
      • Protraction: Movement of a segment anteriorly
      • Retraction: Movement of a segment posteriorly
    •  
    • MOVEMENT TERMINOLOGY
      • Flexion
      • Extension
      • Hyperextension
      • Abduction
      • Adduction
      • Horizontal abduction
      • Horizontal adduction
      • External rotation
      • Internal rotation
      • Inversion
      • Eversion
      • Supination (foot & forearm)
      • Pronation (foot & forearm)
      • Ulnar deviation
      • Radial deviation
      • Dorsi flexion
      • Plantar flexion
      • Lateral flexion
      • Protraction
      • Retraction