Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Kin 189  Protective Equipment
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Kin 189 Protective Equipment

  • 954 views
Published

 

Published in Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
954
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. KIN 189 – Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries Protective Equipment
  • 2. Energy Absorption and Force Dissipation
    • Protective splints
    • Material properties
    • Classification of materials
    • Fabricating splints and braces
  • 3. Protective Splints Concepts
    • Goal/s of splints are to protect, stabilize or immobilize injured area
    • Purpose of fixation is to limit motion occurring in area and dissipate forces away from area
    • Must understand applied anatomy to determine best style/type of brace
    • Must understand properties of materials
  • 4. Material Properties
    • Density
    • Strength
    • Rigidity
    • Conformability
    • Self-adherence
    • Durability
    • Ease of fabrication
    • Availability and cost
  • 5. Density
    • Weight of material in relation to volume or amount that will be used
    • Must consider type/velocity of contact you’re trying to protect from when choosing materials of different density
    • Denser materials offer very good protection, but often can come at the expense of bulk and/or weight – best material is one that has as low a density as possible and still affords the desired level of protection
  • 6. Density
    • Various padding materials typically applied underneath hard shells designed to distribute forces
    • High density materials
      • Some foams, viscoelastic materials, silicone elastomer material
    • Medium density materials
      • Fiberglass, thermoplastics, ortho felt, some foams
    • Low density materials
      • Some foams, cotton padding, neoprene/rubber
  • 7. Strength
    • Maximum external stress/load a material can withstand
    • Important to ensuring that splint will function as intended
    • Some materials may be strong enough for ADLs, but unable to withstand high impact and some may be able to provide appropriate support but not be conducive to activity
  • 8. Rigidity
    • aka “stiffness” – the amount of bending or compression that occurs in response to a measured amount of applied stress
    • Modulus of elasticity
      • High modulus = more stiffness
      • Low modulus = less stiffness, more shock absorption
    • Rigidity depends on type, thickness and shape of material – bulk consideration
  • 9. Conformability
    • Ease with which material forms to body part
    • Material that is too strong, dense and/or stiff may fail to provide protection because it cannot conform to body part sufficiently
  • 10. Self-Adherence
    • Strength with which the material bonds to itself – determines integrity and durability
    • Materials like Velcro are often utilized to bond non-adherent materials together around a body part/joint (irregular surfaces)
  • 11. Durability
    • Ability of material to withstand repeated stress during activity – greater durability = greater longevity of use
    • Especially important consideration when working within budgetary constraints
  • 12. Ease of Fabrication
    • Relates to time, equipment and skill needed to shape material for protection and comfort
    • Often times, materials require heating in order to be fabricated appropriately – access to heating element?
      • Mouthpieces
  • 13. Availability and Cost
    • Typically the most significant obstacles for use of splinting materials
    • Must be able to work within limitations of budget and/or inventory/access and do best job possible given resources available
  • 14. Classification of Materials
    • No-heat (layered)
    • Low heat
    • Moderate heat
    • High temperature
  • 15. No-Heat (Layered) Materials
    • No heat required to form products into appropriate protective application
    • Examples
      • Athletic tape
      • Self-adherent wraps
      • Fiberglass casting material
      • Silicon (soft-cast) material
      • Plaster
  • 16. Low-Heat Products
    • Low temperatures required (hot water/oven) to form materials for protective application
    • Once material cools down, retains new shape in original rigid state
    • Examples
      • Orthoplast (rubber based)
      • Polyform (plastic based)
      • Aquaplast (elastic based)
  • 17. Moderate and High Temperature Materials
    • Not typically used in clinical situations to fabricate protective devices, but used by manufacturers of equipment – temps are dangerous for clinical environment
    • One application is in the modification of a manufactured brace for a better fit by using heat gun (temp ~800 degrees!)
  • 18. Fabricating Splints and Braces
    • Not all clinicians able to master the “art” of protective device fabrication – requires practice
    • Generally a simple process, but can involve complex steps that are beyond the abilities of some clinicians
  • 19. Protective Equipment for the Head and Face
    • Helmets (football, ice hockey, batting, other)
    • Face guards
      • Specific details regarding helmets/face guards and fitting guidelines in future class meeting
    • Eyewear
    • Ear wear
    • Mouthguards
    • Throat and neck protectors
  • 20. Eye Wear
    • Despite relative prominence of eye injuries, eye protection not required in any sport
    • Goggles (swimmer’s vs. skiers)
      • Typically for comfort due to environment vs. true protection, can facilitate contact wear
    • Face shield
      • Secondary protection from direct trauma, can be tinted for some sensitive conditions
    • Spectacles/glasses
      • Should be made of plastic/polycarbonate, able to withstand force of racquetball traveling 90mph, can incorporate Rx
  • 21. Ear Wear
    • Specialized protective devices for amateur boxing, wrestling, water polo, rugby
    • Protective cup designed to minimize trauma to external ear – auricular hematoma (Cauliflower ear)
  • 22. Mouthguards
    • Required in football, ice hockey, field hockey and lacrosse – must be visible (colored)
    • Minimizes risk of dental and oral soft tissue injuries and also can impact severity or occurrence of concussion/TMJ/jaw injuries
    • When properly fitted, does not interfere with breathing or speech
  • 23. Mouthguards
    • “ Cutting down” mouthguards invalidates warranties, increases risk of injury and can become an potential oral airway obstruction
    • Thermal-set, mouth-formed style (“dip and suck”) vs. custom fabricated
      • Thermal set is easy, cost-effective and effective
      • Custom requires training, often must have mold crafted by dentist, more expensive, best protection
  • 24. Throat and Neck Protectors
    • Minimize risk of injury to significant airway structures
    • Required in softball/baseball (catchers) and often used in fencing, lacrosse, field hockey and ice hockey
    • Cervical neck rolls/collars designed to limit motion of cervical spine – most common in football
      • Can enhance protection from burners/stingers, but must accompany properly fitted shoulder pads
  • 25. Protective Equipment for the Trunk and Upper Extremities
    • Shoulder protection
      • Specific details regarding shoulder pads and fitting guidelines in future class meeting
    • Elbow, forearm, wrist and hand protection
    • Thorax, rib and abdominal protection
    • Sports bras
    • Lumbosacral protection
  • 26. Elbow, Forearm, Wrist and Hand Protection
    • Areas susceptible to compression and shearing forces in most activities
    • Unable to wear rigid protection unless covered by foam padding to minimize risk of injury to others
    • Elbow inflammation often assisted by counterforce straps (“tennis elbow”)
    • Forearm/wrist/hand often protected with specialized pads and/or gloves
  • 27. Thorax, Rib and Abdominal Protection
    • Required thorax/abdominal protectors for baseball/softball catchers
    • Fencers and goalies in many other sports (hockey, lacrosse) as well as QB/WR/RB in football also wear some kind of thorax and abdominal protection
  • 28. Sports Bras
    • Provide additional support to prevent excessive vertical/horizontal breast motion during exercise/activity
    • Especially applicable for larger breasted women (C cup or higher)
    • Support vs. compression styles in many choices of material for individual preference
  • 29. Lumbosacral Protection
    • Weight training belts designed for additional support/rigidity during heavy lifting activities
    • Abdominal/lumbosacral binders used to increase proprioception and intra-abdominal pressure to relieve compressive forces on vertebral column
  • 30. Protective Equipment for the Lower Extremities
    • Hip and buttock protection
    • Thigh protection
    • Knee and patella protection
    • Leg protection
    • Ankle protection
    • Foot protection
    • Shoes
    • Orthotics
  • 31. Hip and Buttock Protection
    • Padded, rigid inserts required in most collision/contact sports to protect pelvis and sacrum/coccyx
    • Male genital region best protected by protective cup in athletic supporter
  • 32. Thigh Protection
    • Padded rigid inserts most common in football
    • Typically fit into pockets/”girdle” and minimize risk of direct trauma to quadriceps
    • Neoprene sleeves can provide compression and warmth secondary to muscular strains
  • 33. Knee and Patella Protection
    • Prophylactic knee braces
      • Lateral and bilateral bar designs, metal hinges held in place by straps/tape, limit hyperextension
      • Some studies have shown no impact on number or severity of knee injuries and may actually contribute to higher incidence of injury
    • Functional knee braces (“ACL”)
      • Designed to control tibial translation and rotational stresses – may be OTC but typically custom fit
      • Historically required post-ACLR, but recent movement away from use of brace – no guarantees of increased stability
  • 34. Knee and Patella Protection
    • Rehabilitative braces
      • Straight immobilizer style with metal rods on sides in foam secured with straps
      • Hinged style (sleeve or wrap-around) that can adjust ROM per symptoms/goals
    • Patellofemoral protection
      • Generally designed to dissipate forces, maintain patellar alignment and improve patellar tracking
      • Horseshoe type device incorporated into sleeve
      • Also use strap device to address patellar tendonitis
  • 35. Leg Protection
    • Most common example is soccer style shin guards – hard outer shell with padded liner
    • Shin protectors also required in baseball and softball for catchers, goalies in ice hockey, field hockey and lacrosse
    • Cover anterior tibia – held in place by straps or stirrups
  • 36. Ankle Protection
    • 3 common styles of ankle braces
      • Lace-up – provides best support and protection for all ankle motions, easily readjusted for fit/comfort
      • Semirigid (“Active Ankle”) – inversion/eversion protection only, OK for little change of direction activities (VB)
      • Stirrup (“Air Cast”) – must use shoe for effective application
    • Braces are more effective at minimizing ankle injuries, are easier to wear/apply, don’t irritate skin and are more cost effective than traditional taping techniques
  • 37. Foot Protection
    • Shoes should cushion impact forces and support foot during stance and push-off phases of gait
    • Cleated shoes should have cleats under weight-bearing portions of the foot – should not be felt through the sole of the shoe
      • Long outer cleats with short inner cleats increases torsional forces and increases risk of ACL injury
  • 38. Shoes
    • Components of shoes
      • Sole: inner (liner interfaces with foot), middle (many materials – gel/air/etc. to absorb shock), outer (typically rubber, interfaces with surfaces, style dependent upon activity)
      • Heel counter: provides stability to minimize ankle injury, varies by activity applications
      • Toe box: all toes should fully extend and wiggle in shoe
      • Upper: varied materials and laces – designed to hold shoe in place and facilitate cooling/protection/weight issues
    • Activities with high impact should have additional heel cushioning/support
    • Individuals with toe abnormalities should have wider toe box
  • 39. Orthotics
    • Devices used in treatment of foot/gait abnormalities and related conditions
    • Some are OTC, but most require Rx and fitting by qualified personnel
    • 3 categories
      • Orthotics to change foot function
      • Protective orthotics
      • Orthotics that combine functional control with protection
  • 40. Orthotics
    • 3 types/materials
      • Rigid: designed to control motion, designed from firm material (plastic, polycarbon), worn most in dress/walking shoes
      • Soft: used to absorb shock, improve balance and relieve pressure sites, designed from soft materials (neoprene, felt, foam), break down easily and must be replaced
      • Semirigid: used to provide dynamic balance of foot during activity, designed from layers of soft material reinforced by hard/rigid materials, most common application