Kin 188 Protective Equipment


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Kin 188 Protective Equipment

  1. 1. KIN 188 – Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries Protective Equipment
  2. 2. Principles of Protective Equipment <ul><li>Provides protection against: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-velocity, low-mass forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hockey pucks, baseball, lacrosse stick, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily results in focal injuries (e.g. – contusion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-velocity, high-mass forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fall to ground, checked into boards, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily results in diffuse injuries (e.g. – concussion) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Principles of Protective Equipment <ul><li>Protection provided by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of impact area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer/dispersion of forces to other area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited ROM of body part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added mass to prevent deformation/displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced friction between surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resisted absorption of bacteria, viruses, fungi </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Materials Used <ul><li>Soft materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neoprene, felts, moleskin, foams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-cell: allows air passage, good for comfort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed-cell: minimizes air passage, good for absorbing shock/protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for padding, compression, friction reduction to body part </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermoplastics, plaster, fiberglass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for rigid splinting or protection of body part </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Material Properties <ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight relative to amount used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>load resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rigidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to form to body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-adherence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affects integrity and durability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to repeatedly withstand stress, longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of fabrication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time/skill needed to work with </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rules Regarding Protective Padding and Equipment <ul><li>Governing bodies establish rules for mandatory use of specific protective equipment and determine rules for special protective equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFSHSA, NCAA, USOC, Individual professional sports organizations, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory – FB helmets with 4-point chin straps (NCAA), colored mouthguards in hockey/football (NFSHSA, NCAA, not NFL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special – coverage of cast for UE below elbow with minimum ½ inch high-density, closed cell padding </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Equipment Standards <ul><li>In U.S., equipment standards issued by National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) </li></ul><ul><li>Various other national and international organizations have standards as well for different sports and pieces of equipment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Equipment Standards <ul><li>NOCSAE symbol on product indicates that product design meets their standards – most applicable to football helmets </li></ul><ul><li>NOCSAE also sets standards for equipment re-conditioners to use in evaluating/re-evaluating equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variability in number pieces of equipment re-conditioned – must at least inspect and send questionable items for evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If standards are met, NOCSAE re-certification sticker is applied to equipment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Football Helmets <ul><li>Inner liners use either air, closed cell padding or combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air bladders require constant inspection regarding inflation/fit issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outer shells are plastic or polycarbonate alloys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranties vary (plastic – 2 years, polycarbonate alloy – 5 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers recommend retiring helmets after 6-10 years of use </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Football Helmets <ul><li>In order to meet NOCSAE standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helmets are dropped from 60 inches twice within a minute at ambient temperature and after being cooled – must pass both tests to meet standard (considers effect of heat on shock absorption) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning label regarding risk of injury must be clearly visible on exterior shell of all new and re-conditioned helmets </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Football Helmet Fitting <ul><li>Hair should be worn as will be done for participation – wet to simulate conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Shell size selected per head circumference – measure above ears </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust front/back sizers and jaw pads for comfort and fit </li></ul><ul><li>Inflate air bladder for comfort and fit </li></ul>
  12. 12. Football Helmet Fitting <ul><li>For proper fit, helmet must meet the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover base of skull without impinging on spine with neck extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear holes should match up with EAC – hearing and protection elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-point chin strap should be centered and of equal tension/length on each side of helmet </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Football Helmet Fitting <ul><li>For proper fit, helmet must meet the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow complete field of vision through facemask – 1-2 fingers above eyebrows and 2-3 fingers from tip of nose to facemask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not move when pressed forward, backward or down from top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not slip when facemask grasped and pulled left/right </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Football Shoulder Pads <ul><li>Typically constructed of hard, plastic shell and lined with closed- or open-cell foam padding </li></ul><ul><li>Two primary types of shoulder pads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat (QB, WR, DB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow most shoulder motion but less protection than cantilevered pads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cantilevered (linemen, RB, LB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic bridge over tip of shoulder to distribute forces applied to shoulder region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most protection but limit some overhead motion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Football Shoulder Pads <ul><li>Other components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped to fit contour of upper body/torso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sets of epaulets (shoulder flaps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional protection for top of shoulder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder cups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide coverage/protection of deltoid muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior pads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides protection for sternum, clavicles and pectoral muscles (anterior) and trapezius, scapula and spine (posterior) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Football Shoulder Pad Fitting <ul><li>Size determined by chest girth at nipple level or measurement between tips of shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Type of pads determined by position played </li></ul><ul><li>Laces and straps should then be anchored </li></ul><ul><li>Straps should have equal tension and fit as tight as functionally possible (no more than two fingers fitted under strap) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Football Shoulder Pad Fitting <ul><li>Clavicle should be entirely covered and protected by pads </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior laces should be centered on sternum with no gap present </li></ul><ul><li>Cantilever should cover tip of AC joint </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder caps should cover deltoid muscles </li></ul>
  18. 18. Football Shoulder Pad Fitting <ul><li>Posterior pads should completely cover scapulae – posterior pads extend below inferior angle of scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Individual should be able to abduct shoulders without neck opening impinging upon cervical range of motion, airway or circulation </li></ul>