Kin 188  Components Of Injury Prevention Program
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Kin 188 Components Of Injury Prevention Program

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Kin 188 Components Of Injury Prevention Program Presentation Transcript

  • 1. KIN 188 – Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries Components of Injury Prevention Program
  • 2. Introduction
    • Evaluative tools
      • Fitness testing procedures
      • Fitness testing parameters
    • Exercise prescription
      • Strength training
      • Aerobic/anaerobic training
      • Flexibility
  • 3. Fitness Testing
    • Typically done in some association with PPE
    • Pre- and post-season evaluations most common – little value with in-season testing
    • Allow for baseline to be established (pre-season) and evaluation of progress or identification of areas to focus on (post-season)
  • 4. Fitness Testing Procedures
    • Muscular function
      • Strength, power and endurance
    • Cardiovascular function
    • Speed and agility
    • Flexibility
    • Body composition
  • 5. Muscular Function
    • Strength
      • Ability of muscle or group of muscles to overcome resistance
    • Power
      • Rate of performing work, requisite time element
    • Endurance
      • Ability of muscle or group of muscles to perform repetitive action/s
  • 6. Muscular Strength
    • Most common evaluative technique is using one repetition maximum (1RM) – maximal amount of resistance an individual can move one time
      • Must ensure that test addresses appropriate muscle and/or muscle groups
  • 7. Muscular Power
    • Evaluates ability to exert maximal force in as short a period of time as possible
    • Most common evaluation methods are vertical jump and standing long jump
  • 8. Muscular Endurance
    • Evaluated differently than strength as different energy system used
    • Most common evaluative methods include push-up tests (how many in given period of time), sit-up tests, repeated squat tests
  • 9. Cardiovascular Function
    • Aerobic – involves ability to use oxygen in performing work
      • Commonly evaluated with timed run over prescribed distance (1.5 miles is typical) or step test (number of steps in given time frame at set pace)
    • Anaerobic – involves work without or with very little use of oxygen
      • Commonly evaluated with timed shuttle test/line drill
  • 10. Speed and Agility
    • Agility – ability to accelerate/decelerate and change direction under control
      • Often evaluated with T-test or lateral shuffle test
    • Speed – length of time required to cover distance or accomplish task
      • Typically evaluated with timed sprint over prescribed distance (40 yards/100 yards)
  • 11. Flexibility
    • Affected by the following
      • Joint structure – size and shape of joint surfaces impacts available joint ROM
      • Muscle size – hypertrophy can limit joint ROM via soft tissue approximation and/or tension
      • Ligament/tendon composition – some individuals have more elastin than others = more flexibility
      • Age – flexibility generally decreases with age
      • Gender – generally thought that females more flexible than males
  • 12. Flexibility
    • Hamstrings are most commonly evaluated muscle group regarding flexibility
      • Commonly evaluated by sit and reach test
    • Also can be joint or activity specific
      • “ Wing” position for pectoralis major tightness
  • 13. Body Composition
    • Evaluation of amount of fat in relation to lean tissue in the body
      • Norms are 12%-18% for men and 14%-20% for women
      • Obesity at >25% for men and >30% for women
    • Evaluative methods include
      • Skin calipers
      • Body mass index
      • Underwater (hydrostatic) weighing
      • Electrical impedance
  • 14. Exercise Prescription
    • Muscular strength/power/endurance training
      • Equipment considerations
    • Aerobic endurance training
    • Anaerobic training
    • Flexibility training
    • Coaching methods and factors
  • 15. Strength Training Considerations
    • Essentials to any program are resistance and overload
    • Resistance can take many forms – body weight, bands, machines, etc.
    • Overload is key – must stress muscle beyond normal loads in order to generate response
  • 16. Strength Training Considerations
    • Exercise intensity
    • Periodization
    • Rest periods/frequency of training
  • 17. Exercise Intensity
    • Typically refers to percentage of 1RM and minimal intensity usually 60%-65% of 1RM
    • Hypertrophy method
      • Goal is to increase muscular mass
    • High intensity training method (HIT)
      • Goal is to increase or improve recruitment of existing muscle fibers
  • 18. Periodization
    • Cycling of different training volumes and intensities – allows gains in all areas/different times of year
    • Hypertrophy
      • 3-6 sets, 8-20 reps, 65%-80% 1RM
    • Strength
      • 3-6 sets, 1-6 reps, 85%-120% 1RM
    • Endurance
      • 1-3 sets, 10-30+ reps, 15%-60% 1RM
    • Recovery
      • 3-6 sets, 8-20 reps, 15%-60% 1RM
  • 19. Rest Periods/Training Frequency
    • Rest periods depend upon training volume and intensity
      • Longest rest periods (3-5 minutes) for strength exercises vs. shorter (30-60 seconds) for endurance/hypertrophy exercises
    • Training frequency also depends upon training volume and intensity
      • Alternating days method is common
      • Higher loads (strength training) may require less frequent bouts of training to minimize risk of injury
  • 20. Types of Strength Training
    • Isometric
      • Force generated in absence of joint movement
      • Strength gains only at specific point in ROM
    • Isotonic
      • Moving joint through ROM against constant resistance
      • Weak points in ROM (typically mid-range) so variable tension on muscle/s
    • Variable resistance
      • Pioneered by Nautilus to address weak points
      • Resistance varies through ROM but tension on muscle/s stays constant
  • 21. Types of Strength Training
    • Concentric vs. eccentric training
      • Shortening vs. lengthening of muscle with contraction
      • Much greater tension in muscle with eccentric activities
    • Isokinetics
      • Muscular activity performed at constant velocity
      • Very expensive, theoretically more functional
    • Plyometrics
      • Stretch shortening cycle activities (eccentric contraction, amoritization phase, concentric contraction)
      • Slide board, box jumps, weighted ball tosses
  • 22. Equipment Considerations
    • Free weights
      • Dumbbells, barbells, plates, etc.
    • Strength training machines
      • Multi-station/”universal” machines
    • Individual machines
      • Single muscle/movement specific
    • Other equipment
      • Plyoballs, physioballs, Theraband/tubing
  • 23. Aerobic Endurance Training
    • Recommended exercise intensity of aerobic conditioning (per ACSM) is 60%-90% of maximal heart rate over a period of at least 20 minutes
    • Overload principle applied to generate desired response for individual
  • 24. Anaerobic Training
    • Most activities are blend of aerobic and anaerobic systems
    • Anaerobic training requires short, intense bouts of activity – best if can be sport specific
      • Sprint training (running, biking, swimming)
    • Combination activities include Fartlek training and interval workouts
  • 25. Flexibility Training
    • Research doesn’t support increased flexibility as reducing injury risk/rate
    • Passive stretching
      • Performed by trained personnel (ATC/PT/CPT)
    • Active stretching
      • Individual stretches self (e.g. - standing calf stretch)
    • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
      • Most common is contract relax technique
    • Static vs. dynamic vs. ballistic
      • Hold on “stretch” vs. active movements (knee lifts) vs. “bouncing” maneuvers (typically unsafe)
  • 26. Coaching Methods and Factors
    • Equipment considerations
    • Adherence to rules associated with activity
    • Matching athletes on motor skill performance
    • Control biomechanical stresses – limits overuse opportunities
    • Modify demands placed on participants per circumstances (fatigue, illness, etc.)
  • 27. Illness Prevention
    • Adherence to OSHA guidelines for cleanliness and sanitation of facility and clinician
    • Personal hygiene considerations
    • Infectious disease transmission considerations