Psallo And The Piano
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    Psallo And The Piano Psallo And The Piano Presentation Transcript

    • Psallō and the Piano Psallō and the Piano
    • CHURCHES OF CHRIST STAND OUT IN THE RELIGIOUS WORLD FOR USING A CAPPELLA MUSIC. Psallō and the Piano
    • “WHAT’S THE BIG DEAL WITH THE INSTRUMENT?” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Instrumental music in the church‟s worship has been a serious subject of study for me. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Instrumental music in the church‟s worship has been a serious subject of study for me. ♪ Tonight, we wish to look at a so-called “proof” for instrumental music in worship—the use of the Greek term ψάλλω/psallō. Psallō and the Piano
    • THE USAGE OF ψάλλω Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek term occurs five times in the New Testament. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek term occurs five times in the New Testament. ♫ “I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing (ψάλλω) to your name” (Rom 15:9, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek term occurs five times in the New Testament. ♫ “I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing (ψάλλω) to your name” (Rom 15:9, ESV). ♫ “I will sing praise (ψάλλω) with my spirit, but I will sing (ψάλλω) with my mind also” (1 Cor 14:15, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek term occurs five times in the New Testament. ♫ “I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing (ψάλλω) to your name” (Rom 15:9, ESV). ♫ “I will sing praise (ψάλλω) with my spirit, but I will sing (ψάλλω) with my mind also” (1 Cor 14:15, ESV). ♫ “Do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit, addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:18-19, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek term occurs five times in the New Testament. ♫ “I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing (ψάλλω) to your name” (Rom 15:9, ESV). ♫ “I will sing praise (ψάλλω) with my spirit, but I will sing (ψάλλω) with my mind also” (1 Cor 14:15, ESV). ♫ “Do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit, addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:18-19, ESV). ♫ “Is anyone cheerful? Let him sing praise (ψάλλω)” (Js 5:13, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. ♫ Aeschylus (525-456 BC), the well-known Greek playwright, used ψάλλω for the plucking of a hair. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. ♫ Aeschylus (525-456 BC), the well-known Greek playwright, used ψάλλω for the plucking of a hair. ♫ Euripides (480-460 BC) used the term to mean the “twanging” of a bowstring. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. ♫ Aeschylus (525-456 BC), the well-known Greek playwright, used ψάλλω for the plucking of a hair. ♫ Euripides (480-460 BC) used the term to mean the “twanging” of a bowstring. ♫ ψάλλω was also used to reference the “twitching” of a carpenter‟s line so that it would leave a mark. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. ♫ Aeschylus (525-456 BC), the well-known Greek playwright, used ψάλλω for the plucking of a hair. ♫ Euripides (480-460 BC) used the term to mean the “twanging” of a bowstring. ♫ ψάλλω was also used to reference the “twitching” of a carpenter‟s line so that it would leave a mark. ♫ Plutarch did use the term to refer to the “plucking” on the strings of an instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ In classical Greek, the term ψάλλω referred to the touching of a string. ♫ Aeschylus (525-456 BC), the well-known Greek playwright, used ψάλλω for the plucking of a hair. ♫ Euripides (480-460 BC) used the term to mean the “twanging” of a bowstring. ♫ ψάλλω was also used to reference the “twitching” of a carpenter‟s line so that it would leave a mark. ♫ Plutarch did use the term to refer to the “plucking” on the strings of an instrument. In fact, the term came to refer to the touching of the strings with the fingers rather than using a pick. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Therefore, one of the main arguments proponents of instrumental music have used is the appearance of ψάλλω in the New Testament. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Therefore, one of the main arguments proponents of instrumental music have used is the appearance of ψάλλω in the New Testament. ♫ Since both Paul & James use ψάλλω, the proponents of instrumental music affirm that instrumental music is acceptable to God. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Therefore, one of the main arguments proponents of instrumental music have used is the appearance of ψάλλω in the New Testament. ♫ Since both Paul & James use ψάλλω, the proponents of instrumental music affirm that instrumental music is acceptable to God. ♫ But, just how valid is that argument? Psallō and the Piano
    • FALLACIES OF THE ARGUMENT Psallō and the Piano
    • FALLACIES OF THE ARGUMENT This argument has numerous fallacies. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy one: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument in the New Testament, instrumental music is required. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy one: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument in the New Testament, instrumental music is required. ♫ James uses the word to refer to the reaction of the cheerful. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy one: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument in the New Testament, instrumental music is required. ♫ James uses the word to refer to the reaction of the cheerful. If I‟m cheerful, I can‟t sing unless I use an instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy one: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument in the New Testament, instrumental music is required. ♫ James uses the word to refer to the reaction of the cheerful. If I‟m cheerful, I can‟t sing unless I use an instrument. ♫ What would a congregation do if they couldn‟t find someone who could play an instrument?? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Most who use instrumental music affirm that ψάλλω only allows instrumental music, not that the word requires it. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Most who use instrumental music affirm that ψάλλω only allows instrumental music, not that the word requires it. ♫ “Psalmos (or its cognate verb psallo) is used to mean instrumental music, or a song played to musical accompaniment in the Greek Old Testament. . . . For this reason and others we believe that Paul‟s use of the term psalm shows that God approves the use of instrumental music in our teaching and admonishing. However, they do not establish that such music must be used at all times.” Psallō and the Piano
    • BUT, IF ψάλλω MEANS TO “PLAY,” HOW CAN THE INSTRUMENT BE OPTIONAL? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy two: If ψάλλω means “to play,” we each must play an instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy two: If ψάλλω means “to play,” we each must play an instrument. ♫ We are to be “addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:19, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy two: If ψάλλω means “to play,” we each must play an instrument. ♫ We are to be “addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:19, ESV). ♫ The term is PLURAL in Greek. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy two: If ψάλλω means “to play,” we each must play an instrument. ♫ We are to be “addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:19, ESV). ♫ The term is PLURAL in Greek. ♪ We would each be required to play an instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy two: If ψάλλω means “to play,” we each must play an instrument. ♫ We are to be “addressing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody (ψάλλω) to the Lord with your heart” (Eph 5:19, ESV). ♫ The term is PLURAL in Greek. ♪ We would each be required to play an instrument. ♪ God would be making me worship based on my talent. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ God requires me to do nothing that I cannot do. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ God requires me to do nothing that I cannot do. ♫ In the Parable of the Talents, we read that the master gave “to each according to his ability” (Mt 25:15, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ God requires me to do nothing that I cannot do. ♫ In the Parable of the Talents, we read that the master gave “to each according to his ability” (Mt 25:15, ESV). ♫ But, if God is requiring that I use a stringed instrument in worship, he is requiring something far beyond my ability. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! ♪ I know that the piano has strings inside of it. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! ♪ I know that the piano has strings inside of it. ♪ But, I‟m hitting keys that move hammers that touch the strings. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! ♫ Ψάλλω means to “touch the strings with the fingers.” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! ♫ Ψάλλω means to “touch the strings with the fingers.” ♪ I would literally need to touch the strings of the instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy three: If ψάλλω means to play a stringed instrument, we can only use stringed instruments in our worship. ♫ I couldn‟t use a wind instrument or a drum, etc. ♫ Even the piano would be out! ♫ Ψάλλω means to “touch the strings with the fingers.” ♪ I would literally need to touch the strings of the instrument. ♪ If I used a guitar, I would need to touch the strings & not use a pick! Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy four: The meanings of words change. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy four: The meanings of words change. ♫ F. F. Bruce, well-known evangelical Greek scholar: “Words are not static things. They change their meaning with the passage of time.” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy four: The meanings of words change. ♫ F. F. Bruce, well-known evangelical Greek scholar: “Words are not static things. They change their meaning with the passage of time.” ♫ We all know that words change meaning. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The term ψάλλω drastically changed its meaning over the course of time. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The term ψάλλω drastically changed its meaning over the course of time. ♫ E. A. Sophocles‟ Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (From B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100) defines ψάλλω as “chant, sing religious hymns.” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, had a major bearing on how the New Testament uses ψάλλω. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, had a major bearing on how the New Testament uses ψάλλω. ♫ At times, ψάλλω clearly means to play a stringed instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, had a major bearing on how the New Testament uses ψάλλω. ♫ At times, ψάλλω clearly means to play a stringed instrument. ♪ “Whenever the harmful spirit from God was upon Saul, David took the lyre and played it with his hand” (1 Sm 16:23, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, had a major bearing on how the New Testament uses ψάλλω. ♫ At times, ψάλλω clearly means to play a stringed instrument. ♪ “Whenever the harmful spirit from God was upon Saul, David took the lyre and played it with his hand” (1 Sm 16:23, ESV). ♪ “Then a harmful spirit from the LORD came upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his spear in his hand. And David was playing the lyre” (1 Sm 19:9, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, had a major bearing on how the New Testament uses ψάλλω. ♫ At times, ψάλλω clearly means to play a stringed instrument. ♪ 1 Sm 16:23 & 1 Sm 19:9. ♪ In both these texts, the author mentions the instrument in the context! Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ At other places in the Septuagint, ψάλλω clearly means vocal music. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ At other places in the Septuagint, ψάλλω clearly means vocal music. ♫ “My lips will shout for joy, when I sing praises (ψάλλω) to you; my soul also, which you have redeemed. And my tongue will talk of your righteous help all the day long” (Ps 71:23-24, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ At other places in the Septuagint, ψάλλω clearly means vocal music. ♫ “My lips will shout for joy, when I sing praises (ψάλλω) to you; my soul also, which you have redeemed. And my tongue will talk of your righteous help all the day long” (Ps 71:23-24, ESV). ♫ “Sing to him, sing praises (ψάλλω) to him; tell of all his wondrous works!” (Ps 105:2, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. ♪ Such a claim, however, would overlook Hebrew parallelism. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. ♪ Such a claim, however, would overlook Hebrew parallelism. ♫ In Hebrew poetry, the second line often repeats the idea of the first line in slightly different words. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. ♪ Such a claim, however, would overlook Hebrew parallelism. ♫ In Hebrew poetry, the second line often repeats the idea of the first line in slightly different words. ♪ “His delight is in the law of the LORD, and on his law he meditates day and night” (Ps 1:2, ESV). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. ♪ Such a claim, however, would overlook Hebrew parallelism. ♫ In Hebrew poetry, the second line often repeats the idea of the first line in slightly different words. ♪ “His delight is in the law of the LORD, and on his law he meditates day and night” (Ps 1:2, ESV). ♪ Delighting in the law of the LORD is the same thing as meditating on it. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Some might say that these two texts do not prove that ψάλλω had a vocal connotation in these two texts. ♪ Such a claim, however, would overlook Hebrew parallelism. ♫ In Hebrew poetry, the second line often repeats the idea of the first line in slightly different words. ♫ In Psalm 71, shouting to the LORD with the lips is the same as praising him & in Psalm 105, singing praise to God is the same as telling of his mighty works. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♫ When ψάλλω is used to refer to instrumental music, the typical construction is to use the preposition έν (with/on) and put the instrument played in the dative case. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♫ When ψάλλω is used to refer to instrumental music, the typical construction is to use the preposition έν (with/on) and put the instrument played in the dative case (1 Sm 19:9). Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♫ When ψάλλω is used to refer to instrumental music, the typical construction is to use the preposition έν (with/on) and put the instrument played in the dative case (1 Sm 19:9). ♫ However, when the praise is to be offered to the Lord, “the LORD” is in the dative case without έν. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♪ That‟s important for Ephesians 5:19. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♪ That‟s important for Ephesians 5:19. ♫ If Paul intended the word ψάλλω to mean “play,” he has specified the instrument—the human heart! Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ The Greek construction in the Septuagint is quite important for the New Testament uses of ψάλλω. ♪ That‟s important for Ephesians 5:19. ♫ If Paul intended the word ψάλλω to mean “play,” he has specified the instrument—the human heart! ♫ One cannot use Ephesians 5:19 to advocate instrumental music. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. ♫ Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) employs a large musical vocabulary. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. ♫ Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) employs a large musical vocabulary. ♪ He often uses ψάλλω to introduce a quotation from the Psalms. We might translate like, “The Spirit (or David) says….” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. ♫ Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) employs a large musical vocabulary. ♪ He often uses ψάλλω to introduce a quotation from the Psalms. We might translate like, “The Spirit (or David) says….” ♪ “This word sings (ψάλλω) through David concerning our Lord, saying . . . .” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. ♫ Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) employs a large musical vocabulary. ♫ Origen (3rd century) on 1 Corinthians 14:15: “For neither can our understanding pray, unless previously the Spirit prays, hearkening as it were to it, nor likewise can it sing (ψάλλω) and hymn the Father in Christ with rhythm, melody, measure and harmony, unless the Spirit . . . first praise and hymn him.” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Early Christians used ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise. ♫ Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) employs a large musical vocabulary. ♫ Origen (3rd century) on 1 Corinthians 14:15: “For neither can our understanding pray, unless previously the Spirit prays, hearkening as it were to it, nor likewise can it sing (ψάλλω) and hymn the Father in Christ with rhythm, melody, measure and harmony, unless the Spirit . . . first praise and hymn him.” Our understanding cannot play an instrument. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Why would early Christians use ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise if the New Testament uses the term to mean “play”? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Why would early Christians use ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise if the New Testament uses the term to mean “play”? ♫ Change of meaning between the New Testament & them? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Why would early Christians use ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise if the New Testament uses the term to mean “play”? ♫ Change of meaning between the New Testament & them? ♫ Don‟t we often use words, however, in their biblical meaning? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Why would early Christians use ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise if the New Testament uses the term to mean “play”? ♫ Change of meaning between the New Testament & them? ♫ Don‟t we often use words, however, in their biblical meaning? ♪ Baptism, for example. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Why would early Christians use ψάλλω to refer to vocal praise if the New Testament uses the term to mean “play”? ♫ Change of meaning between the New Testament & them? ♫ Don‟t we often use words, however, in their biblical meaning? ♪ Baptism, for example. ♪ If ψάλλω meant to play an instrument in the New Testament, surely those who lived shortly after the apostles would have known that & used the term accordingly. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Those who know Greek best affirm that ψάλλω means “to sing praise” in the New Testament. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Those who know Greek best affirm that ψάλλω means “to sing praise” in the New Testament. ♫ W. E. Vine who produced the well-known Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, said, “The word psallo originally meant to play a stringed instrument with the fingers, or to sing with the accompaniment of a harp. Later, however, and in the New Testament, it came to signify simply to praise without the accompaniment of an instrument.” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Those who know Greek best affirm that ψάλλω means “to sing praise” in the New Testament. ♫ Ralph Earle who wrote Word Meanings in the New Testament, says, “„Making melody‟ is one word in Greek, psallontes. The verb psallo meant first to strike the strings of a harp or lyre. Then it meant to „strike up a tune.‟ Finally it was used in the sense „to sing.‟” Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy five: This argument ignores church history. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy five: This argument ignores church history. ♫ It is an undeniable fact that the early church did not use instrumental music. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Fallacy five: This argument ignores church history. ♫ It is an undeniable fact that the early church did not use instrumental music. ♫ If ψάλλω means to plays an instrument in the New Testament, why did the earliest Christians disobey that command? Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Obviously, ψάλλω has no reference to instrumental music in the New Testament. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Obviously, ψάλλω has no reference to instrumental music in the New Testament. ♫ There is no authority for instrumental music in the New Testament whatsoever. Psallō and the Piano
    • ♪ Obviously, ψάλλω has no reference to instrumental music in the New Testament. ♫ There is no authority for instrumental music in the New Testament whatsoever. ♫ Let us resolve to worship God as he has directed! Psallō and the Piano