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MongoDB on Windows Azure               A 10gen White Paper
MongoDB on Windows AzureMongoDB on Windows Azure brings the           provide customers the tools to build limit-power of ...
Figure 1: Sample JSON Document{	 "_id": ObjectId("504e4dd43796b3da50183991"),	 "text": "Study Implicates Immune System in ...
Figure 2: Replica Sets with MongoDB                                                                             MongoDB Ar...
Figure 4: MongoDB Architecture                                                             Application                    ...
Understanding the Deployment OptionsGiven that MongoDB can be deployed on either Windows                    Azure Virtual ...
Table 1: Pros and Cons Summary - Windows Azure Virtual Machines andWindows Azure Cloud Services                           ...
New York 578 Broadway, New York, NY 10012 • London 5-25 Scrutton St., London EC2A • US (866) 237-8815 • ...
Published by 10gen, Inc.October 2012
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MongoDB on Windows Azure


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MongoDB on Windows Azure brings the power of the leading NoSQL database to Microsoft’s flexible, open, and scalable cloud.

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  1. 1. MongoDB on Windows Azure A 10gen White Paper
  2. 2. MongoDB on Windows AzureMongoDB on Windows Azure brings the provide customers the tools to build limit-power of the leading NoSQL database lessly scalable applications in the Microsoft’s flexible, open, andscalable cloud. This paper begins with an overview of MongoDB. Next, we describe the twoMongoDB is an open source, document- primary deployment options available onoriented database designed with scalability Microsoft’s cloud platform, Windows Azureand developer agility in mind. Windows Virtual Machines and Windows Azure CloudAzure is the cloud services operating sys- Services. Finally, to help those evaluatingtem that provides the development, service deploying MongoDB on Windows Azure,hosting, and service management envi- we outline the pros and cons of the tworonment for the Azure Services Platform. deployment options available.Together, MongoDB and Windows Azure 2
  3. 3. Figure 1: Sample JSON Document{ "_id": ObjectId("504e4dd43796b3da50183991"), "text": "Study Implicates Immune System in Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis", "source": "<a href="" rel="nofollow">twitterfeed</a>, "coordinates": null, "truncated": false, "entities": { "urls": [{ "indices": [ 67, 87], "url": "", "expanded_url": null }], "hashtags": [] }, "retweeted": false, "place": null, "user": { "friends_count": 780, "created_at": "Fri Jan 08 17:40:11 +0000 2010", "description": "Latest medical news, articles, and features from Medscape Pathology.", "time_zone": "Eastern Time (US & Canada)", "url": "", "screen_name": "MedscapePath", "utc_offset": -18000 }, "favorited": false, "in_reply_to_user_id": null, "id": NumberLong("22819397000")}About MongoDBMongoDB is an open source, document- across documents and to adapt schemas asoriented database. MongoDB bridges the their applications between key-value stores – which arefast and scalable – and relational databas- Unlike relational databases, MongoDB doeses – which have rich functionality. Instead not use SQL syntax. Rather, MongoDB hasof storing data in tables and rows as one a query language based on JSON. It alsowould with a relational database, MongoDB has drivers for most modern languages,stores a binary form of JSON (BSON or such as C#, Java, Ruby, Python, and many‘binary JSON’ documents). An example of a others. MongoDB’s flexible data model anddocument is shown in Figure 1. support for modern programming languages simplify development and administrationThe document serves as the fundamental significantly.unit within MongoDB (like a row in anRDBMS); one can add fields (like a columnin an RDBMS), as well as nested fields andembedded documents. Rather than impos-ing a flat, rigid schema across an entiretable, the schema is implicit in what fieldsare used in the documents. Thus, MongoDBallows developers to have variable schemas 3
  4. 4. Figure 2: Replica Sets with MongoDB MongoDB Architecture MongoDB’s core capabilities deliver reli- ability, high availability, high performance, Application and scalability. Replication through replica sets provides for Read Write high availability and data safety. A replica set is comprised of one primary node and some number of secondary nodes (de- Primary termined by the user). Figure 2 shows an example replica set, with one primary and two secondaries (a common deployment Asynchronous Secondary model). By default, the primary node takes Replication all reads and writes from the application; the secondaries replicate asynchronously in the background. If the primary node goes Secondary down for any reason, one of the secondaries is automatically promoted to primary status Automatic and begins to take all reads and writes. Leader Election Replica sets help protect applications from hardware and data center-related down- time. Moreover, they make it easy for DBAs to conduct operational tasks, including software upgrades and hardware changes.Figure 3: Sharding with MongoDB Sharding enables users to scale horizon- tally as their data volumes grow and/or as Shard A Shard B Shard C Shard N demands on their data stores grow. A shard 0...30 31...60 61...90 n...n+30 is a subset of the database, kind of like a partition of the data. In Figure 3, Shard A ... contains documents 1-30; Shard B contains documents 31-60; and so on. One can choose any key on which to shard the col- Horizontally Scalable lection (e.g., user name), and MongoDB will automatically shard the data store based on this key. One can scale a database infi- nitely using sharding by adding new nodes to a cluster. When a new node is added, MongoDB recognizes it and redistributes the data across the cluster. Because shard- ing distributes both the actual data and therefore the load (i.e., traffic), it enables horizontal scalability as well as high per- formance. 4
  5. 5. Figure 4: MongoDB Architecture Application mongos Replica Set A Replica Set B Replica Set C Replica Set N 0...30 31...60 61...90 n...n+30 Primary Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary ... SecondaryAn overview of the MongoDB architecture is shown in Figure EC2, Azure VMs give users access to elastic, on-demand4. In a multi-shard environment, the application communi- virtual servers. Users can install Windows or Linux on a VMcates with mongos, an intermediary router that directs reads and configure it based on their own preferences or theirand writes to the appropriate shard. Each shard is a replica apps’ specific needs. Users manage the VMs themselves,set, providing scalability, availability, and performance to including scaling, installing security patches, and ongoing performance monitoring and management. Azure VMs givedevelopers. users a relatively significant degree of control over theirMongoDB was built for the cloud. Cloud services like Windows environments, but by the same token require users to take on the VM management. Note: This service is currently inAzure are therefore a natural fit for MongoDB. By coupling preview (beta).MongoDB’s easy-to-scale architecture and Azure’s elasticcloud capacity, users can quickly and easily build, scale, and »» Windows Azure Cloud Services. Windows Azure Cloudmanage their applications. Services (Worker Roles and Web Roles) is Microsoft’s Platform–as–a–Service (PaaS) offering. Similar to Heroku, Worker Roles provide users with prebuilt, preconfiguredAbout Windows Azure Services instances of compute power. In contrast with Azure VMs, users do not have to configure or manage Azure Workerfor MongoDB Roles. Windows Azure handles the deployment details –Windows Azure is Microsoft’s suite of cloud services, providing from provisioning and load balancing to health monitoringdevelopers on-demand compute and storage to create, host for continuous availability. This can be helpful to someand manage scalable and available web applications through users who prefer not to manage their applications at theMicrosoft data centers. When deploying MongoDB to Windows infrastructure level, though it restricts the level of controlAzure, users can choose from two deployment options: users have over their environments.»» Windows Azure Virtual Machines. Windows Azure Virtual Machines (VMs) is Microsoft’s Infrastructure-as-a- Service (IaaS) offering. Similar to Amazon Web Services 5
  6. 6. Understanding the Deployment OptionsGiven that MongoDB can be deployed on either Windows Azure Virtual Machines may not always be the right fit for theAzure Virtual Machines (IaaS) or Windows Azure Cloud Services following reasons:(PaaS), it is important for users to consider the different capa-bilities and implementation details of each service to deter- Increased Operational Effort. The increased control that Azuremine which deployment model makes the most sense for their Virtual Machines provide comes with increase effort, as well.applications. Users must define and implement their own security measures, apply patches, and locate instances for fault tolerance. This consideration may be important for developers that lack expe-Azure Virtual Machines rience managing their own infrastructure or for companies thatBASIC SETUP don’t have the operational bandwidth to devote to managingAfter being granted access to the preview functionality for this component of the stack.Azure Virtual Machines, users can launch an instance andinstall and configure MongoDB on it manually. Alternatively, Beta. The Azure Virtual Machines service is still inusers can use the recently released Windows Azure installer for Preview (beta).MongoDB to set up a MongoDB replica set quickly and easily onWindows Azure VMs. Azure Cloud ServicesThe installer is built on top of Windows PowerShell and the BASIC SETUPWindows Azure command line tool. It contains a number of Users can also deploy MongoDB on Azure Cloud Services. Todeployment scripts. The tool is designed to help users get do so, download the MongoDB Azure Worker Role package,single or multi-node MongoDB configurations up and running which is a preconfigured Worker Role with MongoDB. Whenquickly. There are only two steps to installing and configur- deployed, each replica set member runs as a separate Workering a MongoDB replica set on Azure VMs. Note: the installer Role instance; MongoDB data files are stored in Azure Cloudis designed to run on a user’s local machine (i.e., not directly Drives. For detailed instructions, visit the MongoDB wiki (wiki.on an Azure VM), and then to deploy output to Windows Azure To start, download the publish settings file. Next, run theinstaller from the command prompt. PROS AND CONS OF AZURE CLOUD SERVICES The pros and cons of running MongoDB on Azure CloudWith Azure Virtual Machines, users can create their own VMs or Services are generally consistent with those of using PaaS inthey can create a VM instance from one of several pre-installed general, though there are some Azure-specific considerations.operating system configurations. Both Windows and Linux are Overall, Windows Azure Cloud Services decreases the opera-supported on Azure Virtual Machines. To deploy MongoDB on tional burden on users but affords them less control from anLinux, visit the MongoDB wiki ( for step-by- infrastructure configuration standpoint. The advantages ofstep instructions. using Azure Cloud Services are as follows:PROS AND CONS OF AZURE VIRTUAL MACHINES »» Lower Operational Effort. Microsoft manages OS updates and security, decreasing the operational burden on theThe pros and cons of deploying MongoDB on Azure Virtual Ma- users.chines are generally consistent with the considerations aroundusing IaaS more broadly. Overall, Azure Virtual Machines allow »» Built-in Fault Tolerance. When deploying multipleusers to fine-tune their deployments but by the same token MongoDB worker role instances, Windows Azurerequire increased operational effort. automatically deploys the instances across multiple fault and update domains to guarantee better uptime.The advantages of using MongoDB on Azure Virtual Machinesare as follows: »» Secure by Default. Microsoft takes measures to ensure that worker and web roles are secure. Endpoints on instances»» Increased Control. Users have more control over their can be enabled for instance-to-instance communication infrastructural configuration relative to Azure Cloud without making them public. Thus, one can configure Services. For instance, they can install and configure MongoDB to be secure by enabling it only for other roles in services on the OS, define policies, etc. This consideration the same deployment. may be important for enterprises that have regimented policies and processes for IT security and compliance.»» OS Choice. Users can use Windows or Linux. 6
  7. 7. Table 1: Pros and Cons Summary - Windows Azure Virtual Machines andWindows Azure Cloud Services By the same token, there are some aspects of Azure Cloud Services that may be consid- ered drawbacks: PROS CONS »» Windows Only. Worker Roles can only be deployed with Windows; Linux is not anIaaS – - Increased control - Increased operational effort option.Windows - OS choiceAzure VirtualMachines »» Fixed OS Configuration. Users cannot configure the OS, and must therefore develop applications that run on the pre-defined machine configurationsInitial - Lower operational effort - Windows only available.Administrative - Built-in fault tolerance - Fixed OSEffort configuration - Secure by default Table 1 summarizes the pros and cons of using Windows Azure Worker Roles and Windows Azure Virtual Machines. Summary MongoDB was built for ease of use, scal- ability, availability, and performance, and it’s quickly becoming an attractive alterna- tive to relational databases. Windows Azure provides a flexible cloud platform for host- ing MongoDB, with two deployment models to choose from. Developers and enterprises looking at deploying MongoDB on Windows Azure should consider the pros and cons discussed here when evaluating which option is most appropriate for them. We hope that this paper helps customers better understand these solutions, how they work, and how to assess them. To learn more about MongoDB and how to deploy it in the cloud, or to speak to a sales representative, please email 7
  8. 8. New York 578 Broadway, New York, NY 10012 • London 5-25 Scrutton St., London EC2A • US (866) 237-8815 • INTL +1 (650) 440-4474
  9. 9. Published by 10gen, Inc.October 2012