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  1. 1. Sustainable Design and Development Unit 1: Sustainable Development - An Overview 1
  2. 2. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - Maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems - Preserve genetic diversity - Ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems Conservation + Development - Development requires conservation of living resource base, and - Conservation will not occur unless minimum development standards are met (i.e. food, shelter, water) THE WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY - 1980 ‘SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT’ 2
  3. 3. Brundtland Report - 1987 (Our Common Future, WECD) - To ensure that development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - Sustainable development does imply limits - Development must be in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations DEFINITIONS ‘SUSTAINABILITY’, ‘SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT’ 3
  4. 4. Robert Gilman - Sustainability is equity over time... think of it as extending the Golden Rule through time... President’s Council on Sustainable Development - Sustainable development is economic growth that will benefit present and future generations without detrimentally affecting the resources or biological systems of the planet. David Orr - Sustainable design is the careful meshing of human purposes with the larger patterns and flows of the natural world. Paul Hawken - Leave the world better than you found it... DEFINITIONS ‘SUSTAINABILITY’, ‘SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT’, ‘SUSTAINABLE DESIGN’ 4
  5. 5. “The problem is that the very significance of the idea - like globalization - has become a victim of verbal dexterity. Profound concepts, in general, have so many resonances that they result in various interpretations. What makes ‘sustainability’ unusual is not its propensity to generalization, but its careless application within so many contexts. It is a real problem that ‘sustainability’, as a word, is distasteful to so many because it is frequently and clumsily misused. There are many individuals who become weary and tired of those who insist upon the importance of the idea. If every politician continues to use the term freely as a mark of personal vision, but without thought as to its meaning, then they risk devaluing the term” (Cullingford 2004). DEFINITIONS CLARIFICATION VS DEVALUATION 5
  6. 6. “Brands making green claims on their products need clarity on what they can and cannot say...” “Many brands [are] searching for the right words to sell the environmental benefits of products...” “But many advertisers still slip up by using vague terms that leave themselves open to charges of greenwash.” HTTP://WWW.ENN.COM/BUSINESS/ARTICLE/38072 GREEN MARKETING - ARE YOUR CLAIMS SUSTAINABLE? ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS NETWORK - 9-1-08 6
  7. 7. Economic Approach Maximize income while maintaining constant or increasing stock of capital. Environmental Approach Maintain the resilience and robustness of biological and physical systems. Socio-cultural approach Maintain the stability of social and cultural systems. APPROACHES ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIO-CULTURAL 7
  8. 8. Sustainability The end goal of sustainable development Sustainable Development The means by which to achieve sustainability Sustainable Design A set of tools and techniques used in sustainable development PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABILITY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 8
  9. 9. Sustainable development comprises types of economic and social development that protect and enhance the natural environment and social equity ‘Development’ denotes ‘qualitative improvement in human well-being’ or ‘unfolding of human potential’; it may or may not involve economic growth. ‘Social equity’ is used in the sense of ‘equal opportunity’ rather than ‘equality’. Diesendorf, M. (2000) ‘Sustainability and sustainable development’ in Sustainability: the Corporate Challenge of the 21st Century, D. Dunphy et al. (eds), Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp.23. PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABILITY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 9
  10. 10. •Conservation of Biological Diversity and Ecological Integrity Maintain or enhance the range of native plants and animals and the health of natural areas. •Precautionary Principle Reduce the chance of serious environmental problems even if we are not sure these problems will occur. •Inter-generational and Intra-generational Equity Reduce the effects of activities on the environment that the community, now and in the future, relies on to meet its needs and expectations. •Improved Valuation and Pricing of Environmental Resources Improve the way we undertake valuation of environmental costs and benefits and use this information when making decisions. •Community Participation Strong local support and involvement will be essential to a transition to sustainable living. •Global Perspective Consider all actions and impacts on a global scale, so as not to simply move your environmental issues elsewhere. PRINCIPLES ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ESD) 10