Issues Chapter 2


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Issues Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Social Issues: Substances, Addiction and Related Disorders
  2. 2. Changing AttitudesChanging Attitudes  What made the government change from the laissez-faireWhat made the government change from the laissez-faire attitude of the 1800s to one of control?attitude of the 1800s to one of control?  ToxicityToxicity  Dependence (in relation to substance use)Dependence (in relation to substance use)  CrimeCrime
  3. 3. Toxicity Toxic = poisonous, deadly, or dangerous What makes a drug toxic? Amount used How it is used What the user did while on the drug Physiological toxicity & behavioral toxicity Acute effects & chronic effects
  4. 4. Drug-Related Toxicity Examples of acute toxicity • Behavioral:“Intoxication” that impairs the actions of drug users and increases the danger to themselves and others • Physiological: Overdose that causes the user to stop breathing Examples of chronic toxicity • Behavioral: Personality and lifestyle changes; effects on relationships • Physiological: Lung cancer, cirrhosis, heart disease & other health effects
  5. 5. Toxicity & DAWN A system for collecting data on drug-related deaths and emergency room visits at some U.S. metropolitan hospitals DAWN collects data on improper use of legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs as well as illicit drugs What it tells us about how dangerous a drug is - Simply gives us total deaths/ER visits What it does not tell us about how dangerous a drug is Consider relative danger vs. total impact of the drug Number of users vs. number of reported problems Alcohol is reported only in combination with other drugs Drug-alcohol and drug-drug combinations are very common
  6. 6. Toxicity & Blood-Borne Diseases Specific toxicity for users who inject drugs AIDS, HIV infection, and hepatitis B and C Sharing needles passes infectious agents directly into the bloodstream Some states, cities prohibit needle purchase without Rx Syringe exchange programs
  7. 7. The Concept of Dependence In relation to substance use, substance-related and addictive disorders dependence has recently undergone extensive review Text: Three basic processes Tolerance Need for increased amount Diminished effect with continued use Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms/syndrome Psychological dependence Mental preoccupation Interference Different views on dependence
  8. 8. Drugs & Crime: Why We Regulate Drugs We want to protect society from the dangers of some types of drug use What are the real costs to a society? Some laws are not developed as part of a rationally devised plan and may not be realistic or effective Based on 4 ideas of drugs and crime: 1. Drug use changes personality; creates “criminal type” 2. People under the influence may commit crimes (e.g., many cases of homicide, domestic violence, etc.) 3. Crimes may be carried out to obtain money for drugs 4. Drug use is a crime