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Components of the Nervous System Glial cells (glia) Provide firmness and structure to the brain Get nutrients into the system Form myelin Create the blood-brain barrier Initially thought to be passive in comparison to “flashy” neurons Communicate with other glia & neurons New frontier: play a central role in addiction and mental health issues Neurons Analyze and transmit information Four defined regions Cell body Dendrites Axon Presynaptic terminals Communicate through neurotransmitters
Impact on Neurotransmission Psychoactive substances can impact neurotransmitters in both the intoxication and withdrawal process Many ways psychoactive drugs can impact neurotransmission - 3 common ways: Increase neurotransmitter activity Agonist Reduce neurotransmitter activity Antagonist Blocking reuptake of neurotransmitter Reuptake inhibitors
Chemical Theories of Behavior Variations in behavior explained through changes in brain chemistry Historical and cultural perspectives Monoamine theory of mood Issue of experimental support Brain imaging techniques Types Reactions