Major Milestones explained behind Grounded Theory: The Grounded Theory Generation Table (Birks & Mills): The table is ordered chronologically and lists those works considered to be seminal grounded theory texts because they are characterized by their originality of thought and subsequent influence. Over the years much has been made of a supposed split between Strauss and Glaser following the publication of Strauss and Corbin’s text Basics of qualitative research : Grounded theory procedures and techniques. There are frequent references to Glaser and Strauss’s different perspectives on grounded theory in the literature. Often a researcher will demonstrate a sometimes almost fanatical ) adherence to either traditional Glaserian or and evolved Straussian version of grounded theory. There are still some Black and White issues among grounded Theory with different researchers, especially when it comes to research with and overly interpretive component, and there is much to be learned from a antecedent grounded theorist.
Explanation of Charmaz Models and Process from the textbook chapters Gather Rich Data – consider decision about getting started and choosing approaches to data gathering. Researcher can use grounded theory strategies with a variety of data collection methods. Coding as Grounded Theory Practice – shows how to do coding and thus label bits of data according to what they indicate. Memo Writing – Shows how the grounded theorist take the codes apart and analyze them in memos. You write memos throughout your research. Theoretical Sampling , Saturation, and Sorting – The grounded theory strategy of obtaining further selective data to refine and fill out your major categories. Reconstructing Theory in Grounded Theory Studies - Reassess what theory means. Explore meanings of theory in the social sciences and conceptions of theorizing in grounded theory. Writing the Draft – Differences between writing to develop and analysis and writing for an audience. Reflecting on the Process – Criteria for assessing grounded theories as products of research.
1. Grounded Theory
Sherry Lampard, Cheryl Brace, and Jeanette Bessel
Adapted from Jones, A. & Weas, L. (2009)
2. What is Grounded Theory?
Processes in Grounded Theory
Critiquing Grounded Theory
3. What is Grounded Theory?
Grounded Theory: A specific methodology
developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) for
the purpose of building theory from data. In
their book the term grounded theory is used in
the sense to denote theoretical constructs
derived form qualitative analysis of data.
(Corbin & Strauss, 2008)
4. Over time, a grounded theory study works through
the following mostly-overlapping phases.
5. Fig. 1. The grounded theory method (Adolph et al., 2011).
7. Developing Grounded Theory
Glaserian GT Approach is not a qualitative
research method, but claims the dictum "all is
data". This means that not only interview or
observational data but also surveys or statistical
analyses or whatever comes the researcher's way
while studying a substantive area can be used in the
comparative process as well as literature data from
science or media or even fiction. Thus, the
Glaserian method emphasizes conceptualization
abstract of time, place and people.
8. Straussian GT Approach posts that important
concepts of grounded theory are categories, codes
and coding's. The research principle behind
grounded theory is neither inductive nor
deductive, but combines both in a way of abductive
reasoning . This leads to a research practice where
data sampling, data analysis and theory
development are not seen as distinct and disjunct,
but as different steps to be repeated until one can
describe and explain the phenomenon that is to be
9. The Grounded Theory Process: (Charmaz)
Writing the first draft
Integrating memos diagramming concepts
Advanced memos refining conceptual categories
Theoretical sampling seek specific new data
Initial memos raising codes to tentative categories
Research Problem and opening research questions
sampling if needed
Theoretical memo-writing and
further refining of concepts
and general disciplinary
Initial coding data collection
10. Generating Theory
Glaser & Strauss (1967) suggested their theory
generation, “puts a high emphasis on theory as process;
that is, theory as an ever-developing entity, not as a
perfected product” (p. 32).
Substantive Theory- empirical inquiry i.e. race
relations or education
Formal Theory- conceptual inquiry i.e. privilege
and power, social capital
11. Generating Theory
Elements of a Theory
Conceptual categories & conceptual properties
Hypothesis or relationships between categories
12. Generating Theory – Key Aspects
-Category – stands by itself as a conceptual element of a
-Property - is a conceptual element of a category
-Both category and property are indicated by the data (not
-Constant comparing draws the researchers attention to
similarities and differences
-Generating theory should aim at achieving diversity in
-Comparison of differences generates relationships or
-Concepts should be analytic (generalized to designate
characteristics and sensitizing (have meaning)
13. Generating Theory
Suggestions for researchers Glaser & Strauss
Ignore existing theory and focus on the study
Work in areas that have little to no literature
Collection, coding, and analysis should be done
together as much as possible
14. Processes In Grounded
15. Processes In Grounded Theory: Coding
- Naming segments of data to categorize, summarize and
account for data
- Generates the bones of your analysis
- Basis to build the analysis
- Make your codes fit your data rather than forcing your
data to fit them
Questions grounded theorists use when coding data:
What is happening? (Glaser, 1978)
What theoretical category does this data indicate?
What does the data suggest? Pronounce?
From whose point of view?
16. Cycles in Coding
17. Critiquing Grounded Theory Studies
What was the focus of the study?
What was the purpose of the study?
What significance does the study have to the
profession being studied, and what is already
known about the topic of study?
Method: Is there an explanation of how Grounded
Theory best guides the research study?
Sampling: Did the study describe the process of
data collection, and were themes identified, and if
so, how? Was the sampling driven by emerging or
purposeful selection? Who were the gatekeepers?
18. Critiquing Ground Theory Studies
Data Generation: What strategies did the
researchers employ? (paying close attention to
creativity, reflexivity, and theoretical sampling
Data Analysis: How did the researchers analyze
the data? (inductive, deductive, abductive) How
was precision and clarity in the study maintained?
Did the researchers clearly explain how categories
19. Critiquing Grounded Theory Studies
Empirical Grounding of the findings: Were the
concepts related, were the concepts linkages
described, and were they well developed? Were the
theoretical findings significant to the profession and
were they explained? Were the data-collection
strategies comprehensive and were analytical
interpretations conceptual and broad? Were the
findings applicable to the phenomenon investigated?
o Conclusions: Had the study addressed
recommendations? Were they appropriate? Any
reference to future research? And, were they related to
Adolph, S., Kruchten, P., & Hall, W. (2011) Reconciling
perspectives: A grounded theory of how people manage the
process of software development. Journal of Systems and Software,
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide
through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008) Basics of Qualitative Research:
Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cutcliffe, J. (2000). Methodological issues in grounded theory.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31 (6), 1476-1484).
21. Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded
theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the
methodology of Grounded Theory. Sociology Press
Jones, A. & Weas, L. (2012) Grounded Theory. Retrieved from
LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research in
Canada. Elsevier Canada
Morse, J. M., Stern, P. N., Corbin, J., Bowers, B., Charmaz, K. &
Clarke, A. E. (2009). Developing grounded theory: The second
generation. Walnut creek, CA: Left Coast Creek.
22. Qualitative Research in Psychology, (2012). Coding Diagram.
Retrieved from http://qual-rip.blogspot.ca/2012/06/resources-for-