In 2004, the worldwide energy consumption has reached an avg. 15 TW ( 1.5 x 10 (13) W )
Fossil fuels 86% of the world's energy
COAL fueled the advent of Industrial Revolution in the 18 th & 19 th century.
Oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century ,with the advent of the era of Automobile, Airplanes and the spreading use of electricity,
The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973
Total Energy Consumption -- 2004 . According to the US Energy Information Administration 2006 estimate, fossil fuels supply 86% of the World's Energy Fuel type Power in TW ( terawatts) Energy/year in EJ Oil 5.7 ( 38.17 % ) 180 Coal 3.8 ( 25 .45% ) 120 Gas 3.5 ( 23 .44% ) 110 Hydroelectric 0.9 ( 6.03 % ) 30 Nuclear 0.9 ( 6. 03% ) 30 Geothermal, wind, solar, wood 0.13 ( 0.88 % ) 4 Total 14.93 471
World Power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005 .
Sector wise consumption Sectors % of Worlds total consumption (15 T W ) Industrial users ( agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction ) 37% Transportation (Personal and commercial ) 20% Residential heating, lighting, and appliances 11% Commercial uses ( lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services ) 5% Energy lost in energy transmission and generation 27%
The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China , which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people is currently consuming energy at a rate of 2 kW per person..
Japan and the UK are among the most efficient in the world, while developing countries lack the resources to buy energy.
There is a significant difference between the consumption levels of the United States with 11.4 kW per person and Japan and Germany with 6 kW per person .
Canada has the highest energy consumption per person, whereas the lowest energy consumption takes place in developing and under-developed economies.
In developing countries such as India the per person energy use is closer to 0.5 kW.
Petroleum is expected to run out in 35 yrs, Coal in 200 yrs,
Demand for solutions to Global warming ,
Dependence on limited sources, such as those in the Middle East
High Oil price rate ,(the Old experience of 1973 & 1979 the period of “ Oil Shocks ” when there was a spurt in the increase of oil prices from 5 to 45 US $ per barrel). Japan bore the brunt of the oil shocks
Increasing government support are driving force increasing renewable energy commercialization. I .
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly . 14% of the Primary Enegy is coming from Renewals and technical potential for their use is much larger and theoretically it can easily meet the world's energy requirements (15 TW),
Investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in 2006. Some very large corporations such as BP, GE, Sharp, and Shell are investing in the renewable energy sector.
Biomass : Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100%. The total energy consumed from biomass is around 264 GW in Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland and Spain
World production of Bioethanol increased by 85% to 3.9 billion litres (1.03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005 with most of the increase in the United States bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil . Over 50% is produced in Germany
Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, which forms the 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel requirements
Wind power has a worldwide installed capacity of 74,223 MW and is widely used in several European countries and the USA.
According to the Global Wind Energy Council, the installed capacity of wind power increased by 25.6% from the( end of 2005 to end of 2006) to total 74 GW with over half the increase in the United States, Germany, India and Spain.
According to a 1999 study, geothermal resources amount to between 65 and 138 GW
A 2006 report by MIT that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 Gwe ( gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050, sufficient to provide all the world's energy needs for several millennia
THE ATERNATIVE ENERGY PATHS FOLLOWED BY SOME OF THE COUNTRIES ARE AS, SOME OF THESE DIFFERENT ENERGYPATHS MIGHT BECOME MORE MAINSTREAM AND STRAT REPLACINGTHE UBIQUITOUS FOSSIL FUELSIN THE 21STCENTURY, :--
Switzerland is planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000 Watt Society by 2050
United Kingdom is working towards a Zero Energy building standard for all new housing by 2016.
Sweden with the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuel by 2020 , the Swedish government has announced the Oil Phase-out in in 2005,Sweden with the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuel by 2020.