Energy Scenario Jns Slide SharePresentation Transcript
ENERGY SCENARIO Er. J.N.SHARMA
In 2004, the worldwide energy consumption has reached an avg. 15 TW ( 1.5 x 10 (13) W )
Fossil fuels 86% of the world's energy
COAL fueled the advent of Industrial Revolution in the 18 th & 19 th century.
Oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century ,with the advent of the era of Automobile, Airplanes and the spreading use of electricity,
The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973
Total Energy Consumption -- 2004 . According to the US Energy Information Administration 2006 estimate, fossil fuels supply 86% of the World's Energy Fuel type Power in TW ( terawatts) Energy/year in EJ Oil 5.7 ( 38.17 % ) 180 Coal 3.8 ( 25 .45% ) 120 Gas 3.5 ( 23 .44% ) 110 Hydroelectric 0.9 ( 6.03 % ) 30 Nuclear 0.9 ( 6. 03% ) 30 Geothermal, wind, solar, wood 0.13 ( 0.88 % ) 4 Total 14.93 471
World Power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005 .
Sector wise consumption Sectors % of Worlds total consumption (15 T W ) Industrial users ( agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction ) 37% Transportation (Personal and commercial ) 20% Residential heating, lighting, and appliances 11% Commercial uses ( lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services ) 5% Energy lost in energy transmission and generation 27%
Country Wise Consumption
The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China , which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people is currently consuming energy at a rate of 2 kW per person..
Japan and the UK are among the most efficient in the world, while developing countries lack the resources to buy energy.
There is a significant difference between the consumption levels of the United States with 11.4 kW per person and Japan and Germany with 6 kW per person .
Canada has the highest energy consumption per person, whereas the lowest energy consumption takes place in developing and under-developed economies.
In developing countries such as India the per person energy use is closer to 0.5 kW.
Renewable Energy Why
Petroleum is expected to run out in 35 yrs, Coal in 200 yrs,
Demand for solutions to Global warming ,
Dependence on limited sources, such as those in the Middle East
High Oil price rate ,(the Old experience of 1973 & 1979 the period of “ Oil Shocks ” when there was a spurt in the increase of oil prices from 5 to 45 US $ per barrel). Japan bore the brunt of the oil shocks
Increasing government support are driving force increasing renewable energy commercialization. I .
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly . 14% of the Primary Enegy is coming from Renewals and technical potential for their use is much larger and theoretically it can easily meet the world's energy requirements (15 TW),
Investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in 2006. Some very large corporations such as BP, GE, Sharp, and Shell are investing in the renewable energy sector.
Biomass and biofuels
Wave & Tidal Power and Geothermal
Pioneers of Renewable Energy
The Renewables sector has been growing significantly since lately 20 th century,
In 2004, renewable energy supplied was around 7% of the world's energy consumption
Germany and China lead with investments of about 7 billion US dollars each, followed by the United States, Spain, Japan, and India.
Worldwide hydro electricity consumption reached 816 GW in 2005,
From Large plants installations : 750 GW
Small plants installations : 66 GW .
Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns
Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Brazil and India during the year,
In China, ( where, about 58% of the world's small hydro plants are located )there is a much faster growth (8%) in small hydro, with 5 GW added.
Biomass and Biofuel
Biomass : Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100%. The total energy consumed from biomass is around 264 GW in Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland and Spain
World production of Bioethanol increased by 85% to 3.9 billion litres (1.03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005 with most of the increase in the United States bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil . Over 50% is produced in Germany
Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, which forms the 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel requirements
Wind power has a worldwide installed capacity of 74,223 MW and is widely used in several European countries and the USA.
According to the Global Wind Energy Council, the installed capacity of wind power increased by 25.6% from the( end of 2005 to end of 2006) to total 74 GW with over half the increase in the United States, Germany, India and Spain.
Photovoltaics has become the fastest Alternate source of Energy after biodiesel to replace nuclear and fossil fuels.
Available resources for Solar Power are ----------- (120,000 TW).
Only a small fraction of available resources are sufficient to entirely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power as an energy source
In 2005 grid-connected photovoltaic electricity , Solar energy used during 2005 was approximately 93.4 GW. It is the fastest growing renewable energy used by
Germany, followed by Japan are now the largest consumers of photovoltaic cells in the world despite their unfavourable geographic locations.
Portugal which is one of the sunniest places in Europe has opened the world’s most powerful 11 Megawatt Solar Power plant. It produces sufficient energy to power 8000 homes
Solar Energy Potential
89 PW of solar power fall on the planet's surface. While it is not plausible to capture all, or even most of this energy,
capturing less than 0.02% would be enough to meet the current energy needs.
. [ Solar Energy Cycle as it is dispersed on the planet and radiated back to space. PW =10 15 Watt
Barriers to Solar generation
High price of silicon used to make solar cells,
Reliance on weather patterns to generate electricity, as energy demand is highest during the winter while availability of solar energy is lowest.
Lack of space for solar cells in areas of high demand such as cities and
they don't produce electricity during the night.
Wind Energy Potential
The available wind energy estimates range from 300 TW to 370 TW. just 5% of the available wind energy would supply the current worldwide energy needs.
Most of this wind energy is available over the open ocean. The oceans cover 71% of the planet and wind tends to blow stronger over open water because there are fewer obstructions.
Denmark and Germany have installed 3 GW and 17 GW of wind power respectively. In 2005, wind generated 18.5% of all the electricity in Denmark
According to a 1999 study, geothermal resources amount to between 65 and 138 GW
A 2006 report by MIT that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 Gwe ( gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050, sufficient to provide all the world's energy needs for several millennia
Alternative energy paths
THE ATERNATIVE ENERGY PATHS FOLLOWED BY SOME OF THE COUNTRIES ARE AS, SOME OF THESE DIFFERENT ENERGYPATHS MIGHT BECOME MORE MAINSTREAM AND STRAT REPLACINGTHE UBIQUITOUS FOSSIL FUELSIN THE 21STCENTURY, :--
Switzerland is planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000 Watt Society by 2050
United Kingdom is working towards a Zero Energy building standard for all new housing by 2016.
Sweden with the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuel by 2020 , the Swedish government has announced the Oil Phase-out in in 2005,Sweden with the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuel by 2020.